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Full text of "Mysore: a gazetteer compiled for government"

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MYSORE 



MYSORE 

A GAZETTEER COMPILED 
FOR GOVE RN ME NT 

REVISED EDITION 



B- LEWIS RICE, C I E., MR AS 

Fellow of the University of Madras ■ Director of Archnological Researches 
late Director of Public Instruction in Mysore and Coorg 



VOL I 
MYSORE IN GENERAL 



(H)e6(tnin0(ctr 

ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE AND COMPANY 
2 WHITEHALL GARDENS S • W 

MDCCCXCVII 



PRINTED BY 

WOODFALL AND KINDER, LONG ACRE 

LONDON" 



V.I 

PREFACE 

When the former edition of this work was published, I little 
expected to be called on, twenty years later, to revise it. And Mysore 
in the interval has undergone such great and radical changes, and so 
much has been added to our knowledge of its past by recent discoveries, 
that what appeared in the prospect a comparatively easy task has proved 
to be in reality one of considerable difficulty, and involving for its com- 
pletion a longer period than was anticipated, especially as I have been 
at the same time engaged on other duties of an exacting nature. 

A\'hile the general arrangement of the work in the original edition 
has been adhered to, nearly every part has been either entirely 
re-written or greatly altered and extended. But the present edition is 
confined to the State of Mysore, and does not, as before, include Coorg. 
In the first volume, the section on Geology was in the press before the 
appointment of Mr. Bruce Foote to Mysore was known to me or he 
had arrived here, otherwise I would gladly have handed over that special 
subject to him for revision. His views are, however, quoted in the 
Addenda at the end of the second volume. Most parts of the sections 
on flora. Fauna and Ethnography have been entirely re-written in 
accordance with the latest information. So also, in an especial manner, 
the chapters on History and Literature : the former having been greatly 
added to in both the most ancient and the most modern periods ; while 
the latter is almost entirely new. The chapter on Administration has 
been revi.sed throughout and brought up to date with as much fulness 
as could be done in the space at disposal. The Appendix on Coins is 
mostly new. In the second volume, there has been a close and general 
revision of local details, the topical changes of recent years having been 
both frequent and extensive. In the Glossary at the end have been 
included new terms of the Revenue Survey. 

Of the country which forms the general subject of the work, it 
cannot be denied that public interest in it has much increased since 
the former edition of this work appeared, its enlightened progress and 
its prominent position as a chief Native State in India having excited 
general attention. But, apart from this, there are not wanting in the 

i 



136G675 _.^|jj 



^% 



vi PREFACE 

country intrinsic elements of attraction which have given it importance 
in the past. On first joining the service here I was considerably dis- 
appointed to he told, on inquiring from persons supposed to be 
acquainted with the subject, that Mysore had no history, was quite a 
modern State, and virtually unknown before the wars with Haidar and 
Tipu brought it into jjromincnce. As regards its language and literature, 
also, I was led to suppose that the language was merely a rude dialect 
of Tamil, and that literature it had none. Of the accuracy of these 
views I had douljts at the time, and how completely opposed they were 
to actual facts the present work will, it is hoped, serve to make clear. 
For the researches in which I have been for long engaged have brought 
to light a body of evidence which carries back the history, with scarcely 
a break in the sequence, as far as to the 3rd century B.C., while the 
language is found to have been highly cultivated at probably an earlier 
date than any other South Indian vernacular, and to be replete with a 
literature of great volume and interest. 

If there be any truth in the observation that small countries with 
diversified and distinctive physical characteristics have played the 
greatest part in the world's history, and given rise to its most distin- 
guished men, — Greece, Palestine, England and others being quoted as 
instances, ^Mysore, it seems to me, may fairly claim a place in the 
category. Not only does she abound in the picturesque features of 
lofty mountains and primeval forests, of noble rivers and mighty 
cataracts, but — to mention only a few of the products specially pertain- 
ing to her — she yields by far the most gold of any country in India, and 
her treasure in the past, carried off to the north by Musalman invaders, 
may have found its way to Central Asia among the spoils of Tartar 
hordes ; she is the peculiar home of the sandal and also of teak, a 
special haunt of the elephant, rears a famous and superior breed of 
horned cattle, supplies as the staple food of her people the nutrient grain 
of ragi, was the cradle in India and is still the chief garden for coffee 
cultivation. Thus in every department of the natural world she may 
claim some pre-eminence. In the fine arts she has produced marvel- 
lous examples of architecture and sculpture. In relation to humanitv, 
again, she has been to the two greatest Hindu reformers a home for 
the monastery of one, and an asylum to the other. Nearly every form 
of faith, from Buddhism and J^inism to Islam, has here had its day, 
and she is now known as having largely adopted and still strongly 
holding a special cult of native origin not conforming to Brahmanism. 
The Malndd region of Mysore has been the birthplace of royal races 
dominant in the south — the Kadambas, the Hoysalas, and perhaps also 
the Vijayanagar sovereigns. In modern times, the great general of the 



PREFACE vii 

age, the Iron Duke, learned in the Mahiad wilds of Mysore, no less 
than in the plains of the Deckan, those lessons of warfare which enabled 
him to end the ambitious career of the subjugator of Europe, who once 
thought to make an ally of Mysore and to conquer the East. Waterloo 
may in one sense have been won in the playing fields of Eton, but it 
was Mysore that contributed to develop the genius of the commander 
who carried the day, decried though he had been as the Sepoy 
(jcneral. 

One cannot but be struck, in going over the modern history of 
Mysore, with the magnanimity of the British to this country, and 
equally with the manner in which the country has responded to the 
good influences exerted upon it. That it may continue to prosper 
must be the wish of all. 

As in the former edition, so in this, I hold myself solely responsible 
for all information it contains, though I have endeavoured throughout 
to indicate the authorities on which it is based. The work has been 
left by (lOvernment entirely in my hands. The published Administra- 
tion Reports are now not annual but quinquennial, and the last issued 
is to 1 89 1. I have had, therefore, to resort to various sources for later 
information. But the greatest drawback I have felt has been the want 
of a good general library of reference. 

No one can be more conscious than the author of the shortcomings 
of a work embracing such a variety of subjects and extending over so 
great a range of time. I have striven to accomplish to the best of my 
ability the task entrusted to me, and can only bespeak for the present 
edition as indulgent and favourable a reception as was accorded to the 
original one. 

Bangalore, Sept. iSgj. 



b 2 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 



On the termination, in May 1799, of the last EngHsh war with 
Mysore, and the restoration of the Hindu Raj, which followed, it was 
resolved by the East India Company to obtain a topographical survey 
and general statistical account of the Territories that, for many years 
preceding, had been the scene of political events which attracted a 
large measure of attention not only in India and the East, but also in 
England, France, and other European countries. 

Dr. Francis Buchanan (who subsequently assumed the name of 
Hamilton) was accordingly deputed, in February 1800,' by the (iovernor- 
General, the Earl of Mornington, afterwards Marquis ^^'ellesley, to 
travel through and report upon " the Dominions of the Raja of Mysore, 
and the country acquired by the Company in the late war from the 
Sultan, as well as that part of Malabar which the Company annexed to 
their own Territories in the former war under Marquis Cornwallis." He 
set out on this journey from Madras on the 23rd April 1800, and 
completed it on the 6th July 1801, His report was written from day 
to day, while travelling, in the form of a Journal, which, on completion, 
was transmitted to England and placed in the library of the East India 
House. On the recommendation of the learned Dr. (afterwards S.r 
Charles) Wilkins, the Librarian, its publication was sanctioned at the 
end of 1805, but the manuscript went to press apparently without the 
knowledge of its author. " Soon afterwards," says Dr. Buchanan, in 
his introduction, " my duty having unexpectedly brought me to 
England, I was agreeably surprised to find that my Journal had 
obtained a reception so favourable. It is true I wished to have 
abridged the work before publication, and altered its arrangement ; but 
as the printing had commenced before my arrival, and as my stay in 
England was likely to be very short, I could not undertake such altera- 
tions. I have therefore contented myself with revising the manuscript, 

' Then already well known for his valuable botanical researches in Burma and 
Chittagong. 



X PREFACE 2 FIRST EDITION 

and the supcrintcndcncy of the press has been entrusted to Mr. Stephen 
Jones." 

The work appeared in 1807, in three quarto volumes, under the title 
of A Journey from Madras through the Countries of Mysore^ Canara 
and Mahibar. ICvery page teems with valuable information, but the 
disjointed style, inseparable from the nature of a daily journal, makes 
it difficult to consult, and it is much to be regretted that the accom- 
plished author had not the opportunity of throwing the work into a 
more suitable form for publication. It was reprinted, in two volumes 
octavo, at Madras in 1870. 

While Dr. Buchanan was engaged in these travels, Colonel Colin 
Mackenzie — eventually Surveyor-General of India, and well known to 
Orientalists for his antiquarian collections in Southern India' — was 
commissioned by the Governor-General to make a Survey of Mysore. 
He was allowed only three assistants, with a medical officer as surgeon 
and naturalist. In spite of many obstacles, how^ever, the survey was 
continued till 1807. The result was not alone a valuable contribution 
to geographical knowledge, but considerable materials were acquired of 
the statistics and history of the country. These were recorded in folio 
volumes transmitted to the East India Company. Copies of eight 
volumes, attested by Colonel Mackenzie's signature, are deposited 
among the records of the Mysore Residency. The most novel and 
important of the discoveries made by him was that of the existence of 
the sect of Jains in India, which he was the first to bring to notice. 

The first surgeon and naturalist attached to the Mysore Survey was 
Dr. Benjamin Heyne, whose papers on a variety of subjects relating to 
this and the neighbouring countries were published in London in 18 14 
(also by the recommendation of Dr. Wilkins, Librarian at the East 
India House) under the title of Tracts^ Historical and Statistical, on 
India. Subsequently, the gifted Dr. John Leyden- was attached to 

* Including, according to the catalogue by Prof. H. H. Wilson, 1,568 manuscripts 
of literary works, 2,070 local tracts, 8,076 copies of inscriptions, 2,150 translations, 
2,709 plans and drawings, 6,218 coins, and 146 images and antiquities. 

' " He rose," as Sir John Malcolm, Resident of Mysore describes, " by the power 
of native genius, from the humblest origin to a very distinguished rank in the literarj^ 
world. His studies included almost every branch of human science, and he was 
alike ardent in the pursuit of all. The greatest power of his mind was perhaps 
shown in his acquisition of modern and ancient languages. ..." 

His end was most sad. On the conquest of Java in 181 1, he accompanied the 
Governor-General, Lord Minto, to that island, and hearing at Batavia of a librar)- 
containing a valuable collection of Oriental manuscripts, hastened to explore it. The 
long low room, an old depository of effects belonging to the Dutch Government, had 
been shut up for some time, and the confined air was strongly impregnated with the 
poisonous quality which has made Batavia the grave of so many Europeans. With- 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION xi 

the Survey in the same capacity, but beyond a few anecdotes and 
verses in his Poetical Remains, published in London in 1819, I 
have failed to meet with anything of his specially about this Province, 
though it is stated that " he drew up some useful papers, which he 
communicated to the Government, relative to the mountainous strata 
and their mineral indications ; as to the diseases, medicines and 
remedies of the natives of Mysore, and the peculiarities of their habits 
and constitution by which they might be exposed to disease ; as to the 
different crops cultivated in Mysore and their rotation ; and to the 
languages of Mysore, and their respective relations." Heyne's observa- 
tions were confined to the north and east ; Leyden's papers, if traced, 
would give us information regarding the south and west. 

Colonel Mark Wilks, distinguished as the historian of Mysore, at 
which Court he was for a time Resident, published his well-known work 
under the title of Historical Sketches of the South of India, in three 
volumes quarto ; the first of which appeared in London in 1810, and 
the two last not till 181 7, owing to his appointment during the interval 
as Governor of St. Helena, which office he held until the imprisonment 
on that island of the emperor Napoleon Buonaparte. " It displays," as 
an old reviewer justly observes, " a degree of research, acumen, vigour, 
and elegance, that render it a work of standard importance in English 
literature." A reprint, in two volumes octavo, was published in Madras 
in 1869. 

Some monographs drawn up by officers of the Mysore Commission 
soon after the assumption of the Government by the British in 1831, with 
kindred papers, were printed in 1864 as SeUctiojis from the Records. 
In 1855 a Getieral Memorandum was prepared by Sir Mark Cubbon 
for the Marquis Dalhousie, and since that time Administratiofi 
Reports have been regularly issued every year. 

out the precaution of having it aired, he rushed eagerly in to examine its treasures, 
was .seized in consequence with a mortal fever, and died on the 2Sth August, after 
three days' illness, in the 36th year of his age. 

Southey wished " that Java had remained in the hands of the enemy, so Leyden 
were alive," while Sir Waller Scott paid the following tribute to his memory in the 
Lord of the Isles :— 

His bright and lirief career is o'er, 

And mute his tuneful strains ; 
Quenched is his lamp of varied lore, 
That loved the light of song to pour ; 
A distant and a deadly shore 

Has Leyden's cold remains. 

The centenary of Leyden's birth was celebrated with public rejoicings in 1S75 ^^ 
his native village of Dcnholm, on the banks of the Teviot, in Scotland. 



xii PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

Otlicr sources of infcjniuilicjn exist,' for a good deal has been written 
in connection witii Mysore during a century back, much of it partisan ; 
but the above were some of the chief public and authentic materials 
accessible for a work which had become a desideratum, namely, a 
Gazetteer of Mysore brought u[) to date, presenting in a handy form 
and within a moderate compass all that was of interest in relation to the 
natural features, resources and productions of the country • its history, 
population, industry, administration, and any other subjects that had a 
claim to be treated of in such a handbook. 

The first step taken towards supplying the want was in June 1867, 
when a circular was addressed by Mr. Saunders, C.B., the officiating 
Chief Commissioner, to the Superintendents of Divisions, directing the 
compilation, for each District, of a Gazetteer similar to one then lately 
published of the Bhandara District in the Central Provinces. In 
pursuance of these orders, during the next two years, nine manuscript 
volumes were prepared. Only two, however, came to be printed; namely, 
one for Mysore District, by Mr. H. Wellesley ; and one for Kolar, I 
presume by Mr. Krishnaiengar, C.S.I. Of the remainder, those for 
Bangalore and Kadur were not completed ; the one for Shimoga bears 
the signature of Captain Gordon Cumming ; that for Hassan of Major 
W. Hill ; that for Tumkiir of Major C. Pearse ; and that for Chitaldroog 
of Mr. Krishna Rao. The subsequent Reports on the Census of 
November 1871, by Major Lindsay, naturally superseded most of the 
statistical information contained in them. 

The design to appoint an editor who should bring out one work on a 
uniform plan was next adopted, and eventually, in 1873, with the 
sanction of the Government of India, it was proposed to me to under- 
take the compilation of the Gazetteer of Mysore and Coorg. A 
personal acquaintance more or less with every part of the two countries, 
gained in the course of official duty ; a familiarity with the local verna- 
culars ; and some measure of information regarding the literature and 
ancient history of this part of India, derived from antiquarian studies ; 
led me to anticipate the work with interest. But being, at almost the 
same time, rai.sed to the head of the Educational Department, I found 
that the labours of a new office which is no sinecure, left little leisure for 
the extra duty imposed upon me. I was therefore forced to be content 
for some time with making tours to such parts of the country as I had 
not recently visited, and collecting information from various quarters. 

' I would particularly mention Eastern Experiences, by Mr. L. Bowring, C.S.I., 
late Chief Commissioner, published in London in 1871. 
- A paragraph relating to Coorg is here omitted. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION xiii 

However, when in 1874 Dr. Hunter, Director-General of Statistics, 
who is charged with the editorship of the Imperial Gazetteer for the 
whole of India, visited Bangalore, I was able to lay before him the 
plans I had formed for the work, and at his request undertook to 
prepare for Mysore a manual of each District separately, which I had 
not at first intended, as it seemed to involve a certain degree of repetition. 
I am now glad that I did so, as it obliged me to go more minutely into 
several subjects. Dr. Hunter again paid a visit to Bangalore in January 
1876, when a part of the work had been printed, and in his report to 
Government was pleased to express the strongest approval of what had 
been done, and his " sense of the high value of the materials that had 
been supplied." 

The Gazetteer has thus finally taken the shape of two volumes 
devoted to Mysore (and a third to Coorg). Of the former, the first 
treats of Mysore in general, the second of Mysore by Districts, eight in 
number. A reference to the table of contents prefixed to each volume 
will enable the reader to see at a glance the arrangement and distribution 
of subjects. Volume II, it should be stated, was printed first. . . . 
In general the present work has been brought down to 1875, but in the 
portions printed after that, a few statistics of later date have been 
admitted. I had thought to append a short biographical notice of some 
of the remarkable men, both Native and European, who have been 
connected with Mysore, but feared it would extend the work too much, 
and perhaps be considered foreign to its design. The subject, however, 
is one full of interest. 

I will not deny that the Gazetteer has caused far more labour than I 
had anticipated, principally owing to the demands of an extensive 
Department, which prevented my ever giving undivided attention to 
the compiling of it. But these are conditions under which much of 
the best work in India has been accomplished, and I gratefully 
acknowledge the indulgence which has been extended by Government 
to any apparent, but unavoidable, delay in bringing the task to 
completion. 

\\'ith regard to all such information and statements contained in 
these volumes as I am not personally responsible for, I have endeavoured 
to make a point of mentioning throughout the body of the work the 
authorities on which they are based ; and my sincere and hearty thanks 
are tendered to all who have favoured me with any information or 
assistance, as well as to the I'ress. I may add that the proofs have 
been seen, on the part of Government, by Major 'I'redway Clarke, 
Officiating Secretary to the Chief Commissioner. 

Bangalore, Xmas iS-jd. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 



I'AGB 

Physical Geography 1-67 

Physical Features: — Situation, Area, Boundaries, l. Natural 
Divisions — Malnad, Maidan, 2 ; River System <;, 4 ; Tanks, 7; 
Talpargis, 7 ; Mountain Systems, 7. 

Geology: — Metamorphic Rocks, 13; Imbedded Minerals, 15; 
Plutonic Rocks, 17 ; Volcanic Rocks, 21 ; Aqueous Rocks, 
23 ; Older Alluvium, 26 ; Modern Alluvia, 29 ; Traverse 
Notes, 33 ; Auriferous Tracts, 46 ; Non-metallic Minerals, 
61. 

Meteorology : — Seasons, 63 ; Temperature, 64 ; Rainfall, 64 ; 
Earthquakes, 65 ; Cyclones, 65. 

Flora 68-173 

Forest Trees :— Evergreen Belt, 68 ; Mixed Belt, 69 ; Dry Belt, 
74 ; Sandal, 77 ; Timber Trees, 78 ; Eruit Trees, 81 ; Native 
Vegetables, 83 ; Horticidtiire : — Plants in the Lai Bagh or 
Botanical Gardens, 85 ; Grasses, 100. 

Crops and Cultivation : — Farmer's calendar, loi ; Names of 
CrojJS, 102 ; Areas under Cultivation, 104 ; Ragi, 107 ; 
Avare, 112; Togari, 112; Jola, 112; Save, 114; Navane, 
116; Baragu, 117; Haraka, 117; Alsandi, 118; ITurali, 
119; Uddu, 120; Hesaru, 121 ; Wollellu, 122; Iluchchellu, 
123; Haralu, 123; Sanabu, 125; Cotton, 125; Tobacco, 
126; Sasive, 128; Kadale, 128; Wheat, 129; Rice, 131; 
Sugar-cane, 144 ; Cardamoms, 151 ; Areca-nut, 152 ; Cocoa- 
nut, 158; Betel vine, 160; Coffee, 162; Introduced plants of 
econovtic value: — Casuarina, 169; Cinchona, 169; Vanilla, 
171 ; Cocoa, 172; Rhea, 172; Other Exotics, 172. 

Fauna .......... 174-207 

Ferae Naturae: — Mammals, 174; Destruction of wild beasts, 
177 ; Game Law, 177 ; Elephant keddahs, 179 ; Birds, 181 ; 
Reptiles, 187; Fishes, 189; Insects, 190; insects useful to 
man, 194. 

Domestic Animals:— Horses, 198; Mules, 198; Asses, 199; 
Horned Cattle, Amrit Mahal, 199; Buffaloes, 204; Sheep, 
205 ; Goats, 207. 



CONTENTS 



ErHNor.k.M'iiv .....•••• 208-270 

Aboriginal and Primitive Tril)cs, 2o8 ; I'opulation, 217 ; Hindus, 
220; Caste, 221; Occui)alions, 224; Agricullural classes, 
227 ; Professional classes, 233 ; Commercial classes, 245 ; 
Artisans ancj villajje menials, 247 ; Vagrant minor artisans 
and |)erf()rmers, 255. Mtisa/inans, 257 ; Christians, 259 ; 
Uriian Population, 261 ; Character and dress of the people, 
262. 

Alphabetical list of castes ........ 266 



History 271-453 

Legendary Period : — Agastya, 272 ; Asuras and Rakshasas, 
273; lluiluiyas, 274; Parasu Rama, 275; Rama, 276; 
Kishkindha, 277 ; Pandavas, 279 ; Chandrahasa, 283 ; Jana- 
mejaya, 285. 

Historical Period : — Mauryas, 287 ; S'atavahanas, 292 ; Ka- 
(lanihas, 295 ; Mahavalis, 300 ; Vaidumbas, 303 ; Pallavas, . 
303 ; Nolambas, 307 ; Gangas, 308 ; Chaliikyas, 319 ; Rash- 
trakutas, 324 ; Chalukyas, 327 ; Kalachuris, 331 ; Cholas, 
m ; Hoysalas, 335 ; Vadavas, 342 ; \'ijayanagar, 344 ; 
Palegars, 356 ; Hijapur, 357; Mughals, 361 ; Mysore Rajas, 
361 ; Haidar Ali, 372 ; Tipu Sultan, 398 ; Restoration of 
the Hindu Raj, 417 ; I'urnaiya Regent, 419 ; Krishna Raja 
Wodeyar, 421 ; Rebellion in Nagar, 427 ; Deposition of the 
Raja, 429 ; the Mysore Commission, 429 ; the Great Famine, 
439 ; the Rendition, 441 ; the Representative Assemljly, 442; 
Review of Policy of the Mysore Government, 445 ; Instrument 
of Transfer, 450. 



Religion 454-487 

Serpent worship, 454 ; Tree worship, 455 ; M.-iri or Mara, 456 ; 
Bhi'itas, 457 ; Animism, 457 ; Brahmanisnt, 458 ; Jainism, 
460 ; Buddhism, 465 ; Hinduism, 468 : — Siva, 468 ; Sanka- 
rachary?, 471 ; list of Sringeri gurus, 473 ; Ramanujacharya, 
474 ; I larihara, 475 ; Lingayits, 476 ; Madhvacharya, 477 ; 
Sritanis, 477. Islam, 479. Christianity, 480 ; Roman Cath- 
olic Mission, 482 ; Protestant Missions, 484. 



I,\\C.U\r,K AND LiTKRATURE 4SS-505 

Kannada, 48S ; its Dialects, 4S9 ; I'eriods, 490 ; Written 
Character, 491 ; Relationship, 492 ; Literature, 495 ; Early 
Authors and their Works, 496 ; Modern Authors, 501 i, 
Writing materials, 503 ; Muhammadan publications, 503 ; 
European publications, 504. 



CONTENTS 



Art and Industry ....... 506-571 

Fine Arts: — Stone Monuments, 506; Sculpture, 509; Anhilcc- 
turf, — Buddhist, 510 ; Jain, 510 ; Dravidian, 512 ; Chalukyan, 
513; Halebid, 514; Belur, 518; Sonianathpur, 519; 
Malnad, 519; Saracenic, 520; Lingayit, 521. Engraving, 
522 ; IVood-can'ing, 522 ; Inlaid work, 523. J/nsic, 523. 

Industrial Arts : — Metallurgy ; Gold-mining, 524 ; (iold and 
Silver, 528 ; Iron and Steel, 530 ; Brass and Copper, 535 ; 
Manufactures, 535. Textile Faf)rics, 535 ; Cotton, 536 ; 
Wool, 537 ; Carpets, 537 ; Silk, 538 ; Alills and Factories, 
539; Dyes, 540; (loni, 541. Oil-J'ressi)ig, 541. Soap and 
Candles, 544. Glass-mal^ini^, ^^i. Carpentry and Turning, 
547. Sugar andjaggory, 547 ; Suf^ar Works, 550. Leather- 
dressing, 552. Earth salt, 553. Coffee Works, 554 ; Brick 
and Tile IVorks, 554 ; Paper-milh, 554. 

Trades and Commerce, 555 ; Imports, 556 ; Exports, 558 ; 

Joint-Stock Comjjanics, 560. 

Wages and Prices : —Wages, 561 ; Prices, 562; as affected by 
the seasons, 562. 



Administration ........ 572-798 

Under the early Hindu Rulers, 572 ; the Village Twelve, 574 ; 

Revenue System, 576. 

Under the Yijayanagar Sovereigns, 578 ; Civil and Military 
departments, 579 ; Milage officers, 579 ; Land rent, 582 ; 
Customs and taxes, 583 ; Establishments, 586 ; Justice, 587 ; 
Heads of Departments, 587 ; Police, 588. Carnatic Bijapur, 
588 ; Sira, 589. 

Under the Rajas of Mysore, &c., 590 ; Departments formed 
by Chikka Deva Kaja, 590 ; his revenue regulations, 591 ; 
new taxes, 592. Bednur, 593 ; Sivappa Nayak's shist and 
prahar patti, 594. Haidar AH, 595. Tipu Sultan, 595 ; 
new system, 595 ; military regulations, 596 ; fleet, 596 ; 
commercial regulations, 597 ; regulations of revenue, 599 ; 
police, 599. 

Under Purnaiya, 1799-1810. — Settlement of Palegars and the 
Army, 600 ; land assessment, 602 ; civil departments, 604 ; 
justice, 605 ; revenue, 607 ; Court of Adalal, 610. 

Under Krishna Raja Wodeyar, 1811-1831. — Land Revenue, 
611; revenue iirDCL'diuc, bi2; rusunis, 615 ; rates of 
kandayam, 616 ; land tenures, 617 ; village rent, 620 ; Sayar, 
622 ; in Nagar, 624 ; in Ashtagram, 625 ; in Bangalore, 627 ; 
JVutch Bah, 627. Justice: — Civil, 629; Criminal, 631 ; 
punishments, 633 ; jails, 637 ; police, 637. 



xviii CONTENTS 

Under the Mysore Commission. 

Non-Regulation System, 1831-1855, 639 ; Land Revenue, 
640 ; revenue officers and settlement, 643 ; Najjar, 647 ; 
Manjarabad, 652 ; Snyar, 653 ; remissions in Nagar, 657 ; in 
Ashtagram, 658 ; in Bangalore, 659 ; in Chitaldroog, 660. 
Justice, 661 ; Courts, 662 ; procedure, 663 ; appeals, 664 ; 
Panchayats, 666 ; fees and fines, 667 ; apas penchayats, 669 ; 
Criminal Justice, 671. 

Transition Period, 1856-1862, 674 ; new departments, 675 ; 
revision of Mohatarfa, 676 ; the Commission re-organized, 
677 ; Justice, 679 ; Police, 680; Jails, 681. Revenue, 681 ; 
Finance, 6S2 ; Military, 682. 

Regulation System, 1863-1881, 683. Civil Departments:— 
Revenue and Finance, 683 ; State Revenue, 685 ; Land 
tenures, 686 ; Inam tenures, 690 ; Revenue Survey and Settle- 
ment, 692 ; Inam settlement, 696 ; Muzrayi settlement, 700 ; 
Land Revenue, 701 ; Coffee halat, 702 ; Forests, 706 ; Abkari, 
708; Sdyar, 711 ; Mohatarfa, 712; Salt, 713 ; Stamps, 714 ; 
Anche or Post Office, 7H > Local Fiends, 714 ; Municipal 
Funds, 715 ; State Expenditure, 718. — Law and Justice: — 
Legislation, 721 ; Courts, 723 ; System of Judicature, 724 ; 
Civil Justice, 726 ; Registration, 726 ; Criminal Justice, 727 ; 
Prisons, 72S ; Police, 730. — Public Works, 7^2, ; Railway, 
744. — Public Instruction, 745. — Medical, 753. Military 
Departments, 75S ; British Subsidiary Force, 758 ; Mysore 
Local Force, 759 ; Silahdars, 760 ; Barr, 762 ; Bangalore 
Rifle Volunteers, 762. 



Since tlie Rendition in 1881. 

Form of Administration, 763 ; Council, 763 ; Representative 
Assembly, 763. Administration of the I^and, 764 ; Topo- 
graphical Survey, 764 ; Revenue Survey and Settlement, 

764 ; Liam settlement, 764. Protection, 765 ; Legislation, 

765 ; Police, 766 ; Criminal Justice, 768 ; Prisons, 769 ; 
Civil Justice, 770; Registration, 771 ; Municipal Administra- 
tion, 771 ; Military, 772. Production a)ul Distribution, TJt,; 
Agriculture, 773 ; Weather and crops, 773 ; Forests, 773 ; 
Mines and Quarries, 774 '■< Manufacture and Trade, 774 ; 
Public Works, 775 ; Railways, 777 ; Post-office, 779. 
Revenue and Finance, 779 ; Provincial Funds, 779 ; Revenue, 
780 ; Expenditure, 785 ; Local Funds, 786 ; Agricultural 
Banks, 787 ; Savings Banks, 787 ; State Life Insurance, 787. 
Vital Statistics and IMedical Services, 788 ; Births and Deaths, 
7S8 ; Medical Relief, 789. Instruction, 791. Archeologj-, 
796. Miscellaneous, 797 ; Muzrayi, 797. 



CONTENTS 



XIX 



Appendix ......••• 

Coins, Weights and Measures : — Coins, 799 ; Lead coins, 799 ; 
Cold coins, 801; Silver coins, 805; Copper coins, 807; 
Accounts, 80S. Weights, 809. Measures : — Grain Measures, 
810 ; Land Measures, 810 ; Measures of Time : — Eras, 811 ; 
Years, 812. 

Addenda et Corrigenda ........ 



PAGE 
799-813 



8IS 



Index 



819 



LIST OF MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Map of Mysore 

Geological Sections .... 

a. In ahout Lalilude 15° N. 

b. ., ,, 13° N. 
P'roni Jalar]:iat to Shikarpur . 

Geological Map of Southern India 
Physical and Industrial Map of Mysore 
Sketch Map of Mysore in about 450 

750 . 
1050 . 

1625 . 
Map of Peninsular India to illustrate the His 
Specimens of Mysore Coins . 

Plate i. Lead and Ciold coins 
„ ii. Gold, Silver, and Copper coins 



Pocket in cover 
P- 13 



lory of My 



36 
62 
168 
300 
314 
335 
357 
368 

799 
802 
807 



MYSORE 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

The State of Mysore^ occupies a position physically well defined, in 
the South of India ; and has been termed a rocky triangle, a not inapt 
description. It is a table-land, situated in the angle where the Eastern 
and Western Ghat ranges converge into the group of the Nilgiri Hills. 
West, south and east, therefore, it is enclosed by chains of mountains, 
on whose shoulders the plateau which constitutes the country rests. On 
the west the boundary approaches at one part to within lo miles of the 
sea, but in general preserves a distance of from 30 to 50 miles from the 
coast : on the east the nearest point is not less than 120 miles. The 
southern extremity is 250 miles from Cape Comorin. The northern 
frontier is an exceedingly irregular line, ranging from 100 miles south 
of the river Krishna on the west to 1 50 on the east. 

The country extends between the parallels of 11° 38' and 15° 2' 
north latitude, and between the meridians of 74° 42' and 78° 36' east 
longitude, embracing an area of 29,305 square miles, as determined by 
the Surveyor-General of India from the recent survey on the one-inch 
scale. (It is therefore nearly equal to Scotland, whose area is 29,785 
square miles.) The greatest length north and south is about 230 
miles, east and west about 290. 

* The name is that of the capital, properly Maisiir, for Mahish/ir, — from iiiahisha, 
fians. for buffalo, reduced in Kan. to iiiaisa, and lirit, Kan. for town or country, — 
which commemorates the destruction of Mahishasura, a minotaur or buffalo-headed 
monster, by Chamundi or Mahishasura-mardani, the form under which the consort 
of Siva is worshipped as the tutelary goddess of the Mysore royal family. 

Except in a passage in the Mahawanso, where it is called Mahisha-mandala, the 
designation of the country throughout Hindu literature is Karnata or Karnataka (for 
derivation see chapter on Language), which properly applied to the countrj' above the 
( jhats. But the Muhammadans included in the name their conquests below the Ghats 
as well, and the English, going a step further, erroneously restricted it to the low- 
country. Hence Carnatic and Canara now designate, in European works of 
geography, regions which never bore those names ; w hile Mysore, the proper 
Karnataka or Carnatic, is not so called. 

B 



2 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPJIY 

It is surrounded Ijy llic Madras Presidency on all sides, except on 
part of the west, where the Bombay Presidency northwards and Coorg 
southwards form thq boundaries. The Madras Districts bordering on it 
are Bellary and Anantapur on the north ; Kadapa, North Arcot and 
Salem on the east ; Coimbatore, Nilgiris and Malabar on the south ; 
South Canara on the west. The Bombay Districts of Dharwar on the 
north and North Canara on the west complete the circle. Coorg 
intervenes between the adjacent parts of South Canara and Malabar on 
the south-west. 

The general elevation rises from about 2,000 feet above the sea level 
along the northern and southern frontiers to about 3,000 feet along the 
central water-parting, which separates the basin of the Krishna from 
that of the Kaveri and divides the country into two nearly equal parts. 
But the surface is far from preserving the even character suggested by 
the designation of table-land. For the face of the country is every- 
where undulating, much broken up by lines of rocky hills or lofty 
mountains, and scored in all parts by Jidlas or deep ravines. There is 
probably not a square mile in the whole superficies absolutely flat or 
level, the slope of the ground ranging from 10 to 20 feet per mile in the 
more level portions, and as high as 60 and 80 feet elsewhere. 

The country is longitudinally intersected by single or aggregated 
chains of hills, running chiefly north and south, or in a direction nearly 
parallel to the two coasts. They lie at uncertain and unequal distances 
from each other, and accordingly form sometimes wide and sometimes 
narrow valleys. Isolated peaks of massy rock, termed by Europeans 
droogs} rearing their heads to 4,000 or 5,000 feet above the level of the 
sea, stand forth like sentinels on every hand ; mostly crowned with the 
remains of fortifications, whose position, with the advantage of an 
unfailing supply of water at the summit, rendered them wellnigh 
impregnable strongholds. Besides these, clusters or piles of naked 
rocks, composed of immense rounded boulders, are frequent ; large 
fragments being often delicately poised, like logging stones, upon some 
projecting point ; appearing as if a touch would overturn them, and yet 
sometimes supporting a shrine or mandapa. 

Natural divisions. — Mysore naturally divides itself into two separate 
regions, each of which has well-marked and distinctive features. 

Of these the Malnad,^ or hill country, lies to the west, and is confined 
to the tracts bordering or resting on the ^^'estern Ghats. It is a land of 
magnificent hill and forest, presenting alternations of the most diversified 

* Properly diir-ga, a Sanskrit word meaning difficult of access, and denoting 
hill-fort. 

* Kan. Male, hill ; iiddti, district, region. 



NATURAL DIVISIOXS 3 

and charming scenery. A fertile soil and perennial streams clothe the 
valleys with verdant cultivation. The sheltered hillsides are beautiful 
with waving woods, which give shade to numerous plantations of coffee. 
Higher up are swelling downs and grassy slopes, dotted over with park- 
like groups of trees. Above all, the gigantic mountains rear their 
towering crests in every fantastic form of peak. Human dwellings are 
few and far between A cottage here and there, picturescjuely situated 
on the rising ground bordering the rice-ficlds, and hidden amid planta- 
tions of areca palm and plantain, marks the homestead of a farmer and 
his family. Towns there are none, and villages of even a dozen houses 
rare. The incessant rain of the monsoon months confines the people 
to their own farms. Hence each householder surrounds himself with all 
he needs, and succeeds in making himself to a great extent independent 
of the external world. The conditions of this isolated life are insupport- 
able to immigrants from the plains. 

But by far the greater portion of the Province, or all to the east and 
north of a line from (say) Shikarpur to Periyapatna, continued along 
the southern border to the Biligirirangan hills, belongs to the division 
of Maidan, Bail shime, or open country. Although much of the in- 
termediate region partakes of the characteristics of both, the transition 
from the Malnad to the Maidan is in some places very marked. Dense 
forests, which shut in the view on ever}' hand, give place to wide- 
spreading plains : the solitary farm to clustering villages and populous 
towns. Man meets with man, the roads are covered with traffic, and the 
mind feels relief in the sympathy of numbers. 

The means of water-supply and the prevailing cultivation give the 
character to the various parts of the open country. The level plains of 
alluvial black soil, as in the north, growing cotton or millet ; the districts 
irrigated by channels drawn from rivers, as in the south and west, dis- 
playing the bright hues of sugar-cane and rice-fields ; the lands under 
tanks, filled with gardens of cocoa and arcca palms ; the higher-lying 
undulating tracts of red soil, as in the east, yielding ragi and the 
conmion associated crops ; the stony and wide-spreading pasture 
grounds, as in the central parts, covered with coarse grass and relieved 
by shady groves of trees. The aspect changes with the seasons, and 
what in the dry and cold months, when the fields are lying fallow, 
appears a dreary and monotonous prospect, speedily assumes under the 
first operations of the plough the grateful hues of tillage ; which, under 
the influence of seasonable rains, give place in succession to the bright 
verdure of the tender blade, the universal green of the growing crops, 
and the browner tints of the ripening grain. The scene meanwhile is 
full of life, with husbandmen, their families and cattle engaged in the 

B 2 



4 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

labours of the field. These arc prolonged in slacking and threshing 
until the cold season again sets in and the country once more assumes a 
parched and dusty aspect. 

River systems. — l"hc drainage of the country, with a slight exception, 
finds its way to the Bay of Bengal, and is divisible into three great river 
systems ; that of the Krishna on the north, the Kaveri on the south, the 
two Pennars, and the Palar on the east. The only streams flowing to 
the Arabian Sea are those of certain taluc^s in the north-west, which, 
uniting in the Sharavati, hurl themselves down the Ghats in the mag- 
nificent falls of Gersoppa; and some minor streams of Nagar and Man 
jarabad, which flow into the Gargita and the Netravati.^ 

A line drawn east from BalLilrayan-durga to Nandidurga (Xundy- 
droog) and thence south to Anekal, with one from Devaraydurga north 
to Pavugada, will indicate approximately the watershed separating the 
three main river-basins. From the north of this ridge flow the Tunga 
and the Bhadra, rising in the Western Gliats and uniting in the Tunga- 
bhadra, which, with its tributary the Hagari or Vedavati, joins the 
Krishna beyond the limits of IMysore in Srisaila near Karnul. From 
the south of the line, the Hemavati (with its affluent the Yagachi), the 
Lokapavani, Shimsha, and Arkavati flow into the Kaveri, which, rising 
in Coorg and taking a south-easterly course through the country, re- 
ceives also on the right bank the Lakshmantirtha, the Gundal, the 
Kabbani and the Honnu Hole before quitting the territory. From the 
east of the line, m the immediate neighbourhood of Nandidurga, spring 
three main streams, forming a system which Lassen has designated " die 
Tripotamie des Dekhans," namely, the Uttara Pinakini or Northern 
Pennar (with its tributaries the Chitravati and Papaghni), which dis- 
charges into the sea at Nellore ; the Dakshina Pinakini or Southern 
Pennar,- which ends its course at Cuddalore ; and between them the 
Palar, whose mouth is at Sadras. A continuation of the east and west 
line through Nandidurga to Sunnakal will mark the water-parting be- 
tween the first and the other two ; which, again, are divided by a line 
passing from Jangamkote to Bowringpet and the Betarayan hills. 

More accurately described, the axial line or " great divide " which 
forms as it were the backbone of the country, starts from the north of 
Ballalrayandurga and runs east-by-north to near Aldur. Thence it 
makes a bend, first, northwards up to the western extremity of the Baba 

* The course of each river is described in detail in Vol. II. 

- Its name below the Ghats appears to be Poni-ar or Ponn-dr, golden river, dr 
being the Tamil for river. It would be very convenient were geographers to agree 
upon restricting the name Penna to the northern stream and that of Ponna to the 
southern. The former is also called Penner (written Pennair), Jrii being the Telugu 
for river. 



RIVER SYSTEMS 5 

Budan range and then south-east, passing between Belur and Halebid, 
down to Sige Gudda in the north of the Hassan taluk. From this 
point it strikes across the map in an east north-east direction, rounding 
the southern extremities of the HarnhalU and Hagalvadi hills, up to 
near Kortagiri, where it encounters the great meridional chain of 
mountains. Following the range south, past Devaraydurga to near 
Dodbele, it resumes an east-north-easterly course to Nandidurga and 
continues the same to the frontier near Sunnakal. Geographically it 
lies between the parallels of 13° 10' and 13° 25'. 

A line projected north from the west of Kortagiri up through Pavu- 
gada to the frontier, and one south from Nandidurga by Bangalore to 
Anekal, mark pretty nearly the limits of the respective river-basins in 
the transverse direction. This water-parting falls between the meridians 
of 77' 10' and 77" 30'. 

The basin of the Sharavati, which runs to Honavar on the Canara 
coast, occupies the west of the Shimoga District. It may be defined 
by a line drawn from Kodachddri south-east to Kavaledurga, thence 
north-east by Humcha to Masarur, and west-north-west by Anantapur 
and Ikkeri to Talguppa. The streams between Kodachddri, Kavale- 
durga and the Agumbi ghat westwards, run down to Kondapur ; and 
those of western Manjarabad, to Mangalore. 

The following statement contains an estimate of the total length, 
within the Province, of the main rivers with their principal tributaries ; 
and the total area of the catchment basin under each river-system 
within the same limits : — 



River System 


Total Length of Rivers 


Total Area of Basins 






Miles. 


Sq 


uare Miles. 


Krishna 




611 




11,031 


Kriveri ... 




646 




9,486 


N. I'ennar 




167 




2,280 


S. I'ennar 




32 




1,541 


Palar ... 




47 




1,036 


Sharavati and west coast rivers 


103 




1,881 



Owing to either rocky or shallow beds, none of the Mysore rivers is 

navigable,^ but timber floats are carried down the Tunga, the Bhadra, 



' From the following statement in Buchanan it appears that Ilaiilar attempted to 
estal)lish navigation on the Tunga. " From Mangalore Haidar brought to Shimoga 
many carpenters, and built a number of lighters of about eight tons burthen. They 
are strong and flat-bottomed ; but, as the greater part of them have been allowed to 
remain on the bank where they were built, I doubt not that they were found very 
u.seless. The attempt is, however, no impeachment on the sagacity of Haidar, who 



6 nrVSTCAT. GEOGRAPirY 

and the Kahhani at ccrlaiii seasons. Most of the streams are fordable 
during the dry months, or can be crossed by rude bridges formed of 
logs or stones thrown across from boulder to boulder. During floods, 
and when freshes come down, traffic over the streams is often suspended 
until the water subsides. But throughout the rainy season they are 
generally crossed at the appointed ferries by rafts, basket boats, canoes, 
or ferry boats. Men also sometimes get over supporting themselves on 
earthen pots. 

The teppa or raft is formed of bamboos lashed together, and merely 
affords an unsteady footing, the water washing freely through. The 
harigblu or coracle is a circular basket of stout wicker-work, composed 
of interlaced bamboo laths and covered with buffalo hides. It is 8 or 
lo feet in diameter, with sides 3 or 4 feet high.^ A smaller one, which 
holds only two people, is used for crossing some jungle streams. The 
db7ii or canoe is a dug-out, or hollowed log pointed at the two ends. 
The sd/igda, or regular ferry boat," is formed of two canoes secured 
together, with a platform or deck fastened upon them, and has sides 
turning on hinges which, let down, form a gangway for loading and un- 
loading. All these craft are propelled by a long bamboo pole, and are 
dependent for their course upon the currents. But paddles are some- 
times used with the canoe. 

Though useless for purposes of navigation, the main streams, espec- 
ially the Kc4veri and its tributaries, support an extensive system of 
irrigation by means of channels drawn from immense dams, called 
anicuts,'' which retain the upper waters at a high level and permit only 
the overflow to pass down stream. These works are of great antiquity, 

having been educated in a place remote from every kind of navigation, could have no 
idea of what boats could perform, nor of what obstacles would prevent their utility. 
To attempt dragging anything up such a torrent as the Tunga would be vain ; but, 
after having seen the boats, and known that some of them have been actually navigated 
down the river, I have no doubt of its being practicable to carry down floats ; and on 
these perhaps many bulky articles of commerce might be transported." 

' Herodotus notices, as one of the most remarkable things he had seen at Babylon, 
boats of a construction so exactly similar, that the description of one would precisely 
answer for the other, with the single difference of substituting willow for bamboo. 
These boats carried the produce of Armenia, and " the parts above Assyria," down 
the Euphrates to Babylon ; and each boat along with its cargo carried a few asses for 
the purpose of conveying the returns by a shorter overland route. Boats of the 
description noticed by Herodotus, although apparently unknown in Greece at that 
period, were in after ages commonly used in Italy on the Po ; and in Britain in the 
time of Caesar. Boats of the same materials but of different shape are used at this 
time in South Wales, and the north-west of Ireland ; in the former country they are 
named corracle, in the latter corraigh. — Wilks, i, 257. 

- The mention of aaryyapa occurs in the Periplus. 

•' From Kan. ane kattc, both meaning dam, dyke, or embankment. 



HYDROGRAPHY 7 

the large Talkad anicut, the lowest down on the Kaveri, having been 
constructed a thousand years ago ; while the most recent, with few 
exceptions, are not less than three centuries old. " The dreams which 
revealed to favoured mortals the plans of these ingenious works (says 
A\'ilks) have each their appropriate legend, which is related with rever- 
ence and received with implicit belief." The channels or kdlvcs thence 
drawn, meander over the adjoining tracts of country on either bank, 
following all the sinuosities of the ground, the total length running 
l)eing upwards of 1,200 miles. ^ 

There are no natural lakes in Mysore, but the streams which gather 
from the hillsides and fertilize the valleys are, at every favourable 
point, embanked in such a manner as to form series or chains of 
reservoirs, called tanks,-' the outflow from one at a higher level supplying 
the next lower, and so on all down the course of the stream at a few 
miles apart. These tanks, varying in size from small ponds to extensive 
lakes, are dispersed throughout the country to the number of 38,080 ; 
and to such an extent has tliis principle of storing water been followed 
that it would now require some ingenuity to discover a site suitable for 
a new one without interfering with the supply of those already in 
existence. The largest of these tanks is the Sulekere, 40 miles in cir- 
cumference. Other large ones are the Ayyankere, Madaga-kere, Masur- 
Madaga-kere, Vyasa samudra, Ramasagara, Moti Talab, tlvic., of which 
accounts will be found elsewhere (Vol. II). 

The spring-heads called talpargis form an important feature of the 
hydrography of the north-east. They extend throughout the border 
regions situated east of a line drawn from Kortagiri to Hiriyur and 
Molkalmuru. In the southern parts of this tract the springs may be 
tapped in the sandy soils at short distances apart, and the water rises 
close to the surface. Northward the supply is not so plentiful. In 
Pavugada a soft porous rock has to be cut through before reaching the 
water, and in the other taluc^s of the Chitaldroog District hard strata of 
rock have sometimes to be perforated. \M-ien the water is obtained, it 
is either conducted by narrow channels to the fields, or a kapilc well is 
constructed, from which the water is raised by bullocks. 

Mountain systems. — ^From the gigantic head and shoulders, as it were, 
of the lofty Nilgiri group, which commands the southern frontier, are 
stretched forth like two arms, in a north-west and north-east direction 
res[)ectively, the AVestern and Eastern (liiat ranges, holding within 

' The anicuts and channels are fully described innler the respective rivers in 
\'..l. If. 

- Kcre is the general name in Kannada, hut Icola, hiiittc, and other terms are 
applied to certain descriptions. 



8 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

their mighty embrace the mountain-locked plateau of Mysore. The 
hills of this table-land, though rarely in continuously connected chains, 
arrange themselves into systems crossing the country longitudinally, in 
directions more or less parallel with the Eastern and Western Ghats 
according to their proximity to one or the other; and attaining their 
greatest elevation between 13 and 13^ degrees of north latitude, along 
the north of the watershed line dividing the Krishna and Kaveri river 
systems. 

The best defined of these ranges is a belt, from 10 to 20 miles wide, 
running between the meridians of 77 and 775, from the Biligirirangan 
hills as their western limit, through Kankanhalli northwards up to 
Madgiri, and on to the frontier by way of Pavugada and Nidugal. It 
separates the eastern from the northern and southern river-basins. On 
the west, a somewhat corresponding range, not more than 10 miles in 
width, runs north along the meridian of 75I from Ballalrayan-durga up 
to beyond Shikarpur, having on its east the loop of the Baba Budans, 
projecting as it were like some Titanic bastion guarding the approaches 
to the Malnad or highland region formed by the congeries of hills and 
mountains which intervene between the range and the Ghats on the 
west. 

Intermediate between the two internal ranges above described is 
placed a hilly belt or chain, with considerable intervals between its com- 
ponent parts, tending to the east on the south of the central watershed 
and to the west on the north of it, so as to form a very obtuse angle in 
traversing the centre of the country. Starting from the Wainad frontier 
at Gopalswami betta, between Gundlupet and Heggadadevankote, it 
passes by Seringapatam and Nagamangala to Chunchangiri, where, 
exchanging its easterly for a westerly course, it reappears to the west of 
Kibbanhalli in the Hagalvadi hills, and crossing in a continuous belt 
through the middle of the Chitaldroog District, quits the country to the 
north of Kankuppa. 

In the northern section of the territory, where the distance between 
the Ghat ranges, and by consequence between the intermediate belts, 
continues to increase, the interval is occupied by minor ranges. Of 
these the most important is the Nandidroog range, commencing near 
the hill of that name and stretching northwards by Gudibanda to Fenu- 
konda and the Anantapur country. In the west, a similar medial chain, 
but of lower elevation, passes from the eastern base of the Baba Budans 
south of Sakrepatna, up by Ajimpur, the Ubrani hills and Basvapatna, 
between Honnali and Male Bennur, along the right bank of the Tun- 
gabhadra, to the frontier, where it meets that river. 

Viewing the mountains as a whole, the Eastern and Western Ghat 



MOUNTAIN SYSTEMS 9 

ranges might be compared to the antlers of a stag, the branching tynes 
being represented by the intermediate parallel chains starting from the 
north of the central watershed and more or less connected by cross 
ridges along their southern extremities. The chief peaks of the western 
system are loftier than those of the eastern. Except on the verge of the 
Western Ghats, all the mountains throughout the country, it is believed, 
present their steepest escarpment more or less eastwards. In the west, 
INIulainagiri, and in the east, Nandidroog, are the highest elevations, and 
they are almost on the same parallel, or between 13° 23' and 13^ 24', 
immediately north of the central watershed. The loftiest points just 
south of that line are Ballalrayan-durga in the west, and Sivaganga in the 
east, both situated between 13° 8' and 13° 10'. 

The table on the following page will serve to show the arrangement 
and altitude of the principal peaks in each system. The figures are 
mostly taken from the charts of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of 
India, supplemented from those of the Topographical Sur\-ey. Fur- 
nished at the summit with springs which yield an unfailing supply 
of water, most of these heights seem ■ formed by nature for secure 
retreats. Hence there are few of the more prominent ones that have 
not been surrounded or capped with fortifications, often carried in long 
lines, with a vast expenditure of labour, along all the spurs and projec- 
tions of the droog, forming strongholds with good reason deemed im- 
pregnable before the time when British artillery was directed against 
their walls. A particular account of the most interesting will be found 
under each District. 

It may be useful to quote here the following most recently published 
opinion regarding the physical geography of this part of India : — " In 
the peninsular area the mountains are all remnants of large table- 
lands, out of which the valleys and low lands have been carved. The 
valleys, with a few local exceptions, are broad and open, the gradients 
of the rivers low, and the whole surface of the country presents the 
gently undulating aspect characteristic of an ancient land surfoce." 
"The Anamalai, Palni and Travancore hills, south of the Palghat gap, 
and the Shevaroy and many other hill groups scattered over the Car- 
natic, may be remnants of a table-land once united to the Mysore 
plateau, but separated from it and from each other by ancient marine 
denudation. Except the peculiar form of the hills, there is but little 
in favour of this view, but on the other hand there is nothing to indicate 
that the hill groups of the Carnatic and Travancore are areas of special 
elevation.'" 

' R. D. (Jldham, " Manual of the Geolog)' of India," 2nd edition (1893), IT- 2, 4- 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 
WESTERN SYSTEM 



IS' 



75° 



76° 



14 — 



13 — 



Chandragutti, 2 


1 
794 






1 














Hanuman betta, 2,507 








Kalvarangan hill, 3,388 






Hill at Sulekere, 2,695 


Govardh 


ingiri, 


1,720 


Karadi betta, 2,725 








- 


Kodachadri 


, 4.411 






Hanuman durga, 3,181 
Ubrani hills, 2,891 






Kavaledurga, 3,058 














Koppa durga, 2,960 
Lakke pan-ata, 4,662 


Baba Budan Range 
Hebbe betta, 4,385 
Kalhatti giri, 6,155 
Deviramman gudda, 


Kaldurga, 3,183 
5,906 










Baba Budan 


giri, 6,214 






Kondada betta, 3,207 

Woddin gudda, 5,006 
Varaha parvata, 4,781 

Merti gudda, 5,451 
Kudure muklia, 6,215 


Rudra giri, 5 
Mulaina giri, 


,692 
6,317 


Sakuna giri. 4,653 
Garudan giri, 3,680 








Ballalrayan durga, 4,940 












Kate gudda, 4,540 
Karadi gudda, 4,523 
Siskal betta, 3,926 
Jenkal betta, 4,558 
Murkan gudda, 4,265 
Devar betta, 4,206 

Subrahmanya 

or Pushpa giri, 5,626 






Maharajan durga, 3,899 
Bettadpura hill, 4,389 














J 


j— 




















1 

7^ 






1 
1 

76° 



MOUNTAIN SYSTEMS 



I Chain 



IT 



EASTERN SYSTEM 



78- 



Santigudda, 2,595 

Jalinga Ramesvara hill, 3,469 

S'uiike Bhairava hill, 3,022 



hill, 2.721 
betta, 3,28( 



?., 3.329 
ii. 3.803 

2,274 

3,226 

Mis, 3.543 



gin, 3,221 



Xidugal, 3,772 
Pavugada, 3,026 



Midagesi durga, 3,376 

Madgiri durga, 3,935 Gudibanda, 3,361 

Channarayan durga, 3,744 



Itikal durga, 3,569 



— 14° 



Dokkal konda, 3,807 



Kortagiri, 2,906 

Devaray durga, 3,940 
Xijagal, 3,569 



Hariharesvar betta, 4,122 



Mudimadagu, 

4.528 
Sunnakal, 4,229 



Kalavar durga, 4,749 
Chanrayan betta, 4,762 
Xandi durga, 4,851 
Brahmagiri, 4,657 
Dibgiri 



Ambaji durga, 4,399 
Rahman Ghar, 4,227 



Sivaganga, 4,559 
Bairan durga, 3,499 

Hutri durga, 3,713 
Savan durga, 4,024 
Hulyur durga, 3,086 

Ramgiri, 3,066 
Sivangiri, 2,931 
Mudvadi durga, 3,131 
Banat mari betta, 3,422 
Kabbal durga, 3,507 



Halsur betta, 3,341 Kolar hills, 4,026 



Kurudu male, 
3.312 



Tyakal hills, 3,704 



Bann^rghatta, 3,271 



Betrayan konda, 

3,006 
Yerra konda 

3-359 



— 13 



lurga, 3,589 
3.579 

, 3,190 
jcks, 2,882 
, 2,697 

i betta, 3,489 



Koppa betta, 2,821 



Biligtrirangan Hills 

Biligirirangan betta, 4,195 
Matpod hill, 4,969 
Punajur hill, 5,091 



mi hill, 4,770 
iri Group 
tta, 8,760 



77 



78° 



GEOLOGYi 

The great ranges of the Western and Eastern (ihats, together with the 
intervening table-lands, may be regarded as part of one magnificent 
elevation of Plutonic rocks by a succession of efforts, during a period 
which may be termed Plutonic, breaking up the hypogene schists 
and in some instances uplifting aqueous beds of a more recent origin. 
The true general direction of this elevation is nearly N. 5° W, though 
the apparent directions of the lateral chains on its flanks are to the east 
and west of north respectively. 

The surface of the table-lands between these chains has a general in- 
clination easterly by south towards the Bay of Bengal, into which the 
principal rivers empty themselves. This gentle inclination, often assisted 
by cross lines of elevation, determines the great drainage lines of the 
country. The singular appearance of the detached hills and clusters of 
hills, which above the Ghats are seen abruptly starting up from the flat 
plains with little or no tali, have been sometimes compared to a table 
with teacups here and there reversed on its surface, a not inapt though 
homely illustration. 

The bare extensive surfaces of the granitic, trappean and hypogene 
rocks in Southern India afford on a grand scale exposes, not to be sur- 
passed in any other portion of the globe, of the protean aspects under 
which these rocks present themselves. The very absence of those fossi- 
liferous beds which so thickly encrust the surface of a great portion of 
Europe and many other parts of the world, is in itself a subject of in- 
teresting research ; and the geologist may in the peninsula of India 
advantageously study a huge and disjointed mass of the nether-formed 

^ Chiefly from articles by Captain Xewbold, P'.R.S., on the " Geolog}- of Southern 
India." — (J. R. A. S. viii, ix, xii. ) 

[Note. — When compiHng the first edition, I applied to the Geological Survey of 
India for information on the geology of Mysore, and was informed in reply that, as 
the country had not been surveyed, nothing was known of its geolog}-. Being thus 
thrown on my own resources, I discovered the articles from which this chapter was 
taken. Their value has since been recognized by the Geological Survey, for Mr. 
W. T. Blanford, in the Introduction to the first edition of the "Manual of the 
Geology of India" (p. Ixxii), writes as follows : — 

Newbold, 1 844- 1 850. —This account refers to the southern part of the Peninsula 
alone ; but it is the work of one of the best, if not actually the best, of the earlier 
Indian geologists ; and it has the peculiar advantage over all other summaries 
published up to the present time, that the author possessed an extensive personal 

acquaintance with the country described Most of the observations recorded 

in the summary are admirable ; and altogether the paper is so valuable, that the 
neglect with which it has been generally treated is not easy to understand.] 



To face page 13 

GE OLOGICAL SECTI ONS IN THE LATITUDES OF ^AN^AUJRE^ AND^OFJ^jE NORT>IERJj^RONTlER. 

After Captain Newbold, F. R.S. fl "ts 

I SECTION IN ABOUT LAT 15" N fH "t ^S I I ? 




METAM ORPHIC ROCKS 13 

rocks which constitute the framework of our planet, and which 
here present themselves ahiiost divested of integument, weathering 
under the alternations of a vertical sun and the deluging rains of the 
tropics. 

Metamorphic Rocks. — Hypogene schists, penetrated and broken 
up by prodigious outbursts of plutonic and trappean rocks, occupy by 
far the greater portion of the superficies of Southern India. They con- 
stitute the general bulk of the Western Ghats from between the latitude 
of 16" and 17° N. to Cape Comorin ; and from the northern base 
of the Eastern (ihats to their deflection at latitude 13° 20' N. They 
are partially capped and fringed in the ^\'estern (ihats by laterite, 
and in the Eastern Ghats by sandstone, limestone and laterite. They 
form the basis of the valley of Seringapatam and of the table-land of 
Mysore. 

The inequalities and undulations of the surface, though originating 
in the dislocations and flexures of the metamorphic strata at the periods 
of their uj)heaval, have been evidently modified by aqueous erosion 
and by the faster weathering of the softer members of the series, — ■ 
such as mica and talcose schists, — the softer clay slates and shales ; 
which, crumbling and washed away, have left their harder brethren 
standing out in relief on the face of the country. Where we see 
gneiss, hornblende schist and quartzite rising in parallel ridges sepa- 
rated by valleys, we generally find the valleys occupied by the softer 
members of the series, often deeply covered with debris from the 
ridges. 

Where gneiss rises above the general level of the surrounding plain, 
its elevations may be distinguished from those of granite, which the hills 
of thick-bedded varieties of gneiss sometimes assimilate, by their greater 
continuity and uniformity of altitude ; their tendency to a smooth dome- 
shaded outline ; and greater freedom from precipices and disrupted 
masses. Near lines of plutonic disturbance, however, these distinguish- 
ing marks are less perceptible. 

Elevations of mica and talcose schists obtain, generally, a less alti- 
tude than those of hornblende or gneiss ; and have a more round- 
backed and smoother contour on the whole. Vet the outline in detail 
is jagged, owing partly to these rocks weathering in larger, more angular 
or less concentric fragments, often leaving abrupt steps and small preci- 
pices. Hornblende and gneiss are seen rising, as m the \\'estern Ghats 
and the Nilgiris, to the height of 8,000 feet above the sea's level. The 
former is recognized by its bold sharp ridges, often precipitous, but 
rarely presenting conical peaks. 

Hills composed entirely of actinolite or chlorite schist are seldom 



14 GEOLOGY 

met with ; those of (luartzite have long crest-Hke outhnes, often running 
smoothly for some distance, but almost invariably breaking up into large, 
angular masses, sometimes cuboidal : the sides of the crests are usually 
precipitous. Hills of clay slate are distinguished by a smooth, wavy 
outline, separated by gently sloping valleys. Outliers or detached hills 
of this rock are usually mammiform. But, as before remarked, all these 
normal crystalline rocks, when near lines or foci of plutonic disturbance, 
frequently undergo great changes in physiognomical aspect ; and in lieu 
of the smoothly rounded hills of clay slate, and its gently sloping vales, 
smiling with fertility, we behold it cleaved into sterile, rugged ravines 
and rocky i)recipices. 

Gneiss is usually found lowest in the series : next to it mica and 
hornblende schist, actinolite, chlorite, talcose and argillaceous schist, 
and crystalline limestone, in due succession : but to this rule there are 
numerous exceptions. All these rocks, except crystalline limestone, 
have been observed resting on granite without the usually intervening 
gneiss. The strata are often violently contorted or bent in waving 
flexures, particularly in the vicinity of plutonic rocks ; and much irreg- 
ularity occurs in the amount and direction of dip throughout the 
hypogene area. In the Western Ghats it is usually easterly, and at 
angles varying from io° to 90°. At the summit of the Ghats near the 
falls of Gersoppa, the gneiss dipped at an angle of 35° to the N.E. 

But the hornblende schists do not always dip from the plutonic rocks 
— in many instances the dip is towards them : a fact indicating that the 
strata have been disturbed at some previous period, or that they may have 
suffered inversion ; which is known to be the case in beds of more 
recent origin. While the dip of the two great lines of elevation, viz., 
the East and West Ghats, is generally westerly and easterly, or at right 
angles with the direction of the strata, that of the minor cross ranges is 
usually southerly. Numerous irregularities and exceptions, however, to 
this general rule occur, particularly near the northerly and southerly 
great synclinal line of dip on the table-lands between the Eastern and 
AVestern Ghats, and near localities where it is traversed by the cross 
lines of elevation. The intrusion of trap dykes has also caused much 
diversity in the dip. These irregularities will always prove obstacles in 
tracing out with accuracy the synclinal dip line between the Eastern and 
Western Ghats. 

Gneiss and hornblende schist are by far the most prevalent rocks of 
the series : to gneiss the other members may be termed subordinate. 
Near its contact with the granite it commonly assumes the character of 
what has been styled granitoidal gneiss, losing its stratified appearance, 
and not to be distinguished in hand specimens from granite. Spherical 



METAMORPJIIC ROCKS 15 

and oval masses of granite, resembling boulders, are sometimes 
observed impacted in the gneiss. Veins of reddish compact felspar, 
felspar coloured green with actinolite, epidote or chlorite, with and with- 
out quartz; also of milky quartz with nests of iron ore, mica and 
hornblende are very common in gneiss : also dykes and veins of granite. 
All these veins are of older date than the intrusion of the greenstone 
dykes which invariably sever them. Particular varieties of gneiss prevail 
in different districts. These rocks not only abound in nests and veins 
of rich magnetic and oxidulated iron ore, but in thick interstratified 
beds and mountain masses of these minerals. 

iMica schist is found sparingly distributed over the whole of the 
hypogene area in thin beds. It is found in the greatest abundance and 
purity in the western parts of Mysore. A vein of granite in it is rare, 
though abounding in those of quartz. Takose, chloritic^ and acti)wlitic 
schists are still more sparingly distributed : the first is seen in the west 
of jNIysore. Fine varieties of actinolitic schist occur in the Western 
Ghats at the falls of Gersoppa ; and it is pretty generally distributed in 
thin beds over Mysore. Hornblende schist ranks next to gneiss in 
extent and thickness of beds, and is seen washed by the sea at the 
bases of the Eastern and ^^'estern Ghats, forming some of the loftiest 
peaks of the latter and supporting large level tracts of table-land. 
This rock varies from the compact structure of basalt to the crystalline 
texture of granite, and to that of porphyry, and may be seen from 
lamin?e of a few lines in thickness, passing into beds forming mountain 
masses. The principal constituent minerals are hornblende and felspar. 
Quartz, garnet and mica are frequently mixed. Large beds of compact 
felspar, generally of a pinkish hue, with a little quartz and a few scales 
of mica, quartzite and milk quartz, having a similar direction to that of 
gneiss, occur, forming low ranges of hills. Clay slate does not occupy 
a large surface of the hypogene area. It occurs at Chiknayakanhalli, 
Chitaldroog, and in parts of the Shimoga District. 

Imbedded Minerals. — Chert is pretty generally distributed, also the 
•common garnet ; the latter occurs in the greatest abundance in the 
Eastern Ghats, but is also found in the Kempukal river at the Manjara- 
bad Ghat; black garnet and tremolite occur in the granitoidal gneiss 
of Wurralkonda (Kolar District). Epidote and actinolite are found 
usually in quartz and felspar veins. Indianite occurs sparingly with 
corundum, fibrolite and garnet in gneiss and hornblende schist in the 
valley of the Kaveri. Corundum is found in Mysore in talc, mica, or 
hornblende schist associated with iron ore, asbestus, and sometimes 
indianite and fibrolite. It occurs imbedded in the rock in grains and 
■crystals. Its principal localities are Gollarhalli near Chanraypatna, 



1 6 GEOLOGY 

Mandya near Seringapatam, Bcgur, Bannerghatta, Bagepalli and other 
l)laces.^ Fibrolite occurs but rarely with indianite and corundum. 
Kyanite occurs in gneiss with tremolite, pearl spar, bitter spar, almandine 
and staurolite. Steatite occurs in the talcose schists in the west of 
Mysore ; as also potstone, in beds of considerable size and veins, and 
more or less dispersed over the whole hypogene area ; occasionally 
associated with nephrite. Magnesite, an almost pure carbonate of 
magnesia, occurs in the vicinity of Hunsur. Mica is found universally 
diffused. In some parts of the Western Ghats and on the table-lands 
to the east, this mineral and talc are found in plates large enough for 
windows and lanterns, for which purpose they are used by the natives, 
as also for ornamental devices and for painting on. Chlorite is rarely 
found uncombined with felspar, silex, or hornblende. Nacrite or scaly 
talc is here and there met with. Adularia is found in the gneiss at 
some places. Albite or cleavlandite occurs occasionally throughout the 
gneiss districts, as also tourmaline or schorl, both black and green. 
Sulphate and sub-sulphate of alumina are occasionally found in thin 
incrustations and efflorescences between the layers of the soft ferruginous 
slates into which the hornblende and mica schists pass. 

Iron pyrites or sulphuret of iron is distributed in small proportions 
in the hypogene rocks ; but the oxides, both magnetic and heematitic, 
exist in extraordinary abundance, forming masses and large interstrati- 
fied beds in the mountain chains. In gneiss these ores frequently 
replace hornblende and mica ; alternating with quartz in regular layers. 
Magnetic iron ore with polarity is found in the massive state on the 
Baba Budan hills. Micaceous and specular iron ores are less common. 
A dark magnetic iron sand is usually found in the beds of streams 
having their origin among hypogene rocks, associated with gold dust 
and sometimes with menaccanite. Iron ore slightly titaniferous is 
found over the whole hypogene area. The black oxide of manganese 
associated with iron ore is found sparingly in the hills. Antimony 
occurs in the Baba Budan hills, and at Chitaldroog. 



' Attention having been drawn to corunduni as a valuable article of export, and on 
account of its possible use for the manufecture of aluminium, Mr. Petrie Hay, of 
Hunsur, has recently collected a quantity from villages to the south and west of that 
town. Very excellent crystals of yellowish corundum, with a brown weathered 
surface, were collected from the fields. Some tapering hexagonal prisms up to five 
inches in length, and a cubical piece of about four inches side, with a block weighing 
300 lbs., were sent by him to the Madras Museum. Dr. Warth, of the Geological 
Survey, considers them of great importance as indicating the probability of a large and 
continuous yield. The quality of the quarried pieces is very little inferior to that of 
the crystals. The specific gravity of the large crystals was 4*02 and of the rock 
corundum 3 "So. 



IMBEDDED MINERALS 17 

Ores of silver have been said to occur in Belli Betta near Attikuppa.^ 
Ainslie states that Captain Arthur discovered this metal in small 
quantities in Mysore, both in its native state in thin plates adhering to 
some specimens of gold crystallized in minute cubes, and mineralized 
with sulphur, iron and earthy matter, forming a kind of brittle 
sulphuretted silver ore. 

Gold has long been found in the alluvial soil bordering on the 
Betarayan hills in Kolar District. The geognostic position of gold in 
this and other localities appears to be in the i)rimary schists, viz., gneiss, 
mica slate, clay slate, and hornblende schist, particularly near the line 
of their contact with granite or basaltic dykes, where we generally find 
the tendency to siliceous and metallic development unusually great. 
The gold is almost invariably discovered either in thin veins or dissem- 
inated in grains in the veins and beds of quartz, associated with iron 
ore and sometimes platinum, and alloyed with small proportions of 
silver and copper, or in the tracts of alluvial soil, beds of clay and 
sands, with the washings of primary rocks. Mining operations were 
carried on here by the natives from a remote period and abandoned. 
But since 1875 gold mining has been revived on a large scale by 
European enterprise, and what was virtually a desert waste has thus 
been converted into a populous and thriving industrial centre. The 
details of these operations will be found farther on under Industrial 
Arts. 

Plutonic Rocks.— Cm^/Vt' prevails throughout the great hypogene 
tracts, sometimes rising abruptly from the surface of immense level 
plains in precipitous peaked and dome-shaped masses ; sometimes in 
low steppes ; sometimes in great heaps of amorphous masses ; at others 
with sharp outlines, obscured and softened down by a mantle of the 
hypogene schists which have accompanied its elevation. This latter 
occurs most frecjuently in continuous mountain chains, such as the Ghats ; 
but to view this rock in all the boldness of its true physical contour, we 
must approach the detached ranges, clusters, and insulated masses that 
break the monotony of the table-lands. Here we find but little 
regularity in the direction of elevation. In many clusters the granite 
appears to have burst through the crystalline schists in lines irregularly 
radiating from a centre, or in rings resembling the denticulated periphery 
of a crater. 

The most remarkable of the insulated clusters and masses of granite 
on the table-land of Mysore are those of Sivaganga, Savandroog, 

' But Mr. Bruce Foolc, of tlic Geological Survey, reported in 1SS7 as follows ; 

" I searched the hill most carefully and could not find the slightest trace of any ore of 
silver." 



1 8 GEOLOGY 

Hutridroog, Nandidroog, Chandragutti, and Chitaldroog. The rock 
of Nandidroog is almost one solid monolithic mass of granite, rising 
1, 800 feet above the plain and upwards of 4,800 feet above the sea ; 
that of Sivaganga is nearly as high. These masses have usually one or 
more of their sides precipitous, or at such an angle as to be inaccessible 
except at few points. Most of them, like that of Savandroog, are so 
steep as to admit of Httle vegetation, and present surfaces of many 
thousand square feet of perfectly naked rock, in which the veins and 
mineralogical structure are beautifully laid bare to the eye of the 
geologist. 

It is not to be understood that granite is to be met with only in this 
abrupt amorphous form. On the contrary, it is sometimes found in 
immense undulating layers like lava, rising little above the general 
level of the country, separated by fissures and joints, and running for 
a considerable distance in a given direction like a regular chain of hills. 
The horizontal fissures often impart a pseudo-stratified appearance, and 
when crossed by others nearly vertical, give the whole the semblance 
of some huge wall of cyclopean masonry. The cuboidal masses com- 
posing these walls weather by a process of concentric exfoliation into 
spheroids. This process occurs often on a grand scale, and the ex- 
foliated portions compose segments of circles of many yards radii. 
This decay of lofty granitic masses produces some of the most 
picturesque features of an Indian landscape; its strange columnar piles, 
trees, and logging stones, which far excel those of Dartmoor in grandeur 
and in the fantastic forms they assume. Some of these piles are held 
together in the most extraordinary positions, and the blocks composing 
them are found connected by a felspathic siliceous and ferruginous 
paste, the result of the decay of the upper masses, washed down and 
deposited around the joints by the action of the rain. There they 
stand ; some tottering on their base, leaning over and threatening every 
instant to topple down upon the unwary traveller ; others erect, amid a 
ruin of debris at their feet, — silent monuments of the process of the 
surrounding decay. Sometimes the summits of the higher elevations 
are composed of immense monolith peaked masses of granite, which 
split vertically ; the separated portions are often known to descend 
from their lofty position with the rapidity and thunder of an avalanche. 
As the rocks waste from the summit, at their base will be usually 
observed a tendency to a re-arrangement of the component particles 
of the rock going on in the debris there accumulated. At Chitaldroog 
may be seen, at the base of a granite clifi' which tops one of the hills, 
a porphyritic-looking mass thus formed of a reddish clayey paste, 
imbedding reddish crystals of felspar. 



PLUTONIC ROCKS. 19 

Almost every variety of this rock is found, but the prevaiUng granite 
is composed of felspar, quartz, mica and hornblende. Quartz, felspar 
and hornblende, the syenite of some mineralogists, is also common, and 
runs into the ordinary granite. That beautiful variety called protogine, 
in which talc, or chlorite, or steatite replaces the mica, is not very 
common in India, but is met with in a few localities in the west of 
Mysore. In all these cases chlorite and talc are the replacing minerals, 
the former predominating. Pegmotite, granite composed of quartz and 
felspar, is frequently met with ; but the variety called graphic granite is 
rare. Schist granite never occurs as a mountain mass, but is found in 
veins or patches imbedded in ordinary granite. The same may be said 
of actinolitic granite, or granite in which actinolite replaces mica. The 
latter usually is most frequent in hornblendic granite, and the actinolite 
passes by insensible gradations into hornblende. The felspar of actino- 
litic granite is usually flesh or salmon-coloured. Porphyritic granite, or 
granite having large crystals of felspar imbedded in ordinary or small- 
grained granite, is common. The rock of Savandroog affords a good 
example of the prevailing variety. It is composed of a granite base of 
felspar, quartz, mica and hornblende, imbedding long pale rose-coloured 
crystals of felspar. Fine granite porphyries are less frequently met with : 
a beautiful specimen occurs in a large vein or dyke which traverses the 
gneiss in the bed of the Kaveri at Seringapatam, nearly opposite the 
sallyport close to which Tipu was killed. It is composed of a basis of 
compact reddish and salmon-coloured felspar and a little quartz, 
imbedding lighter-coloured crystals of the same, with needle-shaped 
crystals of green tourmaline. 

The great prevalent mineralogical feature in the granite of Southern 
India is its highly ferriferous nature. The mica and hornblende 
is frequently replaced by magnetic iron ore in grains, veins, and 
beds ; and sometimes by fine octohedral crystals of the same, with 
polarity. 

Most of the minerals and ores described as occurring in gneiss are 
also found in granite. 

The ordinary granite is traversed by veins of granites both finer and 
larger grained : the former pass into eurite, a rock in which all the com- 
ponent minerals of granite are mingled together in one almost homo- 
geneous paste. The minerals composing the larger grained veins are 
often in a state of segregation and crystallization. The mica, instead of 
being scattered in minute scales throughout the substance of the rock 
is sometimes collected in large plates nearly a foot in length (used by 
natives for painting on) ; the quartz in large amorphous nodules, or 
hexahedral pyramidal prisms of equal length ; and the felspar by itself 

c 2 



2 GEOLOGY 

in reddish layers and beds. The veins and beds of felspar are usually 
reddish, and penetrated by fissures, which give a prismatic structure : 
these fissures are often lined with compact felspar, coloured by actino- 
lite, or chlorite, or with drusy crystals of the former mineral, which is 
also found in nests. Milky quartz is segregated into large beds forming 
chains of hills, usually containing nests and seams of iron ore, rock 
crystal, and crystals of amethystine quartz. Both oval and lenticular 
nests of hornblende and mica occur in granite. 

Granite is seen in veins penetrating the hypogene schists. Good 
examples occur near Seringapatam. In many situations granite appears 
to have broken through the earth's crust in a solid form ; as is evident 
from the sometimes unaltered and shattered condition of the strata 
immediately in contact. 

Eiirite is found throughout the granite and hypogene tracts, but 
more frequently among the latter rocks, with which it often has all the 
appearance of being interstratified ; in the granite it occurs in dykes. 
The eurite of Seringapatam may be regarded as a type of the petrosilex 
eurites. It sometimes passes into eurite porphyry, imbedding distinct 
crystals of laminar felspar. Diallage, euphotide or gabbro, occurs at 
Banavar, about eight miles westerly from Bangalore, associated with 
gneiss and mica schist. It there presents itself in low elevations, con- 
sisting of angular rough masses of the diallage rock, half-buried in a 
detritus the result of its own disintegration. The masses have not the 
slightest appearance of stratification ; but are divided by fissures, like 
granite, into cuboidal blocks. The rock is composed chiefly of diallage 
and felspar ; the colours of the former varying from light and dark grey 
to greyish green and bright green. The felspar is white and greyish 
white ; sometimes in distinct crystals, but generally confusedly 
aggregated. The general colour of the rock is light grey and 
greenish grey. The diallage at Banavar has more the appearance of 
a dyke or vein in the hypogene strata than of an interstratified bed ; 
but no natural section of the junction line of the two rocks presents 
itself 

Serpentine. — Near Turuvekere a dark crystalline rock occurs, com- 
posed of a dark grey or black talcose paste, imbedding numerous small 
black crystals of a mineral containing a large proportion of iron, being 
strongly attracted by the magnet. It bears a beautiful polish ; the 
surface exhibiting, on close inspection, in the dark shining paste, still 
darker spots occasioned by the magnetic crystals. It was quarried by 
the sovereigns of Mysore for architectural purposes, and forms the 
material of the beautiful pillars which support the mausoleum of Haidar 
at Seringapatam. This rock has been mistaken for basaltic greenstone,. 



VOLCANIC ROCKS 21 

but it may be a bed of massive ferriferous potstone — here common in 
the talc schist — elevated, indurated, and altered by one of the basaltic 
dykes that traverse the rocks in the vicinity. Geologically viewed it 
has all the characters of a serpentine ; and mineralogically it resembles 
the ferriferous serpentine or ophiolite of Brongniart, which consists 
of a magnesian paste imbedding disseminated grains of oxidulated 
iron. 

Yolcanic Rocks. — Basaltic greenstone is universally distributed. It 
prevails in hypogene areas, diminishes in those occupied by the diamond- 
sandstone and limestone, and totally disappears in districts covered by 
laterite and deposits of a more recent epoch. It is most developed in 
the stretch of table-land between Bangalore and Bellary. It never 
occurs in continuous overlying sheets like the newer trap, but pene- 
trates in dykes the rocks just described, up to the age of the laterite. 
These dykes often terminate on reaching the surface of the rock, or 
before reaching it ; while others project from the surface in long black 
ridges, which, originally like a wall, have since tumbled into both 
globular and angular fragments by disintegration. Most of the blocks 
usually remain piled up on the crests of the elevations, while others 
have lodged on their sides or rolled down to their bases. Many of these 
blocks have a peculiar metallic or phonolithic sound when struck ; the 
well-known " ringing stones " west of Bellary afford a good example. 
These black bare ridges of loose stones, standing out in relief against 
the light-coloured granite or gneiss rocks, add another striking feature 
to the landscape of the plutonic and hypogene tracts. They often 
cross the country in a thick network, particularly between Nandidroog 
and Bagepalli. 

In many cases the protrusion of the basaltic greenstone above the 
general surface of the imbedding rock appears to have been occasioned 
by the weathering of the latter from its sides. The greenstone thus left 
unsupported and exposed to atmospheric action soon breaks up by the 
process of Assuring and concentric exfoliation. In a few instances it 
appears to have been forced in a semi-solid state beyond the lips of the 
rent in the rock without overlapping the rock, but none of these project- 
ing dykes have remained in that solid continuous wall-like state in which 
we see the prominent dykes of Somma or the Val del Bove. Their 
height above the general level of the country rarely exceeds eighty feet. 
The direction of the main dykes appears generally to coincide with that 
of the elevation of the mountains ; but if we trace any dyke, the general 
direction of which in a course of many miles may be north and south, 
we shall find it to zig-zag and curve in various directions at different 
parts of its course. Fragments of granite and gneiss, both angular and 



2 2 GEOLOGY 

of a lenticular form, arc sometimes entangled and imbedded in the 
basalt ; and have been mistaken for veins or nests of these rocks. It is 
evident that, in many instances, the granite and hypogene rocks were 
solidified prior to the great eruptions of basalt that burst up from below 
into their seams and fissures, and that the molten fluid imbedded all 
loose fragments of rock, &:c., lying in them. It is probable that many 
of the fissures themselves were caused, or enlarged, as seen in modern 
volcanoes, by the expansion of the molten basalt and its gases from 
below, while struggling for a vent. 

The lithologic structure of this rock is as protean as that of granite. 
In the centre of large dykes we usually find it crystalline and por- 
phyritic ; and nearer the edges, less crystalline and more compact ; in 
fact, every gradation of amj)hibolitic and augitic rocks, from basalt to 
melaphyre, in the distance of a very few paces. Near the sides, in the 
compact varieties, may be seen needle-shaped crystals of augite, glanc- 
ing in confused arrangement here and there in the close texture of the 
basalt ; while a little nearer to the centre the augite almost disappears, 
and is replaced by fine large crystals of hornblende, and sometimes a 
few scattered scales of mica. Near the line of contact with gneiss, the 
basalt often loses its dark colour, and becomes of a faint green, like 
some varieties of eurite or serpentine, imbedding iron pyrites. This 
faint green eurite is also seen as a thin vitreous and vesicular enduit on 
its surface, like the scoriaceous lava found on the surface of the dykes 
of Etna. The cavities sometimes contain a yellowish-brown powder, 
which becomes magnetic before the blow-pipe ; or small crystals of 
epidote : in one specimen was found prehnite. The surface of the com- 
pact basalt in the dykes is often scored by small fissures, which, as in 
the Vesuvian dykes, divide the rock into horizontal prisms and run at 
right angles to the cooling surfaces. All the darker varieties of basaltic 
greenstone melt into a black or dark-green coloured glass or enamel ; 
and affect the magnetic needle. They are composed of felspar, horn- 
blende and augite, in varying proportions, and occasionally hyper- 
sthene. 

The minerals most common to these are, iron pyrites, garnets, epidote, 
and actinolite. These minerals distinguish them from the newer trap, 
which abounds in zeolites, calcedonies and olivine. 

The greenstone occasionally assumes the prismatic columnar forms of 
the newer basalts, or rather approaches to this structure ; thin layers of 
carbonate of lime often intervene between the joints, and between the 
concentric layers of the globular greenstone. In many instances the 
basalt has a fissile structure, which, when intersected by joints, form 
prisms well adapted for building purposes. In some cases, under the 



AQUEOUS MOCKS 23 

hammer it breaks into rhomboidal fragments, the joint planes of which 
are marked superficially with dark brown or blue dendritic appearances 
on a pale yellow or brown ground. 

Rocks altered by Dykes. — Granite and gneiss in contact with a dyke 
usually become compact, or tough, or friable ; the felspar crystals 
lose their brightness and a portion of the water of crystallization, 
become opaque and of porcelain hue; the mica is hardened and 
loses its easily fissile lamellar character. In gneiss it may be seen 
replaced by minute crystals of tourmaline,, epidote and garnet, as 
near Chanraypatna. Limestone is converted into chert, or becomes 
siliceous ; sandstone into quartz ; and clay slate into basanite and 
jasper. 

In districts most intersected by dykes a general tendency to crystal- 
line and metallic development will be remarked, as well as an increase 
in the deposition of saline and calcareous matter, apparent in extensive 
layers of kunker, and efflorescences of the carbonate, muriate, and sul- 
phate of soda. The fissures through which the springs charged with 
these minerals rise, were originally caused, perhaps, by the same dis- 
ruptive forces that opened vents through the earth's crust to the molten 
basalt : and it is not improbable that these minerals and sulphates have 
their origin in causes connected with these ancient subterranean 
volcanic phenomena. Frequently no alteration is to be traced in the 
rocks in contact with dykes ; a circumstance readily accounted for when 
we reflect that the temperature of the injected rock is liable to great 
variation. In certain localities, indeed, the basalt appears to have been 
reciprocally acted upon by the rock it has traversed. 

Aqueous Rocks. — Sandstone and Limestone. — Resting immediately 
on the hypogene and plutonic rocks are found beds of limestone, sand- 
stone, conglomerate, argillaceous, arenaceous, and siliceous schists. 
Next to the hypogene schists, and the associated plutonic rocks, these 
limestone and sandstone beds occupy perhaps the greater portion of 
the area north of a line drawn through Sira to the west. They are 
most frequently observed exposed in the vicinity of the great drainage 
lines of the country and occur in irregularly-shaped patches, separated 
usually by broad and apparently denuded zones of the subjacent 
hypogene and plutonic rocks. 

The tracts occupied by the limestone and sandstone beds present a 
diversified aspect, sometimes flat and monotonous, and at others, near 
lines of [)lutonic disturbance, bare, rugged and picturesque. The lime- 
stone in some situations has evidently been denuded of the usually 
superjacent sandstone, dislocated, and elevated several hundreds of 
feet above the general level of the surrounding country in regular 



24 GEOLOGY 

ranges, and often in highly-inclined strata. Caps of sandstone, though 
in such cases often wanting, are sometimes seen still covering the 
limestone peaks. The outline of these limestone ranges usually 
presents long, fiattish-topped ridges, whose sides and summits are not 
unfrequently covered with detached angular blocks of the rocks, with a 
grey, weathered, and scabrous exterior, resembling that of the mountain 
limestones of Europe. 

The sandstone, where undisturbed by plutonic intrusion, occurs in 
low, flat, wall-like ranges, rising at an almost similar level, rarely exceed- 
ing, 500 feet from the surface of the surrounding country, supporting 
tabte-lands of some extent and evidently once continuous. It is often 
intersected by deep fissures, extending from the summit of the rocks 
down to the base. When disturbed by plutonic force, the sandstone 
exhibits a striking contrast in its outline to the tame horizontal aspect 
it assumes at a distance from the axes of disturbance. It rises in bold 
relief against the sky in lofty rugged cross or hogbacked and crested 
hills, with precipitous mural ridges, which, rarely running at the same 
level for any distance, are interrupted by portions of the same ridge, 
thrown up at various angles with the horizon in steep and often 
inaccessible cliffs. When it crests the hypogene rocks, the lower 
part of the elevation is often composed of the latter to the height of 
about 200 to 400 feet, the slope of which has usually an inclination 
of from 15° to 20", while that of the cap of sandstone presents a 
steep or precipitous declivity varying from 45° to 90°, giving a decided 
character to the aspect and configuration of the mountains and ranges 
thus formed. 

The hills of arenaceous schists are to be recognized from the more 
massive sandstones by their undulating, round-backed summits, and 
their buttressed and dimpled flanks ; while those of the softer slates 
and shales affect the mammiform outline. 

Both limestone and sandstone beds, there is little doubt, were 
formerly of greater extent than now, and owe much of their present 
discontinuity and scattered positions to the agency of plutonic 
disturbance and subsequent denudation. The tracts of country 
intervening between their areas are usually occupied by granitic and 
hypogene rocks. 

Laterite occupies a large portion of the superficies of Southern 
India. It is found capping the loftiest summits of the Eastern and 
Western Ghats and of some of the isolated peaks on the intervening 
table-lands. Beds of small extent occur near Bangalore and Banavasi. 
That at Bangalore extends northerly towards the vicinity of Nandi- 
droog. Hills of laterite are usually distinguished by their long, low, 



LATERITE 25 

flat-topped character, assimilating those of the trap and horizontal 
sandstone formations. The lands they support are, however, not so 
much furrowed as those of the sandstone by water channels, a circum- 
stance ascribable to the drainage passing rapidly off through the pores 
of the rock. When capping detached rocks, the laterite usually imparts 
to the whole mass a dome-shaped or mammiform outline, or that of a 
truncated cone. 

On the surface of table-lands it is spread out in sheets, varying from 
a few inches to about 250 feet in thickness, terminating on one or two 
sides in mural escarpments. Immense detached blocks, generally of a 
cuboidal shape, are often seen occurring on the flanks of the Western 
Ghats, and on the southern slopes of the Sondur hills, often separated 
and dislodged. The valleys intervening between ranges of laterite 
hills are generally winding, like those formed by the course of a 
stream, and flat-bottomed, particularly in districts where it overlies the 
newer trap. 

The laterite varies mucli in structure and composition ; l)ut generally 
speaking it presents a reddish-brown or brick-coloured tubular and 
-cellular clay, more or less indurated ; passing on the one hand into a 
hard compact jaspideous rock, and on the other into loosely aggregated 
grits or sandstones, and into red sectile clays, red and yellow ochre, 
and white porcelain earth, plum-blue, red, purplish and variegated 
lithomarges. Sometimes it presents the character of a conglomerate, 
containing fragments of quartz, the plutonic, hypogene and sandstone 
rocks and nodules of iron ore derived from them, all imbedded in a 
ferruginous clay. The cavities are both vesicular, tubular and sinuous ; 
sometimes empty, but in the lower portions of the rock usually filled, 
or partly filled, with the earths and clays above mentioned, or a 
siliceous and argillaceous dust, often stained by oxide of iron. A 
species of black bole, carbonized wood and carbonate of lime some- 
times occur, but rarely, in these cavities. Minute drusy crystals of 
quartz not uncommonly line the interior. The walls separating the 
cavities are composed of an argillo-siliceous paste, often strongly 
impregnated with iron and frequently imbedding gritty particles of 
quartz. The oxide of iron prevails sometimes to such an extent as to 
approximate a true ore of iron, and the nodules are often separated 
and smelted by the natives in preference to using the magnetic iron 
ore, which is more difficult to reduce, from its greater purity, ^^'hen 
the whole mass is charged with iron and very vesicular (not unfre- 
quently the case) it might easily be mistaken for iron slag. The 
colour of the parietcs separating the tubes and cells, which in the less 
ferruginous varieties is a light brick-red or purple, changes into a liver- 



26 GEOLOG V 

brown, having externally a vitrified or glazed aspect ; while the surface 
of the interior cavities puts on iridescent hues. The walls of these 
cells are sometimes distinctly laminated. 

The air-exposed surfaces of laterite are usually hard and have a 
glazed aspect, and the cavities are more empty than those in the lower 
portion. A few inches or more below the surface the rock becomes 
softer, and eventually as it descends so sectile as to be easily cut by 
the native spades, but hardens after exposure to the atmosphere. 
Hence it is u.sed largely as a building stone in the districts where it 
prevails, and to repair roads. P>om its little liability to splinter and 
weather (time appears to harden it), it is a good material in fortifica- 
tions. The accumulation of the clays and lithomargic earths in the 
lower portions of the rock, which absorb some of the moisture per- 
colating from above, renders the mass soft and sectile. These earths 
doubtless existed once in the upper cavities of the rock, from which 
they have been gradually removed to. the lower strata by the downward 
action of the water of the monsoon rains. They accumulate at various 
depths from the surface and form impervious beds, on the depressions 
of which the water collects, forming the reservoirs of the springs we 
often see oozing from the bases and sides of lateritic hills and cliffs. 
Some of the tubes and cavities are cu/s de sac, and do not part with 
their contents ; but the generality have communication with those 
below them, either directly or indirectly. 

Associated Minerals. — Nodular, reniform and pisiform clay iron ore 
occur pretty generally distributed. Large beds and nests of litho- 
margic earths, and white porcelain earths, are not uncommon. 

Older AlluYium. — The designation of alluvium is here used in its 
extended sense to indicate certain beds of gravel and sand that are 
occasionally found covered by the regur deposit, and which occur in 
such situations as not to be accountable for by the agency of existing 
transporting powers ; simply prefixing the term " older " to distinguish 
it from the alluvium now .forming from the disintegration of rocks 
washed down by the rains and springs, and transported by rivers and 
local inundations. 

In the valleys of the Bhima, Krishna, Tungabhadra, and other 
large rivers are occasionally seen beds of alluvial gravel elevated beyond 
the highest existing inundation lines. Some of these deposits may be 
ascribable to shifts from time to time in the course of the river's bed ; a 
few to the action of rain in bringing down alluvium from the mountain 
sides ; but the majority appear to have been accumulated under con- 
ditions not now in existence ; probably, during the slow upheaval of 
the AVestern Ghats and plateau of the Dekhan, when the water 



OLDER ALLUVIUM 27 

occupied a much greater extent than at present. In many places the 
rivers have cut their way through these deposits ; in others, channels 
exist of rivers, where now no water flows, or but a diminutive stream- 
let. Thus the Moyar valley, which runs along the table-land of Mysore 
by the base of the Nilgiris, differs entirely from a common mountain 
glen. Though a mile or more in breadth at some points, yet it is rather 
a ravine or fosse cut in the plain and not hemmed in by mountains. It 
opens out into the lower plain of the Carnatic at the Gajalhatti pass : 
the sides are precipitous, and its bed very much like the deserted 
channel of a river. The only stream now flowing in it is the Moyar, 
which, even in the monsoon, does not fill one hundredth part of its 
breadth and height : yet this singular excavation, extending some 
thirty miles in length, is unquestionably a waterworn channel. It is 
no fissure ; for its bed is quite solid and connected and composed of 
strata of the hypogene rocks. 

Hegnr or Black Cotton Clay. — This singular deposit, which in sheets 
of considerable thickness covers at least one-third of Southern India, is 
less common in Mysore. The plains occupied by the cotton soil are in 
general marked by their horizontal sea-like surface and almost treeless 
aspect. It covers the kunker and gravel beds just described, and is 
generally seen as a surface soil ; but if we examine the edges of great 
sheets they will generally be found to dip for some distance under the 
recent alluvium, which conceals and replaces them as a surface soil. 
It not only covers extensive plains, but the tubular summits of hills 
overlooking those of the sandstone and limestone, newer trap and 
laterite formations, far above the present drainage level of the country : 
it covers all rocks from the granite to the laterite and kunker, and often 
fills up depressions and chinks in their surface. 

The purest regur is usually of a deep bluish-black colour, or greenish 
or dark greyish black. The quantity of iron it contains is not sufficient 
to account for the black colour of this soil, which may be partly attri- 
buted to the extractive or vegetable matter it contains. The regur is 
remarkably retentive of moisture ; a property to which is ascribable 
much of its fertility. During the dry season, when the crops are off the 
ground, the surface of regur, instead of presenting a sea of waving 
verdure, exhibits the black drear aspect that the valley of the Nile 
puts on under similar circumstances, and whicli powerfully reminds 
one of the regur tracts of India. Contracting by the powerful heat 
of the sun, it is divided, like the surface of dried starch, by countless 
and deep fissures, into figures usually affecting the pentagon, hexagon 
and rhomboid. While the surface for a few inches in depth is dried to 
an impalpable powder raised in clouds by the wind and darkening the 



28 GEOLOG y 

air, the lower portions of the deposit, at the depth of eight or ten feet, 
still retain their character of a hard black clay, approaching a rock, 
usually moist' and cold ; when the surface dust has a temperature of 
130°. In wet weather the surface is converted into a deep tenacious 
mud. 

The purest beds of regur contain few rolled pebljles of any kind ; 
the nodules of kunker we see imbedded have probably been formed by 
concretion from the infiltration of water charged with lime ; and it is 
only near the surface that the regur becomes intermingled with the 
recent alluvium of the surrounding country, or in its lower portions, 
where it becomes intermingled with the debris of whatever rock it 
happens to rest on, — trap and calcedonies in trappean districts ; 
granite, sandstone, pisiform iron ore and limestone, in the plutonic 
and diamond sandstone areas. It sometimes exhibits marks of 
stratification. 

That the regur of India is an aqueous deposit from waters that 
covered its surface to a vast extent, there is little doubt : but it would 
be difficult to point out at the present day the sources whence it 
derived the vegetable matter to which in great measure it owes its 
carbonaceous colour, and the rocks from the ruins of which its remain- 
ing components were washed. 

Kunker. — The calcareous deposit termed kunker^ is irregularly dis- 
tributed in overlying patches. No tract is entirely free from it, with 
the exception, it is said, of the summits of the Nilgiris. It occurs, 
however, at the height of 4,000 feet above the sea among the ranges on 
the elevated table-lands. It is most abundant in districts penetrated 
and shattered by basaltic dykes, and where metallic development is 
greatest. It is perhaps least seen in localities where laterite caps hypo- 
gene or plutonic rocks. It occurs filling, or partially filling, fissures and 
chinks in the subjacent rocks, in nodular masses and friable concretions 
in the clays and gravels above the rocks, and in irregular overlying beds, 
varying from a few inches to forty feet in thickness. It has been found 
at the depth of 102 feet below the surface of the surrounding country, 
prevails alike in granite, the hypogene schists, the diamond sandstone 
and limestone, and in the laterite : hence the springs which deposit it 
must bring up their supply of calcareous matter from sources deeper 
beneath the earth's crust than the limestone. 

The older kunker is usually of a light brownish, dirty cream, reddish 
or cineritious grey tint ; sometimes compact and massive in structure, 

* A Hindustani word .CJo but of Sanskrit extraction, signifying a nodule of lime- 
stone or pebble of any other rock. 



MODERN ALLUVIA 29 

but more usually either of a nodular, tufaceous, pisiform, botryoidal, or 
cauliflower-like form. Its interior is sometimes cancellar, or slightly 
vesicular ; but compact or concentric in the pisiform and nodular 
varieties. Its interior structure is rarely radiated. When compact it 
resembles the older travertines of Rome and Auvergne. It aggregates 
in horizontal overlying masses, usually intermingled with the soil 
without much appearance of stratification. It is broken up and 
used as a rough building stone in the bunds of tanks, walls of 
inclosures, &C., by the natives, and is universally employed to burn into 
lime. 

In the banks of rivers it is often seen concreting in stalactiform 
masses round the stems and roots of grasses, which, decaying, leave 
casts ot carbonate of lime. This lime, held in solution and suspension 
by existing streams, mingling with the fine particles of sand and ferru- 
ginous matter in suspension, sets under water like pozzolana ; and unit- 
ing the shells, gravel, sand, and pebbles in the bed and on the banks, 
forms a hard and compact conglomerate. 

Its origin may be referred to the action of springs, often thermal, 
charged with carbonic acid, bringing up lime in solution and depositing 
it as the temperature of the water gradually lowered in rising up to the 
earth's surface or in parting with their carbonic acid. 

Modern Alluvia. — Where regur does not prevail, the ordinary soils 
are distinguished by a reddish tinge, owing to the great prevalence of 
oxide of iron in the rocks of which they are, in great measure, the 
detritus. Patches of white soil occur, and are usually the consequence 
of the weathering of beds of quartz, or composed of kunker, which 
abounds so generally, and enters into the composition of almost every 
variety of soil. These white soils are characterized by sterility. In 
tracts of country shaded by eternal forests, for instance the Ghats, and 
sub-ghat belts, a dark vegetable mould prevails, — the result of the suc- 
cessive decay and reproduction of vegetation for a series of ages, under 
the stimulating alternations of excessive heat and moisture. In such 
regions, where unsheltered by forest and in exposed situations, the 
soil is either lateritic or stony according to the nature of the subjacent 
rock. 

At the bases of mountain ridges we usually find an accumulation of 
large angular blocks, composed of the same rocks as the hills down 
whose declivities they have rolled in weathering. At a greater distance 
from the base in the plain, these are succeeded by pebbles, whose 
reduced size, mineral composition, and worn angles proclaim them to 
have travelled from the same source, diminishing in bulk the further we 
recede from the mountains, until they pass, by the gradations of grit 



30 GEOLOGY 

and sand, into deposits of a rich clay or loam. Such are the gradations 
generally to be traced in the modern rock alluvia, and which strikingly 
distinguish them from the vegetable soil of the forest tracts and the 
regur, which are often seen in the state of the greatest richness and 
fineness of composition at the very bases of the hills and resting 
immediately on the solid rock. 

The alluvia brought down by the streams from the Western Ghats 
flowing easterly to the Kay of Bengal, are usually composed of silt, 
sand and gravel — detritus of the rocks over which they have passed : 
they almost always contain a considerable portion of lime derived from 
the springs which supply them, and from the limestone and kunker 
beds over which most of them flow. The alluvia of the rivers of 
the western coast are of a more carbonaceous and less calcareous 
character, owing to the greater absence of lime in the formation, and 
the dense forests and luxuriant vegetation which almost choke their 
passage. 

During the hot season, when the surface of the alluvial sand in the 
beds of the rivers and rivulets is perfectly dry, a stream of clear water 
is frequently found at various depths below them, stealing along or 
lodging in the depressions of some impervious layer of clay or rock, to 
which it has sunk through the superincumbent sand. So well is this 
fact understood by natives, that in arid, sandy tracts, where not a drop 
of water is to be seen, they will often be enabled to water whole troops 
of horse and cattle by sinking wells a few feet deep through the sands 
of apparently dried-up rivulets. 

The benefit resulting from the admixture of lime into soils consisting 
almost solely of vegetable, siliceous, or argillaceous matter, is too well 
known to be dwelt on here ; and it is a remarkable and bountiful pro- 
vision of nature in a country like Southern India, where limestone is so 
rarely seen in the rocks from which a great part of its soil is derived, 
that innumerable calcareous springs should be constantly rising through 
the bowels of the earth to impregnate its surface Avith this fertilizing 
ingredient. 

The alluvia of Southern India are remarkable for their saline nature. 
The salts by which they are impregnated are chiefly the carbonate and 
muriate of soda, which prevail so much (particularly in mining districts) 
as to cause almost perfect sterility. The carbonate appears on the sur- 
face covering extensive patches, in frost-like efflorescences, or in moist 
dark-coloured stains, arising from its deliquescence in damp weather or 
by the morning dews. Where such saline soils are most prevalent there 
will be usually a substratum of kunker, or nodules of this substance, 
mixed with the soil ; and there can be little doubt that their origin may 



MODERN ALLUVIA 31 

be referred to the numerous springs rising through the fissures or laminae 
of the subjacent rocks, some charged, as already noticed, with carbonate 
of lime, and others with muriate of soda and sulphate of lime. The 
carbonate of soda, like the natron of Egypt, is the result of a mutual 
decomposition of the muriate of soda and carbonate of lime. It may 
be as well to remark that muriate of lime is invariably found in the 
saline soils of India, which are known to the natives by the term chaulu. 
The soda soil is used by the dhobis, or washermen, to wash clothes with, 
and hence is called washermen's earth ; it is also employed by the 
natives in the manufacture of glass. 

Both the carbonate and muriate of soda are found mingled in varying 
proportions, in white efflorescences, in the beds and on the banks of 
springs and rivulets. 

Nitrous Soils. — Soils impregnated with nitre are found on and around 
the sites of old towns, villages, &c. Here a vast quantity of animal 
matter must gradually have been blended with the calcareous and vege- 
table soil : from their decomposition the elements of new combinations, 
by the agency of new affinities, are generated : — nitrogen from the 
animal, and oxygen, &c., from the vegetable matter. The nitric acid 
thus produced combines with the vegetable alkali, forming the nitrate of 
potass, while its excess, if any, combines with the lime, forming a deli- 
quescent salt, — the nitrate of lime. The affinity lime has to nitrogen 
and o.xygen materially assists the formation of the acid by their com- 
bination. The natives of India, in their rude manufactories of salt- 
petre, act upon these principles without being aware of their rationale. 
Having collected the earth from old ruins, or from places where animals 
have been long in the habit of standing, they throw it into a heap 
mingled with wood ashes, old mortar, chunam, and other village refuse ; 
and allow it to remain exposed to the sun's rays and to the night dews 
for one or two years, when it is lixiviated. The salt obtained is not very 
pure, containing either the muriate and sulphate of soda or potash, or 
nitrate and muriate of lime. 

Nitrous soils are easily recognized by the dark moist-looking patches 
which spread themselves irregularly on the surface of the ground, and 
by capillary attraction ascend walls of considerable height. They are 
more observable in the morning before the sun has had power to dissi- 
pate the dews. 

Auriferous Alluvia. — The alluvium brought down by the rivers 
flowing easterly towards the Bay of Bengal is usually silt, sand, or 
calcareous matter, — detritus, as before observed, of the rocks over which 
they pass ; while that of the rivers flowing westerly is of a more carbon- 
aceous character. Most of these alluvia are auriferous, particularly those 



32 GEOLOGY 

of the Malabar and Canara coasts, but grains of gold are also found in 
considerable abundance in the alluvial soils of Mysore. 

Betmangala lies on the eastern flank of the principal gold tract, 
which, according to Lieutenant Warren, who examined this district in 
1802, extends in a north-by-east direction from the vicinity of Budikote 
to near Ramasamudra. The gold is distributed in the form of small 
fragments and dust throughout the alluvium covering this tract. 

At Markuppam, a village about 12 miles south-west from Betman- 
gala, were some old gold mines, worked by Tipu without success. The 
two excavations at this place demonstrated the great thickness, in some 
parts, of these auriferous alluvia. They were 30 to 45 feet deep 
respectively. There can be little doubt that the auriferous black and 
white stones in these mines were fragments from the gneiss, granite and 
hornblende schist which base this auriferous tract, and constitute the 
singular ridge which runs through it in a north and south direction, 
and which may be regarded as having furnished most of the material.^ 
of the reddish alluvium on its east and west flanks, and therefore as the 
true matrix of the gold. The orange-coloured stones were caused by the 
oxidation of the iron in the mica. 

This auriferous range on the table-land of Mysore may be traced to 
the Eastern Ghats, southerly, by the hill fort of Tavuneri, to the south 
of Kaveripatnam matha in the Amboor valle}'. Two passes, however, 
break its continuity near Tavuneri. To the north it appears to 
terminate at Dasarhosahalli ; though the line of elevation, taking a 
gentle easterly curve, may be traced by the outliers of the Betarayan 
hills, Amani konda or Avani, Mulbagal, Kurudu male, Rajigundi to 
Ramasamudra in the Cuddapah collectorate, a little west of Punganur. 

Dimes. — Sand dunes are not confined to the coasts, but are seen on 
the banks of the larger rivers in the interior, as at Talkad on the 
Kave'ri. During the dry season, the beds of these rivers, deriving but 
a scanty supply of water from perennial springs, usually present large 
arid wastes of sand. These are acted upon by the prevailing westerly 
winds, which blow strongest during the months of June, July, and 
August, and raise the sand into drifts, which usually advance upon the 
cultivation in an easterly direction. The advance of these moving 
hills is usually very regular where no obstruction presents itself, such as 
high bushes, trees, hedges, <S:c., which are often planted by the natives 
purposely to arrest the progress of these invaders on their cultivated 
lands. The sand is often held together and retarded by the embraces 
of the long fibrous plants that grow up and are interwoven with its 
layers. {See account of Talkad, Vol. II.) 



33 



TRAVERSE NOTES. 
From the Bisale Ghat to Betmangala, by Captain Ncivbcld, F.R.S. 

At the western foot of the pass, and along the base of the Subrahmanya 
hill, hornblende rock containing garnets and dark-coloured mica occurs, 
with veins of a very large-grained granite composed of white quartz, red and 
white felspar, and silvery mica in very large plates : gneiss is seen on the 
sleep face of the ghat, and hornblende rock, often coated with the red clay 
and its own detritus. This formation continues to the summit of the ghat. 
At Uchchangi the formation is generally gneiss. One of the hills of this 
rock is crested by hornblende rock in large prismatic masses. Patches of 
laterite occur covering these rocks in various localities, and a few bosses 
of granite. 

Near Kenchamman Hoskote I crossed the Hemavati, one of the principal 
tributaries to the Kiiveri, in a canoe. It is about fifty paces broad, with 
steep banks of clay, silt, and sand with mica. Near the village, mammillary 
masses of gneiss project from the rod alluvial soil. This rock has here lost 
much of its quartz, and is of that variety of thick-bedded gneis.s which in a 
hand specimen might pass for granite ; the felspar is often of a reddish 
tint. Laterite is found in this vicinity a little below the surface in a soft 
sectile state. At Hassan gneiss and hornblende schist are still the preva- 
lent rocks. Talc slate with layers of a fine greenish potstone interstratified 
also occurs. The mica in the gneiss near Grama is sometimes replaced by 
talc and passes into protogine. 

After exploring the corundum pits of Gollarhalli, I passed through Chan- 
rdypatna and Bellur to Hutridurga. Granite, protogine, gneiss, talcose and 
hornblende schists, penetrated occasionally by trap dykes, constitute the 
formation, overlaid here and there by patches of laterite or kunkcr on which 
rests the surface soil. The latter is usually reddish and sandy. Some- 
times these deposits are wanting, when the substratum consists of the 
gravelly detritus of the subjacent rocks. At Belladaira a large bed of 
ferruginous quartz occurs. The mass of granite on which stands the fortress 
of Hutridurga is somewhat saddle-shaped, and runs nearly north and south ; 
it terminates abruptly at either extremity. The northern extremity, crowned 
by the citadel, is a sheer scarp of rock nearly 200 feet high ; its base is 
rugged with large precipitated masses. The granite is similar to but less 
porphyritic than that of Sdvandurga. 

From Hutridurga I proceeded to Magadi, and thence ascended the 
stupendous mass of Savandurga. The country for a considerable distance 
is wild and woody, abounding with low hills and rocks, among which a 
porphyritic granite prevails. A magnetic iron sand is found in the beds of 
almost all the rivulets. I ascended the rock from the north-east side. The 
major axis of the mass runs nearly east and west, and is crossed at right 

D * 



34 GEO LOG V 

angles by a profound lissurc, wliicli cleaves the rock from summit to Ijase 
into two distinct portions, both fortified, so as to be independent of the lower 
fort It is entirely composed of a granite, which from small-grained maybe 
seen passing into the large-grained and porphyritic varieties. Some of the 
crystals of reddish felspar on the Karidurga were nearly two inches long, 
imbedded in small-grained reddish granite. 

The principal rock at Tdvarekere is gneiss, with fragments of iron-shot 
quartz, green actinolitic quartz, felspar, fragments of hornblende schist, 
gneiss, granite and basaltic greenstone scattered over the face of the 
country, and occasionally patches of kunker. Near Bandvar I found 
diallage rock, projecting in large, angular, scabrous blocks from the top and 
sides of a low elevation. The great mass of the rock was chiefly white 
felspar and quartz. The crystals of diallage were well defined, and passed 
from dull olive-grey shades to the lively decided green of smaragdite. There 
was more quartz in this diallage rock than is seen usually in the euphotides 
of Europe ; and the external aspect of the blocks was almost trachytic in 
its roughness. Not far hence, the gneiss with which the diallage is asso- 
ciated, apparently as a large vein, loses its mica, which is replaced by minute 
silver scales of graphite. 

Gneiss is the prevalent rock about Bangalore, penetrated by dykes of 
basaltic greenstone, and occasionally by granite, as is seen near the petta 
and adjacent fields. The granite in these localities splits into the usual 
cuboidal blocks or exfoliates into globular masses. It often contains horn- 
blende in addition to mica. The gneiss strata, though waving and contorted, 
have a general north and south direction, and often contain beds of whitish 
quartz preserving a similar direction. The strata are nearly vertical. 
Approaching Bangalore from the north-west, a bed of laterite is crossed, 
forming a hill (Oyali dinne) on which stands a small pagoda. This bed 
extends northerly in the direction of Nandidroog, where laterite also occurs. 
In other situations, covering the gneiss and granite, a reddish loam is usually 
found, varying from a few inches to twenty feet in depth, containing beds of 
red clay, used in making tiles, bricks, tS:c. ; the result evidently of the 
weathering of the granite, gneiss, and hornblende rocks. A similar formation 
continues to Kolar. The gneiss is occasionally interstratified with beds of 
hornblende schist. Granite, gneiss, and hornblende are the prevailing rocks 
at Betmangala. About eight or nine miles east of this the Mysore frontier is 
crossed into South Arcot. Kunker occurs on the banks of the rivulet near 
the village, both on the surface and in a bed below the alluvial soil. 
Efflorescences of muriate of soda are also seen in the vicinity. 

From Sermo;apatam to Coorg, by the same. 

From Seringapatam my route lay westward over a stony, kunkerous, 
uneven, and rather sterile tract to the banks of the Lakshmantirtha. The 
formation at Hunsur is a micaceous gneiss with veins of quartz, and beds of 
the same mineral evidently interstratified with the layers of gneiss. These 
beds, on weathering, leave the surface-soil covered with their angular and 



TRAVERSE NOTES 35 

rust-stained fragments. Glimmering hornblende rock, veined with milky 
quartz, and a pale tlesh-coloured felspar alternate with the gneiss. The 
outgoings of two or three dykes of basaltic greenstone are passed on the 
roadside. The surface of the country from Seringapatam gradually rises as 
it approaches the Ghats. 

The country between Hunsur and the Ghats is a succession of rocky 
risings and falls of the surface, covered for the most part with reddish alluvial 
soil, over the face of which are scattered numberless angular fragments of 
the surrounding rocks ; especially white and iron-stained quartz, and occa- 
sionally kunker. Some of these alluvia have not travelled far, since we often 
find the colour of the surface-soil a true index to the nature of the rock 
beneath ; viz., dark red or coffee-coloured soil over hornblende rock and 
trap ; light red to sandy soil over gneiss and granite ; light greenish-grey 
over talc schist ; and white, or what is nearly white, over felspar and quartz 
rocks. The quartz beds, being usually harder than their neighbours, are 
written in white bas-relief characters over the face of the country. They 
never weather — like the felspars, hornblendes and micaceous rocks — into 
clay, but usually break up into fragments by imperceptible fissures, into 
which water, impregnated with iron from the surrounding weathered rocks, 
soon insinuates itself and stains the rock. At length the particles composing 
the fragments themselves lose their cohesion and break up into an angular 
gritty sand. 

At Periyapatna basaltic greenstone is seen in the bed of a nullah crossing 
the gneiss and hornblende rock, and veined with kunker. Large blocks of 
fine red granite are seen in the ruined fort walls, brought evidently from no 
great distance. The Ghat line west of Periyapatna presents a succession of 
round-backed hills and smooth knobs, which continue to Virarajendrapet in 
Coorg. Their surface is covered with dark vegetable mould, and shaded by 
a fine forest, the roots of which strike into the red loam or clay on which 
the vegetable mould rests. It produces excellent sandalwood. 



At tJic Grrsoppa Falls, by the same. 

The precipice over which the water falls affords a fine section cf gneiss 
and its associated hypogenc schists, which dip easterly and northerly away 
from the Falls at an angle of about 35°. The gneiss is composed of quartz 
and felspar, with both mica and hornblende, and alternates with micaceous, 
talcose, actinolitic, chloritic and hornblende schists, imbedding (especially 
the latter) iron pyrites. These rocks are penetrated by veins of quartz and 
felspar, and also of a fine-grained granite, composed of small grains of white 
felspar, quartz and mica. The mass of hypogene rocks has evidently been 
worn back several hundred feet by the erosion and abrasion of the cataract ; 
the softer talcose and micaceous schists have suffered most. Rock basins 
are frequent in the bed of the river, which is worn in the rock and rugged 
with water-worn rocky masses. 



36 GEOLOGY 

From J alar pci to Shikarpur {in iSSi),' by R. Bruce Footc, F.C.S. 

The results of comlsincd traverses show that the Mysore table-land is 
traversed by great bands of granitoid and schistose gneiss, the southerly 
extensions of some of the great bands recognized in the South Mahratta 
country. When the whole of this region shall have been geologically 
examined it is more than probable thnt all the bands known to the north of 
the Tungabhadra will be traced far to the south. The traverse now to be 
described shows that three great bands of schistose rock occur on the 
Mysore plateau, and that two of these are actual continuations of two of the 
great schistose bands in Dharwar District. For convenience of description 
these bands will in the sequel be referred to as the " Dharwar-Shimoga " 
and " Dambal-Chiknayakanhalli" bands. Both these bands have been 
traced across the Tungabhadra, the latter in a chain of hills running down 
southward to Chitaldroog and Chiknayakanhalli, while the former forms 
another chain of hills passing Harihar and Shimoga and stretching further 
south towards Hassan. These bands are of considerable width, the Dambal- 
Chiknayakanhaili band, which is considerably the narrower of the two, 
measuring i8 miles across where crossed by the line of section. In addition 
to their geological interest, these two bands are of importance, as within 
their limits occur several of the auriferous tracts which have of late attracted 
so much attention. The Dharwar-Shimoga band is slightly auriferous at 
its northern extremity, and streams rising on it near Bail Hongal and 
Belavadi in the Sampgaon taluq of Belgaum District used formerly to be 
washed for gold. The auriferous tract of Honnali lies within the same 
schistose band a little to the north of Shimoga. The Dambal-Chiknaya- 
kanhalli band contains the auriferous tract of the Kapputgode hills near 
Dambal, to the north of the Tungabhadra ; while south of that river, on the 
Mysore plateau, near the town of Chiknayakanhalli, are quartz reefs reported 
to be auriferous, and which have attracted the notice of several speculators, 
who have taken up land for mining purposes. 

This schistose band is seen to stretch away far to the south-south-east in 
a line of low hills, and is said to extend to Seringapatam, passing that place 
and the town of Mysore to the eastward, and then trending round to the 
south-west and continuing into south-eastern Wyndd, where it forms the 
gold-field around Devala. This tallies with Mr. King's observations in the 
Wyndd, a strong band of schistose gneiss having been shown by him to 
occur at and around Devala, in which chloritic schists occupy an important 
position. My informant as to this extension of the Dambal-Chiknayakan- 
halli band was Mr. Lavelle, the pioneer gold-prospector of the present time, 
who has traced the band from the Wyndd north to beyond Chitaldroog. I 
have no doubt but that Mr. Lavelle's observations will be fully confirmed 
when the whole of Mysore shall have been surveyed geologically. If the 
parallelism of strike continues between the southward extension of the 

Dharwar-Shimoga band and that of the Dambal-Chiknayakanhalli band, 

' Records of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XV., Part 4. 



To face page 36. 



Kolar Goldfield Jalarpet 

Junction 




JS '^ 3-9 

\ranitoid gneiss. 



SHIKARPUR 



Jotn-Bai-tliolonirw A Co .X din' 



SKETCH SECTION FROM JALARPET TO KALVARANGAN BETTA NEAR SHIKARPUR 

After R. Bruce Foote, F.G.S. 



TRAVERSE NOTES 37 

it is highly probable that tlie former will be found to constitute the auriferous 
tract said to exist in the north Wyndd. The stratigraphical relations of 
the several great bands, both granitoid and schistose, have yet to be worked 
out, for in the northern part of the great gneissic area they were found too 
obscure to be satisfactorily explained, and it remains to be seen whether 
they represent two or more great systems. Their position and relation are 
shown in the accompanying map and section. 

If the line of section be followed from south-east to north-west it will be 
seen to traverse a region of very typical granite-gneiss, extending from 
Jalarpet Junction (Madras Railway), for a distance of some 30 miles. This 
granite-gneiss tract forms the eastern edge of the great Mysore plateau, 
which is here a wild, rugged, picturesque jungle region. 

To the west the section crosses at its narrowest part the band of schistose 
rocks in which lies, a little to the north of the railway, the now well-known 
Kolar gold-field, at present a scene of energetic mining work on the lands 
taken up by a number of large Mining Companies. This schistose band, 
which will be most appropriately called the Kolar schistose band, forms an 
important synclinal trough resting on the adjacent granite-gneiss rocks. It 
is the only one of the great schistose bands whose relations to the associated 
bands of granitoid rocks have (as yet) been distinctly traced. A fuller 
account of this band with especial reference to its auriferous character will 
be given further on. {Sec p. 43.) 

On crossing this Kolar gold-field band, the section trends northerly as far 
as the Bowringpet railway station, when it bends sharp round to the west 
and continues in that direction as far as Bangalore. The very broad band 
of granitoid gneiss, which extends between the Kolar gold-field schistose 
band to the second great schistose band (the Dambal-Chiknayakanhalli 
band), forms in its eastern part an open undulating plain from which rise a 
few important rocky hills, as the Tyakal, Balery and Vakkaleri hills north of 
the railway. A number of small low table-topped hills are also to be seen 
at small distances from the railway, as the Betarayan Betta, 3J- miles north- 
east of Bowringpet railway station, the Patandur hill, 2 miles south-west by 
south of the Whitefield railway station, and the low hillock crowned by a 
mantapam about a mile north of the Maharajah's new palace at Bangalore. 
These three hillocks are capped with beds of true sedimentary lateritc under- 
laid by lithomargic clays. Of precisely the same aspect, both in form and 
colour, are the Sivasamudra, Jinnagra and Chikka Tagali hills, which lie a few 
miles north of the railway near the Whitefield and Malur stations. Identical 
in form and appearance also is a much more extensive development of 
table-topped plateaus, which are well seen from Betarayan hill, lying several 
miles to the north and covering a considerable area. The lateritc at the 
north-eastern end of the Patandur hill is distinctly conglomeratic and con- 
tains a tolerable number of well- rolled quartz pebbles. The red colour of 
the sides of these hills and plateaus, added to their sharp-cut tabular shape, 
makes them conspicuous from considerable distances. No organic remains 
were found in connection with these lateritc beds, and the number of sections 
examined was not sufiicient to enable me to form any positive opinion as to 



38 GEOLOGY 

tlicir origin, and sUll less so as to their geological age, — but there can be no 
doubt that they are the scattered outlying remains of a formerly far more 
extensive formation. 

To the north-west of Bangalore the undulation of the country increases 
considerably, and the streams run in much deeper channels, affording more 
numerous sections both of the surface soil and sub-rock. The surface of 
the country is generally covered with a thick layer of red soil, which often 
contains a large percentage of pisolitic iron (haematite) in segregational 
form. 

Thirty-two miles north-west of Bangalore the section cuts across the line 
of hills' running north and south from the Kdvdri river, a little east of the 
great Falls, up to Nidugal on the frontier of the Anantapur District. This 
line of hills culminates close to the section in the fine peak of Sivaganga, 
which attains the height of 4,559 feet above sea-level. Like many other 
groups of granitoid-gneiss hills in the south, these hills are very rocky and 
bare, and look as if they had never been covered with a real forest growth. 

The section maintains its north-westerly course up to Tumkur, beyond 
which town it turns suddenly westward and, after a course of 16 miles, 
in which remarkably few outcrops of rock are seen, meets the second great 
band of schistose rocks in the line of hills rising between Hagalvadi and 
Chiknayakanhalli. This second great band of schists is the southerly 
continuation of the Dambal-Chiknayakanhalli schist band as defined above. 
The width of this extremely well-marked schistose band, which the section 
crosses at right angles, is 18 miles. The character of the scenery is 
markedly different ; smooth, grass-grown hills, generally well rounded, with 
very few conspicuous exposures of rock, take the place of the bold rocky 
bare hill masses seen east of Tumkur. The rocks consist of hornblendic, 
chloritic and hjematitic schists cropping out at very high angles or in 
vertical beds. Several large quartz reefs occur traversing these schists, and 
one large one crosses the road some distance west of Doddiganhalli. Time 
did not allow of my doing any prospecting here, but several prospectors 
have stated that their researches were rewarded by the discovery of gold in 
appreciable quantity both in the quartz and by washing the local soils. The 
extension southward of this schist band may be traced by the eye for many 
miles, owing to the very characteristic features of the low line of heights 
which extends south in the direction of Seringapatam. That they extend 
still further south and then trend south-westward into the south-eastern part 
of the WynAd may be assumed as a fact on the strength of the information 
kindly furnished by Air. Lavelle. The contact of the schists and granitoid 
gneiss is unfortunately concealed by superficial deposits at the places where 
the section cuts across their respective boundaries ; but the impression left 
in my mind by the general appearance of the localities was that the schists 
were overlying the granitoid beds, and the same relation appeared to me to 
exist in the Dambal gold-field, as far as its v.^estern boundary is concerned. 

' The expression line of hills is used in preference to the term chain, as there is 
little continuity of high ground, the hills being mostly quite detached and separated 
in some parts by considerable spaces. 



TRAVERSE NOTES 



39 



The eastern boundary of the schist band was not traced near Dambal and 
Gadag, but further north it is completely hidden by the tremendous spread 
of cotton soil there prevailing. Passing on a little to the south of west from 
the schistose band the section runs across a granitoid-gneiss region, and 
after passing Tiptur crosses the watershed between the Kdveri and Krishna 
hydrological basins, the section trending more and more north-westerly 
along a rapid descent. It leaves the high, picturesque, granitoid hill masses 
of Hirekal Gudda and Gardangiri to the right, and beyond Banavar skirts 
the eastern boundary of the third or Dharwar-Shimoga schist band for 
several miles, but does not actually leave the granitoid rocks till it has 
passed Kadur by some six miles. The rocks of this granitoid band, which 
may for convenience be called the Mulgund- Kadur band, offer no 
speciality calling for remark. Like the hilly region running east of Tum- 
kur, the hills may preferably be described as forming a line rather than a 
chain, for they occur in numerous detached masses. 

As just mentioned, the section gets on to the third schistose band six 
miles to the north-west of Kadur, and here the schists are mostly chloritic 
of pale colour with intercalated more highly siliceous bands, ranging from 
chloritic gneiss to quartzite. To the south of the road the quartzites 
increase much in development and rise into a high ridge with a great cliffy 
scarp on the eastern face of Coancancul peak. Further west, to the south 
of the high road, rises a considerable hill of very rugged nature, which, 
when seen from a distance, presents great resemblance to a typical granitoid- 
gneiss hill. On closer approach the rock is seen to have a very coarsely 
mottled structure, which turns out to be due to the presence of enormous 
numbers of well-rounded pebbles of a granite or compact granite gneiss. 
The size of the included stones ranges in the part I examined from small 
pebbles to small boulders, all enclosed in a greenish-grey foliated chloritic 
matrix. The thickness of the conglomerate here exposed must be very 
great, as proved by the size of the hill which goes by the name of the Kal 
Droog. To the north, the beds are soon lost sight of under the local 
alluvium of the Kushi river, and they are not seen to reappear conspicuously 
in the hilly country on the north side of the valley. To the west of the great 
conglomerate beds follow more schistose beds, and, as seen on the hill slopes 
south of the road, a great series of quartzites. Near Tarikere, and to the 
north-west of it, very few exposures of rock are met with as far as Benkipur, 
but the few that do show through the thick woods which here cover every- 
thing, prove the country to be formed of schistose members of the Gneissic 
Series. About four miles north-west of Tarikere the road crosses a very small 
outcrop of typical hiumatite schist, striking in a northerly direction. A good 
deal of rock shows in the bed of the Bhadra river at and above Benkipur, 
but the forms seen are not very characteristic, and at the time of my passing 
everything was obscured by a thick layer of slimy mud left by a high fresh 
in the river. This part of the section would be very unsatisfactory were it 
not that the schistose character of the beds forming the line of hills extend- 
ing northward parallel with the valley of the Bhadra shows quite clearly the 
extension of the rocks seen south-east and east of Tarikere. Between Ben- 



40 GEOLOGY 

kipur and Shimoga very little rock of any sort is seen, but about half-way 
across the Doab, between the Tunga and Bhadra rivers, a band of fine- 
grained grey granite gneiss is crossed, while to the east and south of 
Shimoga town are several conspicuous large masses of a chloritic variety of 
granite gneiss. The exact relation of these granitoid outcrops to the great 
schist series further east I had not the opportunity of determining, and am 
not quite certain whether they represent the eastern border of another great 
granitoid band, or whether they are part only of an unimportant local band 
of granitoid rock. I am inclined to think the latter will be found the real 
condition of things when the country comes to be fully surveyed. The short 
space of time at my command prevented my making a detour to settle this 
point. Here, too, the extent and thickness of the jungle growth greatly hide 
the general surface of the country along the road, while the rainy or misty 
character of the weather tended much to obscure the appearance of hills at 
but very moderate distances. Though the exigencies of dak travelling com- 
pelled me to make the detour to Shimoga instead of following the line of 
schistose beds northward from Benkipur, I am perfectly satisfied as to the 
fact of these schists continuing northward, and joining those which cross the 
united rivers forming the Tungabhadra, a few miles below the junction of 
the Tunga and Bhadra. The country here is much freer from jungle, and 
many ridges of rock, consisting of quartzites and chlorite schists with rocks 
of intermediate character, can be traced for miles. This part of the section 
extends from the bank of the river for rather more than 20 miles, — from 
the travellers' bungalow at Holalur north-westward to the Ta\ankal-betta 
Trigonometrical Station, six miles east-by-south of Shikarpur. Along the 
12 miles of road between Shimoga and Holalur but little is seen of the 
older rocks, the road lying close to the left bank of the Tunga and Tunga- 
bhadra, and passing almost entirely over the river alluvium which at and to 
the north-east of the Holalur bungalow forms a coarse bed of rounded 
shingles, rising a considerable height above the present high flood level of 
the united rivers. 

The most striking features, both orographically and geologically, of this part 
of the Mysore country are the quartzite outcrops, which are numerous, but 
of which only the principal ones require notice. Of these the best marked, 
longest and highest culminates in the Kalva-Ranganbetta, a fine hill rising 
some 1,200 feet above the plain, and 3,388 feet above sea-level, 16 miles 
to the north of Shimoga. The out-crop of the great quartzite beds forming 
this ridge has a distinct dip of some 6o°-65° (on the average) to the north- 
east. The quartzites are underlaid by a schistose (chloritic) series, the south- 
western extension of which was not ascertained. Overlying the quartzites, 
which are generally flaggy in character (but which here and there become so 
highly charged with scales of pale green chlorite as almost to lose their 
quartzitic character, and pass into chloritic gneiss), are local beds of true 
conglomerate, — the first I have met with or heard of in the gneissic rock of 
the peninsula. The conglomerate has evidently imdergone considerable 
metamorphosis, but its real character and truly clastic origin cannot be 
doubted when carefully examined. Many of the included pebbles appear to 



HONNALI GOLD-FIELD 41 

have been fractured by the great pressure undergone, but their truly rounded 
character is quite distinct and unmistakable. The beds seen by me and 
traced for several hundred yards, are exposed a little way up the slope of 
Kalva-Ranganbctta peak, and a little to the north-west of a small, but rather 
conspicuous, pagoda, which stands in a little recess. The included pebbles 
in the conglomerate consist chiefly of quartz, a few of gneiss, and some of 
what appeared an older quartzite. A second intended visit and closer 
examination of this very interesting bed was prevented, much to my sorrow, 
by bad weather. The second in importance of the quartzite ridges has its 
eastern extremity in the bed and left bank of the first west-to-east reach of 
the Tungabhadra below the Kudali Sangam, or junction. West of the new 
high road from Shimoga to Honnali the quartzite beds rise into the Phillur 
Gudda (hill), and beyond that rise again into a considerable hill some 400 
to 500 feet high, and may be followed easily for several miles to the north-west. 
The quartzitic character is then in great measure or entirely lost by the rock 
becoming highly chloritic, and the beds can no longer be safely distinguished 
from the surrounding mass of chloritic schist. In the north-westerly part 
of this Phillur Gudda ridge several pebbly beds were observed intercalated 
between the more or less chloritic quartzite. Tiicy differed from the Kalva- 
Ranganbetta beds in being less coarse and having a more chloritic matiix, 
but had undergone about an equal amount of metamorphosis. A consider- 
able number of quartzite ridges are intercalated between Phillur Gudda 
ridge, and the southern end of the Kalva-Ranganbetta ridge, which 
terminates in the Nelli Gudda Trigonometrical Station hill, seven miles west- 
north-west of the Kudali Sangam. To these ridges may be ascribed the 
existence of the group of hills they occur in, as but for their greater durability 
and resisting power to weather action, they would certainly have been worn 
down to the low level of the purely chloritic part of the schistose band, both 
to the north-west and south-east. Unless there has been an inversion of 
the strata on a rather large scale, or faults exist which were not obvious 
during tlie rapid survey, the Kalva-Ranganbetta quartzites underlie all the 
beds to the northward of it. Another series of overlying quartzites is shown 
to the north-north-west of Kalva-Ranganbetta ; but the relation between it 
and the upper beds just described could not be determined without a much 
more close examination of the district, more especially as the space between 
the two sets of outcrops is very largely and closely covered by spreads of 
regur. The chloritic schists offer no specially interesting features, and 
they are not, as a rule, well seen, e.xcept on the slopes of the hills, the 
general face of the country being much obscured by red or l^lack soil, which, 
both of them, occur in great thickness. 

Iloniiali Gold-Jield. — One remaining point of great interest is the large 
number of important quartz veins, or reefs, which traverse the belt of 
chloritic rocks overlying the Kalva-Ranganbetta quartzites. They are the 
source of the gold occurring in the thick red soil which covers the whole 
face of the low-lying country, and which has been washed for gold, certainly 
for several generations past, by several families of Jalgars residing at 
Palavanhalli. The gold is so generally distributed through the red soil that 



42 GEOLOGY 

it is clear that many of the reefs must be auriferous, and the quantity found 
is sufficient to justify strong hopes that a profitable mining industry may be 
developed by working the richer reefs. Several of the series of reefs close 
to Devi Kop, a little village 2>\ miles east-south-east of the Kalva-Rangan- 
betta, had been carefully and deeply prospected at the time of my visit by 
Mr. Henry Prideaux, M.E., and in one case certainly with very marked 
success. The quartz in this case was found very rich in gold, which was 
visible in grains and scales scattered pretty freely through the mass. The 
quartz in many parts had a quasi-brecciated structure with films and plates 
of blue-green chlorite occurring along cracks in the mass. Near the surface 
the chlorite, with which were associated small inclusions of pyrites, had 
often weathered into a rusty-brown mass. The reef which at the time of 
my visit was regarded as the most promising, and to which the name of 
Turnbull's reef had been given, is one of a series of three that can be traced 
with some breaks for a distance of six miles nearly parallel with the great 
quartzite ridge of the Kalva-Ranganbetta, the true strike of the reef being 
from N. 40° W. to S. 40° E. Another important set of three reefs having 
the same strike occurs about half a mile north of the first series, but they 
are not visible for such a long distance, their north-western course being 
covered by the thick spread of cotton soil. To the south-east they, or at 
least one of them, can be traced across theNyamti nullah, which divides the 
gold-field in two. Out-crops of vein-quartz in a line with a south-easterly 
extension of this set of reefs are to be seen north and east of Palavanhalli. 
Numerous other quartz reefs having the same strike occur in the south- 
eastern half of the gold-field, £'.^., a set of four, rather more than a mile north- 
east of Palavanhalli, and several others to the north of Dasarhalli and south 
of Kuntra. A few reefs were also noticed whose strike was different from 
those above referred to. They represent two other systems of fissures, the 
one running N. 5° E. to S. S"" W. ; the other, W. 5° N. to E. 5° S. Several 
of both these series are of very promising appearance, the " back of the 
lode " bearing considerable resemblance to that of Turnbull's reef. The 
greater number of the reefs in the Honnali gold-field are well-marked 
examples of these fissure veins. 

During my stay at Devi Kop, I watched the results of many washings 
both of crushed quartz and of the red soil taken from many localities and 
various levels. The great majority were highly satisfactory. The Jalgars, 
or local gold-washers, seeni to be a fairly prosperous set of men, so their 
earnings must be fairly remunerative. They confine their attention, 
as far as I could ascertain, pretty generally to the high-lying red soil banks, 
between Devi Kop and the Nyamti nullah. The head Jalgar, a very 
intelligent old man and dexterous gold-washer, informed me that the best 
day's work he had ever done was the finding of a small pocket in the gneiss 
which contained about Rs. 80 of gold in small grains and scales. I 
gathered from him that he had not found anything beyond the size of a 
''pepite." The position of these auriferous banks near Devi Kop would 
admit of hydraulic mining over a considerable area by a system of dams and 
channels to bring water from the Nyamti nullah, but the question of the 



KOLAR GOLD-FIELD 43 

profitableness of such an undertaking could only be decided by an expert 
after careful examination and more numerous trials by washing. 

Kolar Gold-Jield. — The schistose band, which bears within its limits the 
Kolar gold-field, forms an elongated synclinal fold which in parts rises 
somewhat over the general level of the surrounding granitoid country. The 
dip of the rocks forming the basement of the schistose band, and therefore 
tlic boundaries of the synclinal fold, is easily traced on both sides ; not so, 
however, is the dip of the uppermost members of the group, for all the beds 
exposed in the centre of the band have been much altered by great pressure, 
which has superinduced an irregular slaty cleavage to a great extent. This, 
combined with extensive minute jointing, has so greatly altered the original 
texture of the rocks that they have assumed to a very great extent a highly 
trappoid appearance. The lines of bedding are completely obliterated, and 
it was impossible to decide from the sections I saw whether the central axis 
of the synclinal represents one great acute fold, or a series of minor ones in 
small Vandykes. The great petrological similarity of the strata forming the 
upper (central) part of the synclinal makes the decipherment of this 
difficulty all the greater. The sections I saw in the several shafts being 
sunk at tlie time of my visit threw no light on the subject ; it is possible, 
however, that a closer study of these sections would go far to enable this 
point to be decided. 

The succession of formations seen from west to east, after leaving 
General Beresford's bungalow at Ajipalli on the road from Bowringpet rail- 
way station to the gold-field, is micaceous gneiss (resting on the granitoid 
gneiss), chloritic gneiss, micaceous schist, ha^matitic quartzite, and 
chloritic schist, on which rests a great thickness of hornblendic schists, 
which, as just mentioned, are highly altered, and have their planes 
of bedding almost entirely effaced by the pressure and crumpling they have 
undergone. The eastern side of the fold shows near the village of Urigam 
well-bedded schists — dipping west from 50° to 60" and resting finally on the 
granitoid rocks. The western side of the gold-field is very clearly demar- 
cated by a well-marked ridge of hitmatitic quartzite which culminates in 
the Walagamada Trigonometrical Station hill, from the top of which the 
majority of the mines can be seen. The bedding is often vertical and 
highly contorted in places. The texture varies from highly jaspideous 
quartzite to a schisty sandstone. The hard jaspideous variety generally 
shows distinct laminic of brown haematite, alternating with purely siliceous 
laminit, generally of white or whitish-drab colour. It is only here and there, 
and over very trifling areas, that the ferruginous element ever assumes 
the character of red haematite. The beauty of the " Vandykes " and 
complicated crumpling and brecciations of this rock in the Walagamada 
Konda is very remarkable. The thickness of the hicmatitic band is very 
considerable, and it forms the most striking feature of the western side of 
the gold-field. On the eastern side of the gold-field the haematite quartzite 
is much less well developed and exposed, excepting in the south-eastern 
part of the gold-field where it occurs in thick beds forming the main mass of 
the Yerra Konda Trignomctrical Station hill. Here the dip is about 60° 



44 GEOLOGY 

westerly, and affords one of llie clearest proofs of the synclinal character of the 
schist band. To the southward the hicmatitic beds appear to coalesce, the 
synclinal being pinched together, but I had no opportunity of following up 
the eastern boundary of the schistose band. The western boundary is a 
very conspicuous feature, a bold rocky ridge running up into the lofty 
Malapan Betta peak, the highest summit in this part of the country. 
South of Malapan IJetta the hiematitic beds appear to lose their importance 
and no longer form the most striking feature of the schistose band, and 
micaceous and chloritic beds abound. Owing to the great extent of jungle 
and the rugged character of the country, their general relations were not to 
be made out completely in the short time at my disposal. The beds run 
south into the Salem District, and probably occupy the valley lying east and 
north-east of Krishnagiri and, not improbably, extend on towards and past 
Darampuri. A subsidiary ridge of lower elevation, which branches off from 
the western side of Malapan Betta westward and then trends south-west 
and finally south-south-west, also consists of schistose beds of similar 
character, amongst which a hi'ematitic quartzite is the most conspicuous. 
The relation of these latter beds to the Kolar gold-field synclinal fold is 
quite problematical, but it is very probable that several important faults 
have caused great dislocation of the strata first along the boundaries of 
the main synclinal fold. The stratigraphy of the several spurs radiating 
from Malapan Konda is very complicated and interesting and well worthy 
of careful consideration. 

The auriferous quartz reefs which have attracted so much attention lie in 
the broader part of the synclinal fold north of the railway. None of any 
importance were seen by me in the tract south of Malapan Betta. The 
intermediate tract I had no opportunity of examining closely, but I did not 
hear of the existence there of any of interest or importance. The reefs 
make very little show on the surface as a rule ; in many cases, indeed, the 
whole back of the reef, or lodes, has been removed during the mining opera- 
tions of the old native miners, whose workings were on a rather large scale 
considering the means they had at command. Much also of the surface is 
masked by scrub jungle, or by a thick coating of soil, often a local black 
humus. The reefs are so very inconspicuous that I have not attempted to 
show them on the map. Their run is north and south with a few degrees 
variation either east or west. The hade of the reefs is westerly in most 
cases, as far as they have been tested by the shafts sunk. The angle they 
make with the horizon is a very high one, on the average not less than from 
85° to 87°. Much has been said about the reefs in the Kolar not being true 
fissure veins, but I was unable to find any good reason for promulgating this 
view, and several iiiining engineers of high standing and great experience, 
as Messrs. Bell Davies, Raynor St. Stephen, and other practical miners well 
acquainted with the locality, have no hesitation about calling them '' fissure 
veins " or " lodes." The quartz composing the reefs is a bluish or greyish- 
black diaphanous or semi-diaphanous rock, and remarkably free from 
sulphides (pyrites, galena, &c.) of any kind. The gold found is very pure 
and of good colour. Several washings of crushed vein stuff were made in 



TRAVERSE NOTES 45 

my presence at the Utigam and Kolar mines with really satisfactory results, 
the quantity of gold obtained being very appreciable. The samples operated 
on were not picked ones. 

The principal new mines now in progress formaline stretching from south 
to north on the eastern side of an imaginary axis drawn along the centre of 
the synclinal fold, and this line coincides with that followed by the '*' old 
men," many of whose abandoned workings are being extended to greater 
depth than they had the power of attaining to without steam-pumping 
machinery. 

Numerous large dykes of dioritic trap are met with traversing the gneissic 
rocks of this region. One set of them runs north and south with a variation 
of about 5° east or west. The other runs nearly east and west. The 
presence of these dykes will offer formidable obstacles to the mining works 
in some places, and it will probably be found that the intrusion of these great 
igneous masses has added considerably to the metamorphism of the schistose 
beds along the lines they traverse. As already mentioned, the schists are most 
highly altered along the central axis of the synclinal fold, and the largest of 
the north and south dykes shows a very little to the east of the synclinal axis. 

The Kolar schistose band is the only one as to the exact stratigraphical 
relation of which to the granitoid gneiss any positively conclusive evidence 
had been obtained ; but there is reason to believe that at least three of the 
schistose bands to the westward of it, viz., those of Sundur, near Bellary, of 
Dambal-Chiknayakanhalli, and of Dharwar-Shimoga, are similarly super- 
imposed on the granitoid rocks. Whether the superposition is a conform- 
able or an unconformable one, is a point that has yet to be determined by 
further investigation ; at the Kolar gold-field, however, the relation between 
the schistose synclinal and the underlying granite gneiss appears to be one 
of distinct conformity. The Hospet end of the Sundur schist band certainly 
presents every appearance of being the acute extremity of a synclinal basin. 
The south-eastern extension of this band is as yet unknown, but there is 
good reason to expect a considerable extension of it to the south-eastward of 
Bellary. 

The remarkable length of the Dambal-Chiknayakanhalli and Dharwar- 
.Shimoga bands precludes the idea that they can be each a simple synclinal 
fold, rather may they be expected to prove a succession of synclinal and 
anticlinal in dchelon, with their contact boundaries not unfrequently coin- 
ciding with faults. The geographical position of these great bands confirms 
and amplifies the evidences to the fact which 1 specially pointed out in my 
Memoir' on the East Coast from latitude 15° N. northward to Masulipatam, 
that the Peninsula of India had been greatly affected by tremendous lateral 
forces acting mainly from east to west and thrusting up the gneissic rocks 
into huge folds. These great foldings have undergone extensive denudation, 
and the softer schistose beds especially have been entirely removed from 
large tracts of country which they must have formerly covered, if any of the 
bands now remaining really represent (as they in all probability do) portions 
of once continuous formations. 

' Memoirs, " Geological Survey of India," \'ul. X\T. 



46 GEOLOGY 

The schistose hands having only been mapped at different points, their 
general width, as shown on the annexed sketch map, is only hypothetical, 
and it is very possible that at intermediate points they may either spread out 
•or narrow considerably. Their relation to the schistose gneissics of the 
Carnatic Proper has yet to be made clear, and it is not at all unlikely that a 
third subdivision will have to be recognized in the crystalline rocks of South 
India — a subdivision which will include the rocks of a character intermediate 
between the typically schistose rocks and the typically granitoid rocks of 
Mysore and the South Mahratta country, namely, the massive gneissics of 
the Carnatic, in which the ferruginous beds are magnetic, not ha^matitic. 



From Report on Auriferous Tracts in Mysore [in 1887), f>y the same. 

These tracts lie widely scattered, but may be conveniently grouped (for 
the purpose of description) in three groups corresponding to the three 
principal divisions of the great Auriferous rock series' which traverses 
Mysore in great bands in a generally north-north-westerly direction, and 
forms such important features in the geological structure of the table-land. 
These three groups may be appropriately termed the Central, the West- 
Central, and the IVestern groups ; the Eastern group being formed by the 
Kolar gold-field {see above, p. 43). The central group belongs to the 
Dambal-Chiknayakanhalli band of my former paper : and the western group 
to the Dharwar-Shimoga band of the same. The west-central group 
includes a number of small outlying strips of schistose rocks, some, if not 
all, of which are of the same geological age as the great schist bands lying 
to the east and west. 

{Xanjangi'id to Jagali'ir.) 

Central Group. — The rocks seen at Holgere, 7 miles south-west of Nan- 
jangiid, are very gneissic in their general aspect, but they are very badly 
seen on the top of the ridge where the old workings are situated, and it is 
possible the hornblendic beds there occurring may belong to a very narrow 
strip of the auriferous schists (Dharwars), an outlier of them in fact, and 
probably faulted in along the strike of the underlying gneissic rocks. The 

1 Rocks of the same geological age as the auriferous rocks of Mysore occur largely 
in other parts of South India, both north, east, and south-west of Mysore, and to 
classify such a widely-developed system, it was necessary to have a collective name 
for them. The name of Dhaiivar rocks was therefore given by me to these rocks, 
on the usual principles of geological nomenclature, namely, for their having been 
first recognized as a separate system after the study of their representatives in the 
Collect orate of Dharwar (Bombay Presidency), where they occur ver)- largely and 
typically, and underlie the important town of Dharwar. The use of this name in this 
report has, however, been deprecated on the plea that it might lead to confusion in 
the minds of readers unfamiliar with South Indian geography. I have therefore 
avoided using it wherever this was possible, but geologists who may peruse my report 
will understand that the alternative terms which I have used, "Auriferous" or 
" Schistose rock series," really mean formations of the Dharwar age. 



AURIFEROUS TRACTS 47 

quartz reefs licre seen are small and coincide in direction with the nortli-to- 
soiith strike of the country rock, or deviate a httle (3°-5") to the east-of- 
north. The quartz exposed in the principal old working is highly ferrugin- 
ous, being full of scales and films of impure haematite (specular iron), but 
contains no pyrites or other sulphides. North of the old working the reef 
is cut off by r. broad band of a highly decomposed granite rock containing 
much pink felspar. The country between Holgere and Mysore is composed 
of micaceous gneiss with a few bands of hornblendic schist and potstone, 
with no quartz reefs of any importance, and the small show of gold obtained 
by Mr. Lavelle from washings in the Kadkole nullahs must have come from 
veins too small in size to be worth mining. I could not trace any connec- 
tion between the Holgere auriferous rocks and the great Chiknayakanhalli 
band, the former must therefore be considered as a mere small outlier, if 
they are really of Dharwar age. The line of high ground commencing on 
the north bank of the Kdveri river near Shettihalli consists mainly of 
quartzites and hornblendic schists belonging to the Dharwar series and 
forming a narrow band (from 2 to 3 miles in width), which extends north- 
ward, widening very gradually as it is followed up. A number of small 
quartz veins occurs running in the direction of the strike of the beds, here 
nearly due north and south. The quartz is very white and "hungry-look- 
ing," and very few minerals are to be found in it. Those noted were blackish- 
greenish mica and a white decomposing felspar, the former not infrequently 
in distinct six-sided prisms. These included minerals show but very rarely 
and at wide intervals, but here and there become numerous and convert the 
vein into a true granite, a rock in which gold very rarely occurs in any 
quantity. Fragments of good-looking blue quartz were noticed scattered 
about ihe surface to the south-west of Siddapur village, but on tracing them 
up to their true source they were found to be derived from typical granite 
veins. As far as surface indications go, this tract appears a very unpromis- 
ing one, and quite undeserving of consideration when so many really pro- 
mising tracts remain as yet unprospected. The course of the extension of 
the Chiknayakanhalli schist band south of the Kdvcri is yet undetermined, 
but as seen from the top of the Karigatta Trigonometrical Station, it appears 
to go southward, passing east of the granitoid mass of Chamundi hill ; 
unfortunately want of time prevented my determining this point, which is one 
of considerable interest geologically. Hoimabctta is a hill lying a mile and 
a half south by west of Ndgamangala, and forming the central part of an 
outlier of the auriferous series on the western side of the Chiknayakanhalli 
band. The mass of the hill consists of hornblendic schist overlaid by 
chloritic schists. A washing made in the small nullah draining the north- 
east face of the hill just within the eastern boundary of the auriferous rocks 
gave a good show of gold of medium size and excellent colour. I noted one 
large bluish quartz reef on the high north spur of the hill which struck me 
as worthy of being tested in depth. At present merely the back of the lode 
is exposed, and but to a very small depth, so it is impossible to test the 
real quality of the stone. This reef runs through the chloritic schists. 
Giri^i:;uiida forms the northern extremity of the outlier, and shows chloritic 



48 GEOLOGY 

and lioinljlcndic schists, extensions of the Ilonnabetta beds. The rid^e of 
the Giiigudda is traversed by a pale green dioritic (?) trap. The north end 
of the outher dies away rapidly northward of Girigudda, and disappears 
northward of the nullah. A careful washing in the small stream draining 
the east side of Girigudda, at a spot about a quarter of a mile eastward of 
the hill, gave a fair show of medium fine gold. The presence of trap rock 
among the schists is a favourable indication for the presence of gold. The 
whole outlier, which extends 7 miles from Girigudda southward to Maradipur, 
with a width of a little more th m a mile across Honnabetta hill, is deserving 
of very close examination, and the reefs of being prospected to some depth. 
About 2 miles north of Girigudda and within the gneissic area lies Hnlmnn- 
dibcfta, a low hill on the ridge of which occur several fine reefs which are 
being tested in depth by the Mysore Concessions Gold Company. The 
question— Are the quartz reefs occurring in the gneissic rock profitably 
auriferous as well as those occurring in the Dharwar series ? (to which all the 
important gold-yielding reefs at present known unquestionably belong) — 
will doubtless ere long receive a definite answer from the results of these 
deep prospectings, and I sincerely trust it will be a very favourable one, as, 
if so, many other reefs of great size and beauty running through the gneissic 
series may probably also prove to be gold-yielding. Much of the quartz 
turned out at Hulmandibetta is good-looking, bluish in colour, contains 
some pyrites, and encourages the hope that it will prove auriferous at 
depths not reached by superficial weather action. Haliibetta, a large hill 
some three miles north of Nagamangala, has been reported auriferous, but the 
statement is highly improbable, the whole mass of the hill except the southern- 
most extremity consisting of granitic gneiss. A band of schistose rock extends 
from the southern spurs southward for a couple of miles till hidden by the 
alluvium of the Ndgamangala stream. Large reefs of quartz were noted on 
either side of Haltibetta ; they are very unpromising, the quartz being very 
white and free from included minerals. In miners' parlance, they are very 
hungry-looking. At Kalijiganhalli the old native workings occupy a con- 
siderable area on which old dumps stood thickly, showing that a large 
amount of washing had been done. A very good show of gold was obtained 
by washing the dumps, but no reefs, large enough to be worth mining, could 
be found. Further south, however, fine reefs are to be seen pretty 
numerously, running north and south in the strike of the chloritic schists.' 
A narrow strip of very typical auriferous schists crosses the road a mile and 
a half west of the bridge over the Shimsha on the Hassan-Bangalore road, 
and may be seen stretching away north and south to a considerable distance, 
a strongly-marked bed of jaspery haematite quartzite forming a distinct ridge. 
This strip of schists is faulted against the gneiss along its eastern boundary 
about half a mile to the east. The noithern extension of the schists crosses 
the Shimsha and is lost sight of in the broken ground east of the river, but the 
southern extension can be traced to the high ground north of Ankanhalli. 

1 The strike of the schistose beds here lends considerably eastward, and they 
appear to extend towards Kunigal, instead of running nearly due south down to 
Nagamangala, as I had formerly assumed on imperfect information. 



AURIFEROUS TRACTS 49 

South of Ankanhalli the highly characteristic ha;matite band reappears and 
forms a marked feature, continuing for several miles till almost abreast of 
the Narasimhaswami pagoda hill. The western boundary of this band of 
Dharvvars is in all probability also a faulted one, several hundred feet in 
thickness of chloritic and hornblendic schists lying between the haematite 
bed and the gneiss near Nalkundi, while to the north, where the haematite 
bed crosses the Bangalore road {\h miles west of the Yediyur bridge), it 
shows close up to the gneiss. The schistose rocks appear to spread out over 
a considerable area eastward of the Narasimhaswami hills, and ma)' very 
likely reach as far as the line of granite-gneiss hills east of the Shimsha. A 
line of considerable hills, showing all the characteristics of the auriferous 
series, is seen to stretch southward for many miles some little distance west 
of Kunigal. These rocks, if really belonging to the auriferous series, repre- 
sent the beds deflected eastward or south-eastward near Kadaba, and as such 
are worth examination. The old workings on Honnebagi hill, near Chik- 
nayakanhalli, lie a few yards down the eastern slope and just within the 
boundary of the auriferous schist area, the crest of the ridge being formed 
by gneiss on which rests the basement bed of the schist series, which is here 
a quartzite. The old workings, which consist only of small shallow pits sur- 
rounded by dumps, extend southward for nearly a mile along the watershed, 
and at the south end of the area they occupy have followed some east and 
west reefs across the boundary into the gneissic area. The reefs are white 
and " hungry-looking," and the old miners seem to have found no great 
encouragement, for they have made no extensive excavations. The principal 
reef on Honnebagi hill runs N. i5°-20° W., but trends southward ; at the 
south end of the ridge it is about 5 feet thick. Overlying the basement 
quartzite on Honnebagi hill comes a series of schists, horneblendic, chloritic 
and micaceous, which occupy the space up to the foot of the hills, where they 
are overlaid by argillites and a great thickness of ha:niatitic schists, locally 
very rich in iron, and giving rise to the formation of sub-aerial breccias 
which assume a lateritic appearance from the action of percolating rain- 
water. Quartz reefs of rather more promising appearance than those on 
Honnebagi hill occur here and there in the schists, and are probably the 
source of the gold obtained from the streams draining this tract. A set of 
washings made l<y me near the north-east end of Honnebagi hill in the main 
nullah and its branches gave very fair shows of medium fine gold of ex- 
cellent colour. Tests by crushing and washing quartz from two of the trial 
pits recently sunk on Honnebagi hill gave no show, but this is not conclusive, 
the quartz being from too small a depth and the quantity of quartz to be 
treated by hand-crushing being necessarily insufficient for a reliable test. 
The reefs at Kadckalgiidda, z\ miles N.N.E. of Chiknayakanhalli, like 
those at Honnebagi, all lie within the schistose area though very near the 
boundary, and like them run in the strike of the country rock, which is 
here very nearly north-west-by-north. The quartz is white in colour, but a 
good deal iron-shot along the lines of fracture. I could find no enclosed 
minerals except a little chlorite and obtained no show from crushings, but a 
careful washing made in the stream draining the north-west end of Kadc- 

i; 



50 GEOLOGY 

kal<^nulda gave a fair show of rather fine c(okl. On the slope of the liill above 
the great reef just mentioned arc chlorite schists and an associated flow of 
dioritic trap, both favourable to the presence of gold, and other reefs of 
better quality may very likely be hidden under the talus which covers the 
slope very generally. A washing of material collected in the nullah draining 
the north-east side of Kadekalgudda gave no results. A washing of the 
alluvial deposit on the banks of the nullah draining the eastern side of the 
main ridge east of Chiknayakanhalli, close to the Dodrampur temple, gave 
but a poor show of gold ; this, however, is not surprising, as the east flank of 
the range shows but very few quartz reefs of any size ; the country is almost 
entirely formed of grey crystalline limestones with very numerous siliceous 
partings in the form of quartzite, which here and there attain to the magni- 
tude of distinct beds. The limestones are much contorted, so their true 
thickness will be hard to ascertain by measurement, but they are certainly 
several hundred feet in thickness, and cover a large area stretching away to 
the south-east. A small show of similar limestones shows on the western 
side of the range just opposite the mouth of the gorge east of Ballenhalli 
which cuts so deeply into the hills. The range here unquestionably forms 
a synclinal fold, the axis of which corresponds with the crest of the range. 
To the north the limestones are replaced by schists and argillites as above 
mentioned, while to the south the tract at foot of the range is so thickly 
covered with deep red soil derived from decomposition of the hsematitic 
schists on the summit of the ridge that the low-lying schists are completely 
obscured, for the red soil, which contains local conglomerate and breccia 
beds, is not cut through by the streams now flowing westward from the hills. 
A washing which I had made in the nullah south of Sondenhalli gave a 
small show of gold. 

A great gap intervenes between the Chiknayakanhalli gold-field and the 
next metalliferous locality in the central group — Belligudda copper mine, close 
to Chitaldroog. The intervening area is geologically a terra incognita, in 
which a geological survey would assuredly find mineral tracts of impor- 
tance. Bclligitdda is a fine hill lying some 5 miles south-east of Chitaldroog, 
on the western flank of which are four large open pits and several small 
shafts and short galleries sunk in clay schist in order to extract copper ore, 
which occurred there in the form of malachite or green carbonate. From 
the nature of the workings the ore appears to have occurred in pockets, not 
in a regular lode, and the pockets to have been worked out bodily, nothing 
remaining but thin films of a very poor earthy form of the carbonate 
deposited in the joints and cracks of the schists. A fev.- fragments of 
quartz with small particles of rich malachite were picked out of the attle 
tipped down the very steep side of the hill, but no trace of any other ore or 
metal could be discovered after verj' careful search. Koteinaradi 2iX\d Ciidda 
RangavvanhalH are two auriferous localities at the south-east and north- 
east extremities, respectively, of a tract of schistose rocks lying between 3 
and 4 miles north of Chitaldroog. The country rock is varied, consisting 
of dark chloritic schists overlaid by beds of quartzite, and these again by 
various schists. Quartz reefs are rare, or else covered up by the extensive 



AURIFEROUS TRACTS 51 

talus, but the washings made were very successful and yielded gold in 
relatively large quantity and excellent quality. Taking all things into con- 
sideration, this tract is one of the most promising I have seen. The 
quantity of gold obtained was so good that the country north-west and 
north of the little Kotemaradi, and again to the north-east of Guddarangav- 
vanhalli deserves to be most closely tested by costeaning and deep 
prospecting. The nature of the country rock, chlorite-schist with associated 
diorites, is all that can be desired, and there are no ostensible difficulties of 
a nature likely to hinder the opening up of mines, should rich reefs be dis- 
covered on further prospecting. About 14 miles north of Guddarangavvan- 
halli lies the small hill known as Hotwamaradi, to the west and south-west 
of which are several fine reefs and numerous small veins of quartz cropping 
up through the soil which hides the country rock. The hill consists of a 
drab or yellowish gritty schist, passing into argillite in parts. Immediately 
east of the hill is an outcrop of gneiss, the eastern extension of which is 
masked by a great spread of cotton soil. The dip of the schists is easterly, 
but at a very high angle, and the two rock series are separated by a fault 
boundary. A careful washing in the little gully which drains the south and 
west sides of the hill gave a very fine show of coarse gold, which can only 
have come from a very little distance and is doubtless derived from one or 
more of the reefs above referred to. The gully which flows round the 
eastern side of the hill cuts some 12 to 15 feet into the decomposing gneiss, 
and has exposed several small reefs of very blue quartz. This spot had 
evidently been a favourite place of resort of the Jalagars in olden times, for 
two very large dumps are to be seen on the western bank of the gully. 
A washing of material collected in the bottom and banks of tiie gully gave 
a very fair show of fine gold ; this may, however, have come from reefs lying 
within the schist area, as the gully rises within it on the north side of the 
hill. With regard to this gold-yielding locality, I quite agree with Mr. 
Lavelle that it is one of very great promise. Honnamaradi is the most 
northerly auriferous locality at present known in the Chiknayakanhalli band, 
which continues its north-north-westerly course for a few miles beyond 
Jagalur, and then crosses the frontier into the Bcllary District. The 
Chiknayakanhalli schist band sends off a north-westerly branch some 6 or 
7 miles south-west of Chitaldroog. This branch also continues its course 
into the Bellary country, and passes close east of the well-known 
Uchchangi-droog, a very conspicuous granite-gneiss hill crowned by a large 
fort. .Several groups of hills rise out of this band, one of them occurring to 
the north of the high road leading from Chitaldroog to Davangere. At the 
north end of this latter group lies the village of Halekal, after which this 
end of the hills is called the Halekalgudda, and between it and the village 
lies the auriferous locality known by the same name. The Halekalgudda 
hills consist of thick and gritty, locally conglomeratic quartzites, with 
siliceous, micaceous and chloritic schists. No reef or veins show on the 
northern slope above the gold-washing place, but an area of several acres 
shows very numerous old dumps, showing that the surface soil had been 
largely turned over. The washing made here gave a good show of 

E 2 



52 GEOLOGY 

moderately coarse }^old. Sonic fine larj^e good-looking reefs, running in the 
strike of the rock, occur, crossing the footpath which leads from Halekal to 
(lummanur, 3 miles south-west-by-south. West of these is a great flow of 
dioritic trap intercalated between the upper and lower schists. Though not 
so promising as Kotemaradi and Honnamaradi, Halekalgudda is yet 
deserving of the closest investigation. 

{Mysore to Biviavar.) 

West-Cetitral Group. — As already stated, the auriferous localities 
included in this group occur all in small detached strips or patches of 
schistose rock scattered over the older gneissic series. They are really 
remnants of the once apparently continuous spread of schistose (Dharwar) 
rocks which covered great part of the southern half of the Peninsula. After 
this great series of rocks had been deposited, the crust of the earth on 
which they rested imderwent tremendous lateral pressure, and they were 
crumpled into a series of great foldings running up and down the Peninsula 
in parallel directions. After this they were exposed to tremendous erosive 
forces and in parts entirely worn away, and the underlying old gneissic rocks 
again laid bare. The small outliers are then nothing more than little 
patches and strips of the younger schists which have escaped erosion either 
from the superior durability of the rocks composing them, or from their 
having been let down by fractures of the earth's crust, technically known 
as faults, to a lower level than surrounding parts of the gneiss, and thus 
escaped in some measure the full action of the eroding agencies, whatever 
they may have been. The most southerly of these outliers in this group 
is the little gold-field of So?tnahalH, 18 miles south-west of Mysore. 
The shape of this auriferous tract is roughly a narrow oval, forming the 
flattish top of a low rise running north and south. The workings extend for 
about ih miles north and south. I estimated the length of the oval at 
3 miles, but this may possibly be an under-estimate, as the country is 
much obscured by low jungle, especially to the south and east. The country 
rock consists of chloritic and other schists overlying very trappoid horn- 
blendic rock. The old workings are numerous but none of very great size, 
and all seem of great age, judging by the highly- weathered condition of the 
rocks exposed in their sides. All of them are much overgrown by jungle, 
and one has to cut one's way through a dense tangle to get right into them. 
The shape of the working appears in every case to have been due to the 
run of the reefs worked upon. These reefs very probably contained visible 
gold, which induced the old miners to take out all the quartz they could 
raise, leaving only here and there masses which they considered unpro- 
ductive or, in a few cases, too large and massive to be dealt with 
conveniently. In many cases, both here and elsewhere, the whole lode has 
been removed as far as can be seen, and the nature of the lode can only be 
guessed at from fragments of c^uartz left behind, and it is at present 
impossible to form any opinion about the value of the property. 
If the old pits were completely cleared out, the lode would in most 
cases be rediscovered and could then be properly tested in depth. 



AURIFEROUS TRACTS 53 

Scrapings of the sides of all the principal workings south of Sonnahalli 
were washed and gave at best but very small shows of gold. 
Half a mile east of Sonnahalli village, a very large reef is exposed on the 
top of the ridge ; it does not look very promising, but seems worth deeper 
prospecting than it has yet undergone. I did not attempt a crushing, as 1 
could not find any good-looking stone from a sufficient depth. This reef 
has a run of N. 5° W. At the foot of the north-eastern slope of the Sonna- 
halli betta or hill, a large reef has been exposed and to some extent worked 
out by a series of pits of moderate size. The quartz is white and barren- 
looking. The line of old workings at Kariinaddanhalli commences about 
i;V miles east of Sonnahalli betta, and extends northward for about a mile. 
They have been sunk in pale pink gneissic-looking felspathic schists, but 
associated with them are some hornblendic and ferruginous strata which bear 
a fair resemblance to characteristic members of the auriferous schist 
series, and they may, provisionally at least, be regarded as belonging to it. 
They form a narrow strip about 2 miles in length on the flat top of a ridge 
east of Karimaddanhalli village. The rock forming the casing of the reefs 
is generally chloritic near the contact, but not so at the distance of a yard or 
two. In the most southerly working the reef is not seen in the pit at 
present and seems to have been entirely removed, but tliis cannot be 
decidetl unless the pit were entirely cleared of jungle and debris. P'ragments 
of quartz remaining are white but much iron-stained, and contain a few 
scattered small cubes of pyrites. The great working east of Karimaddan- 
halli village has been excavated along the course of a large reef running 
very nearly due east and west. In colour this reef is very white, but parts 
are much iron-stained, and it contains many cavities both cubical and 
irregular in shape, the latter containing a decomposed chloritic mineral and 
limonite. A i&w cubes of pyrites were noticed and some specks of 
arsenical pyrites. About \ mile to the northward of the great working 
commences a line of smaller old works which extend right down to the 
south end of the Gijayanvaddargudi tank, a good mile to the north. Many 
reefs arc exposed running in various directions north, south, cast, west, 
north-east, south-west, &c. &c., and all are white and hungry-looking, and 
include hardly any accessory minerals, small chloritic and hicmatitic 
inclusions excepted. Some of the reefs are large, from 6' to 8' or 10' thick. 
The country rock here consists of hornblendic and chloritic schists, the 
latter in very small quantity. Many washings were made and gold obtained 
in nearly every case, but only in small quantity. Not a vestige of free gold 
was seen in any of the reefs, either here or anywhere else. If it existed, 
the old miners were very careful to remove every atom of the gold-bearing 
cjuartz. About '\ of a mile north-east-by-east of Nadapaiilialli is a line of 
old workings of limited extent, sunk in pale greenish-brown chloritic schist. 
From the southern working, a fair-sized pit, the u hole of the reef has been 
removed. In the more northerly workings, some shallow pits and a long 
shallow trench, a good-sized quartz reef is exposed to the depth (at present) 
of 3 or 4 feet at the utmost. The quartz is white, but shows a fair number 
of cavities tilled with earthy linionite, probably derived from the dccompo- 



54 GEOLOGY 

silion of enclosures of cliloritir minerals. Pyrites is very rare, occurring 
only in very minute cubes or species. Bright spangles and films of red 
hicmatite arc common. Several washings were made from scrapings of the 
pit sides, and in each case resulted in a small show of rich-coloured gold. 
This concludes the survey of this group south of the Kdveri. 

The well-known Bcllibcffa and its environs contain a considerable number 
of large and well-defined reefs, to which a large amount of attention had 
been paid by the old native miners. Bellibetta, or the silver hill, is the 
highest of a group of moderate-sized hills rising on an outlier of the auriferous 
series, rather more than 20 miles N.W. of Seringapatam, and 3^ S.W. of 
Krishnar.-ijpct. The principal old workings are situated on the northern spur of 
BeHibetta, and consist of several large pits and a variety of smaller ones, with 
several small shafts and passages. Some are a good deal obstructed by jungle 
growth and all to a great extent choked up with d(^bris, which makes it quite 
impossible to be certain as to the depth they were carried to. Dumps are 
numerous but not proportionate in extent to the size of the workings, so it is 
probable that much of the auriferous quartz was carried away to be reduced 
to powder elsewhere. The mass of Bellibetta consists of chloritic schist, the 
beds of which dip westward at a high angle, the strike being slightly west-of- 
north. They show considerable contortion. They are underlaid to the east by 
a bed of very coarse steatitic schist, on which the village of Katargatta stands. 
The run of the majority of the reefs is a little west-of-north, but one or two run 
east and west. To the south-west of Katargatta village is a very large reef of 
pale blue and white quartz v/hich extends north-westward up to the slope and 
appears to join the set of reefs on top of the northern spur of Bellibetta in 
which the great workings have been carried on, but a considerable space 
between them is covered up by debris and talus at present and the con- 
nection cannot be proved positively. No workings have been made along 
the lower part of this great reef, but to the south and south-west of it I 
noticed a large number of small workings and dumps. A not very important 
series of old shallow works with dumps occurs on the ridge north of 
Bejiibetta, and here washings gave a very poor show of gold. A large and well- 
marked reef forms the crest of this ridge, but it is very white and hungry- 
looking and contains no enclosures but a very little chlorite. The country 
rock is a curiously felted fibrous hornblende schist, with a small admix- 
ture of chlorite. A few hundred yards to the south-west, in the jungle on 
the left bank of the stream flowing into the little Katargatta tank, a bare 
sheet of very light-coloured rocks, apparentl}' a quartzite, is exposed, on which 
are many score of small saucer-shaped holes, evidently made by pounding 
the quartz to reduce it. None of the " mullers " or hammers used in the 
process were found here. Half a mile north of Katargatta Aillage lie some 
important quartz reefs and a large number of old workings. The reefs form 
the edge of a ledge formed by the eastern ridge of the auriferous rocks, 
Bellibetta being the western ridge rising out of the outlier. The reefs, which 
are very large and well-marked, consist of pale blue and bluish-white quartz. 
I saw no indications of any recent deep prospecting along these reefs, the 
eastern of which is exposed for nearly a mile and the western for about j 



AURIFEROUS TRACTS 55 

mile. About ^ of a mile to the northward of these great reefs is a Hne of old 
workings. They are mostly large trenches, so greatly filled up with soil and 
grass that no signs of any reef can be made out. They present every 
appearance of great age. The countrj^ rock is also almost entirely masked 
by soil and vegetation ; when seen, it consisted of a talcose hornblende 
schist. Very little quartz is seen lying about, and it looks as if the lodes had 
been extracted bodily. I cannot confirm Mr. Lavelle's asserted discovery of 
silver ore on Bellibetta, having been unable to find any sort or kind of 
argentiferous mineral there ; still there can be no doubt that it is a gold- 
field of very great promise and deserving of the closest examination by deep 
prospecting on an ample scale. The great reef on Bellibetta, if proved 
sufficiently auriferous, could easily be mined to considerable depth by 
simple quarrying, and for this reason among others I think Dewan 
Purniah's want of success in mining for silver here was due to the want of 
ore rather than any other cause. Very near the northern e.xtremity of the 
Bellibetta outlier is a small group of small shallow pits and dumps. They 
lie on both sides of the Mysore-Hassan road, about 5 of a mile north-west 
of Pura. Two small reefs were noted, but neither of them looked promising, 
they being white and hungry. The country rock east of the road is a re- 
markable hornblende schist, which shows a very pretty felting of the fibre 
in stellate points with curved radiations. North of the Bellibetta outlier 
comes a tract of micaceous granite-gneiss, with some hornblende schist 
bands and occasional trap-dykes extending up to and beyond the famous 
Jain temple of S'ravan Belgola, and some four miles further north-east, 
where what appears to be a tiny outlier of the auriferous rocks 
shows close to the little village of Kempinkote in Channarayapatna 
taluq. The Kempinkote workings consist of one huge pit close 
to the village, a small pit about 300 yards to the south-east, and 
three or four small shallow excavations a mile to the north-east. The 
great pit, which is by far the largest excavation of the kind I hav-e 
seen in India, is dug out of hornblendic and steatitic schists, a good 
deal contorted but having a general strike to the northward. Not a 
trace of any reef is visible in situ, and but very few lumps of quartz remain 
in the pit. This may very likely be explicable by the fact that it contained 
free gold, and that every good-looking bit was carried off long ago to be 
crushed elsewhere. I examined every bit of quartz I could see, but had not 
the good fortune to find any free gold. A washing of the scrapings of the 
side near a small exposure of the steatitic scliist gave a very rich show of 
gold in proportion to the quantity of stuff washed. The gold was very fine- 
grained and of excellent colour. A washing at the small pit to the south- 
east gave a very poor result. The country rock here is also a steatitic schist 
very similar to that of the big pit. A few small lenticular masses nf bluish- 
white quartz occur on the east side of the second pit, but are too short to 
be regarded as true reefs. The small excavations lying to the north-east of 
Kempinkote have been made in chloritic schist abounding with small cubical 
cavities full of reddish limonite. It is impossible to offer any positive 
opinion as to the Kempinkote gold prospects, no reef being visible in the 



S6 GEOLOGY 

great pit. The latter should be cleared out to see whether the reef has been 
entirely worked out or not. The length and width of the great pit is so 
great that it is quite possible the old miners really descended to a great 
depth before stopped by water or other difliculties they could not compass 
with their limited mechanical appliances. The great size of the old work- 
ing shows, however, that the old miners found the place worth their atten- 
tion for a long period. Overlying the chloritic schist which forms the main 
mass of the low rise south-east of Nuggihalli is a thin bed of ha^matitic 
schist, the debris from which forms a wide-spread talus. This iron-strewn 
knoll appears to be the southern termination of the Tagadur-betta outlier, 
unless the auriferous rocks make a considerable sweep to the west, for the 
rocks along the direct path from Kempinkote to Nuggihalli belong to the 
gneiss. To the northward the hiematite band thickens considerably, and 
may be traced for nearly a mile, and may very likely represent the great iron 
beds which form the crest of Tagadurbelta itself. The rock shown in the 
quarry about i| miles N.N.E. of Nuggihalli is of doubtful geological age, 
and is separated from the Tagadurbetta band of the auriferous schists by 
a band nearly 2 miles in width of granite gneiss. The workings described 
by Mr. Lavelle as occurring one mile north of the village, were not seen by 
me, nor are any indications of them given on his maps. Two pits I was 
taken to at about | to f of a mile W. and N.W. by W. of Nuggihalli, appear to 
me to have been quarries for rubble stone, not excavations made for any 
mining purposes, for no signs appear either of reefs or dumps in either case. 
They are situated just within the western boundary of the schist outlier, 
and lie near the path leading from Nuggihalli to Virupdkshipur. A mile 
and a quarter N.N.W., and just at the head of the valley running north-east 
from the Tagadurbetta hill, begins a set of old workings which occur at 
intervals through the scrub jungle for rather more than half a mile. The 
workings are all very shallow and look as if they had been early abandoned. 
The reefs seen run in the strike of the country rock, which bends about from 
north and south to north-west and back to north again. None of the reefs 
here are of any length or great thickness. The quartz they consist of is 
white and hungry-looking, and the washings obtained were not encouraging 
in quantity, though not so small as to make me condemn this gold-field as 
imworthy of further attention, for the country rock, chloritic schists with 
intercalated hsmatitic bands, is favourable to the occurrence of gold. The 
crest of Tagadurbetta consists of two good-sized beds of massive ha^matitic 
rock, which are one source of the great haematitic talus which covers the 
eastern slope of the ridge. The southern extension of these beds is very 
soon masked by surface deposits, but to the north they extend about a mile 
as low but conspicuous mural outcrops. How much further they extend I 
could not say, but it is not all improbable they may run considerably further, 
or even join the iI/rt//^«/i«/// outlier, 8 miles to the N.N.W. These work- 
ings lie a mile south of the high road leading from Hassan to Tiptur, and 
about 10 miles south-west of the latter town No reef is seen in connection 
with the large pit, nor is the country rock exposed just here, but close by it 
consists of hornblendic schist underlying a green micaceous gneissoid schist, 



AURIFEROUS TRACTS 57 

and fragments of true quartzite \vcre observed lying about in some quantity, 
confirming the Dharwar age of these beds. A moderate show of gold was 
obtained by washing. A little to the northward of the pit is a large reef of 
rather good-looking bluish-white mottled quartz. The reef shows for nearly 
100 yards, and is from 12 to 15 feet thick on the surface. The quartz shows 
no included minerals, but testing in depth might very probably show good 
results. The schistose rocks seem to stop near Mallenhalli, and only gneissic 
rocks were noted between the village and the ne.xt auriferous \oc■^X\\.y,Jalga- 
ran/ialii, 35 miles N.W. by N. This consists of a small and rather shallow 
pit with a number of date-palms growing in and around it. No reef is seen 
traversing the pit, on the east side of which is an outcrop of the stellately 
felted hornblende rock seen at the Pura workings at the north end of the 
Bcllibetta outlier. A wash of scrapings from the side of the pit gave a fair 
show of fine gold, sufficient to recommend that it be more fully prospected 
and tested than has as yet been done. The Belgiimba auriferous rocks are, 
I believe, the northerly extension of the beds seen at Jalgaranhalli, but time 
did not allow of my examining the intermediate tract of country, and I 
visited the Belgumba tract from the north. This group of old workings lies 
7 miles south-east of Arsikere, and i.^ miles south of the 99th milestone on the 
Bangalore-Shimoga road. The highest point of ground due south of the 
99th mile is the northern extremity of the Belgumba outlier of the auriferous 
rocks ; the southern end, as above explained, forming to all appearance the 
Jalgaranhalli auriferous patch. The workings, with one exception, lie along 
the westerly slope of a low ridge extending S.S.E. from the high pointi just 
referred to. The strike of the schist beds is as nearly as possible S.S.E., 
and they occupy a band about \ a mile in width abreast of the workings ; 
further south the band seems to widen out. A large but generally white and 
hungry-looking reef runs along the ridge on its western slope just below the 
summit, and another similar one crests a knoll a little to the south of the 
most southerly pit. They run parallel with the strike of the chloritic and 
liornblendic schists forming the country rock. The northern reef shows 
bluish colour in parts. The considerable size of the old workings 
is the only evidence in favour of their having been productive. They are 
much obscured by rubbish, and in their present state it is impossible to say 
whether or not the reefs they were worked on continue in depth. The 
prospects of future success at this place are not very encouraging. The 
country northward from the Trigonometrical Station hill up to and beyond 
the Shimoga road is all gneissic. At Gollarhalli, about 6 miles to the 
south-west of Belgumba, is a very large old working, in shape like a very 
rude horse-shoe, opening northward. The depth of the working is nowhere 
i;rcat, and at the southern part of the curve very shallow. The curve encloses 
a few small detached workings of no interest or importance. Dumps occur 
])rctty numerously all along the sides of the horse-shoe, but no reefs are 
visible in any part of the workings except at the southern apex, where a 
large but very ill-defined reef of bluish-white colour shows up for a few yards ; 
but it is very easy to overlook it, as it is greatly obscured by rubbish. A 
' Tills point is crowned l;y ii Trigononielrical Station, 2,982 feet above sea-level. 



58 GEOLOGY 

very barren-looking reef of massive white quartz occurs some little distance 
north of the western branch of the horse-shoe. Neither of these reefs has 
been tested to any depth. This outlier of the auriferous rocks, if such rocks 
they are, is a very small one, and gneissic rocks occur all around at very 
small distances. Very little is seen of the country rock except at the 
eastern end of the works, where an immensely tough hornblendic rock with 
a soapy steatitic weathered surface occurs. Small outcrops of hornblendic 
schist peep up here and there in the workings. The washings that I had 
made at the western extremity gave only a small show of gold, but from 
scrapings in the deepest part of the eastern arm of the working I got a very 
fair show. The locality appears to me to be deserving of closer prospecting 
than it has yet undergone. Three and a half miles south-south-west of 
Arsikere are the old Yellavari workings, which lie in the low ground half a 
mile or so east of the village, and are excavated in hornblendic schist with 
intercalated bands of chlorite schist, which I refer but doubtfully to the 
auriferous system. The quartz seen is bluish-greyish-white in colour, very 
saccharoid in texture, and much iron-stained in part from the decomposition 
of included specks of haematite. Specks of powdery kaolin occur, but no 
visible gold or any sulphides. The reef lies between bands of micaceous 
and hornblendic bands of gneiss on the east and west respectively. A 
washing from the casing of the reef gave a very small show of gold. I feel 
justified in recommending further testings and a search for the reef, which 
will probably be re-discovered if the working is cleared out to the bottom. 
Whether there is any connection between the Yellavari and GoUarhalli 
patches of auriferous rock I cannot say ; the country is too jungly, and the 
rocks at both places seen in such very small outcrops that the eye can only 
follow them for a few yards. I noted no sign of any extension of the 
schists northward or north-westward past Arsikere. Karadihalli is the last 
of the auriferous localities included in the west-central group. The work- 
ings lie on the north and south-east slopes of a low ridge, the centre of 
which is formed by a small granite gneiss hill, locally called the Chotnare 
Maradi, around the base of which lie beds of steatite and hornblendic rock 
of doubtful age, geologically speaking. As to reefs, only one small one 
was noted near the southern set of pits, and this is a white and hungry- 
looking one running for some 60 paces N. 5° W. Northward of the 
Chotnare Maradi are two large reefs deserving of further examination. The 
first, which lies due north of the hill, runs north and south, the second, which 
shows much more conspicuously, lies a couple of hundred yards further 
north-east and runs N. 20" W. The great wealth in gold which Mr. Lavelle 
ascribes to this part of the country has, I think, yet to be proven. The 
auriferous tracts already known are very small in extent, and, as far as surface 
study of them goes, they do not appear to be of the highest class. 

( Tar ike re to Ddvangere) 

Western Group. — No old workings or unworked auriferous localities were 
brought to my notice in the southern part of the western band, but since 



AURIFEROUS TRACTS 59 

the completion of my tour I have seen a statement' that a vast number of 
old workings occur all over the hills to the north-west of Halebid. These 
old workings should certainly be looked up, both on geological and 
economic grounds. The western group is numerically far poorer in 
auriferous localities than either of the others, and they are scattered widely 
apart. The sands of several of the small streams running down from the 
hills west of the village of Chiranhalli in Tarikere taluq are auriferous. A 
washing in the stream flowing through the little tank known as the 
Huggisiddankatte gave a good show of rather coarse gold. A very fair 
show was next obtained at the junction of the same stream with another 
coming in from the north, and a small show from the bed of the northern 
stream, which is crossed by a good-sized quartz reef running N.N.E. This 
was the only reef seen, but other reefs doubtless occur among the hills west 
of the Huggisiddankatte. The country rock consists of steatitic and very 
pale chloritic schists, full of cubical crystals of pyrites, some of which are 
replaced by pseudomorphs in limonite, and others are quite fresh and bright. 
Well-shaped octohedra of magnetic iron are also to be found in the schists. 
The geological features are all favourable to the occurrence of gold, and the 
locality is worthy of very careful prospecting. At Malcbcnniir, the sands 
of the little stream which falls into the Komaranhalli tank next beyond the 
ridge underlying the south end of the tank bund are auriferous, and from 
a washing I made here I obtained a very good show of coarse-grained gold 
of excellent colour. The little stream drains the western slope of the ridge 
for about a quarter of a mile, and its whole catchment basin must be less 
than 100 acres. The greater part of this consists of chloritic schists which 
in their upper part contain many lamina? and small nests of crystalline 
limestone. The chloritic schists are underlaid by trap, to all appearance a 
contemporaneous flow. This trap extends westward far beyond the basin 
of the small stream. To the east the chlorite schist is overlaid by a 
h;umatitic quartzite bed of considerable thickness, beyond which I did not 
follow up the series. No reefs are to be seen within the basin of the little 
stream, but many small veins of blue quartz occur traversing the chlorite 
schist and also the overlying hiematite bed. Some of the larger of these veins 
on top of the ridge have an east-to-west run. The western slope ought to 
be very closely tested by costeaning in order to ascertain the source of the 
gold dust found in the stream. Trenches carried through the talus-covered 
parts of the slope may also be tried in order to find, if possible, any larger 
reefs. As already stated, a trap formation occupies the bottom of the valley 
west of the auriferous stream. This trap is much obscured by soil and talus, 
and the sequence of the rocks is not to be made out near the road. Where 
the ground begins to rise westward, and rocks crop out, is a quartzite so much 
altered by crushing and weathering that it has in parts assumed quite a 
gneissoid appearance. Underlying this comes a thick band of dark schist, 
chiefly argillitic, and this in its turn is underlaid by a great thickness ot pale 
green and grey schists, chlorito-micaceous, in variable character. A few 

' In an cxliauslivo work on the Occurrence anil Extraction of Ciolcl, by .\. Ci. 
Lock. 



6o GEOLOGY 

beds of quartzite are intercalated here and there, and many very irregular 
veins of white and pale bluish quartz are to be seen traversing the schists. 
Gold occurs at Anckonda, a little over half a mile X.L. of Davajigere 
travellers' bungalow, in form of dust obtained by washing the red gritty soil 
lying against the rock, which here forms a ridge rising only 20 feet (if as 
much) over the surrounding country. The rock is a brecciated quartz run, 
not an ordinary reef. Runs such as these are common in many parts of the 
gneiss in the Ceded Districts and elsewhere, but I have never met with one 
within the auriferous (I)harwar) series, nor have I ever come across such a 
brecciated quartz rock that had been regarded as auriferous by the old 
miners and mined as such. A washing of the red soil exposed in the 
shallow bed of a small stream falling into the Anekonda tank, a few hundred 
yards further south, also yielded a small show of gold. The source of this 
gold I believe to lie in the high ground to the south. 

The elevated tract of the auriferous rocks of which the Bababudan moun- 
tains form the centre is one well deserving great attention both from the 
geologist and the mining prospector, it being an area of great disturbance, 
the rocks being greatly contorted on a large scale, and on the north and 
south sides at least of the area much cut up by great faults. Regions of 
great disturbance are in many cases extra rich in minerals, and it is very 
likely that such may be the case here. It is only of late years, owing to the 
extension of coffee-planting, that this mountain region has become accessible. 
Before that it was covered by vast impenetrable forests which hid every- 
thing. These are now penetrable in many directions, and the modern pros- 
pector has opportunities which did not exist before. The eastern part of 
the mountain tract culminating in the Bababudan mountains consists of 
huge flows of trap-rock (diorite) with intercalated beds of dark argillitic 
schists capped by quartzites and haematites, which two latter form the 
summit of the Bababudan mass. Mr. Lavelle mentions magnetic iron ore 
and " chrome " (presumiably chromic iron) from the Bababudans, but un- 
fortunately does not give any localities, so it was impossible to inquire 
further into their occurrence. The chromic iron would be valuable if found 
in good quantity and easily mined. The most southerly of the auriferous 
localities in the western set is Sitladainaradi, a small hill 2 miles south-east 
of Tarikere. The hill consists of chloritic schist in highly contorted beds. 
The great white reef on top of the hill participates in the contortions, and is 
bent into a very remarkable flat sigmoid curve. This and the other reefs 
occurring on the north side of the hill are \ ery white and hungry-looking. 
The only enclosures in the quartz I noted, after careful search, were small 
spangles with rich green chlorite. There were no sulphides, nor any other 
mineral, the chlorite excepted. The indications of the Suladamaradi rocks 
are anything but favourable, and the old miners evidently thought so too, 
for there are no signs of old workings. On the left bank of the Bhadra 
river, 13 miles south- east of Shimoga, on washing in the rain gully draining 
the south side of Ho7i7ichatti\\\\\{Tx\g. Station \ I obtained a very good 
show of moderately coarse gold. The mass of the hill consists of chloritic 
schist having a N.N.W. strike, and the beds may be seen extending for 



AURIFEROUS TRACTS 6i 

miles in that direction, after which they trend X.E. Several large reefs are 
to be seen running N.N.W., or in the line of the strike of the country rock. 
Their only apparent fault is their great whiteness. No workings are seen on 
the south side of the hill, but on ascending the Honnehattimaradi on its 
eastern side, I came upon several unknown old pits and one shaft, which 
from their bearing had evidently been sunk to follow one of the reefs. The 
workings had evidently been continued to some depth, and were therefore in 
all probability fairly remunerative. Honnehatti appears to me to deserve 
very marked attention from earnest prospectors. Palava7ihallt : — This well- 
known auriferous tract, which with the adjacent Kudrikonda tract con- 
stitutes the Honnali gold-field, was first visited by me in 1881 and its 
geology very carefully worked out and reported on (see above, p. 41). 
My opinion oi the Kudrikonda tract was published in the paper just referred 
to. I believe my geological inferences to have been correct, and that the 
temporary non-success of the mine has been due mainly to want of capital 
wherewith to push on the works in depth. So long as sufificient quartz was 
raised to keep the stamps at full work, the mine paid its expenses. Should 
more capital be raised and working be resumed, I fully expect the yield of 
gold will improve in depth, as has been the case in so many deep mines in 
Australia. Without having the plans to refer to, and the mine itself being 
full of water owing to the stoppage of the works, and therefore inaccessible, 
I could not form any opinion as to the merits or demerits of the plan of 
work which had prevailed, but I cannot help thinking that if a new engine 
of sufficient power be provided to keep the mastery over the great volume 
of water flowing through the mine, it will soon be possible to sink an ex- 
ploratory shaft to find the lode, which has been thrown by a fault in the 
country rock. It would be a great mistake to abandon further work without 
having made an earnest search for the missing lode, as from the structure of 
the country it is very unlikely that the throw of the fault can be a great 
one. 

Noji-Mctallic ^ fin era is. 

The pure gold-prospecting work left me no leisure to devote to any non- 
metallic minerals, excepting such as actually fell in my way. 

Emery. — Near Nadapanhalli a ie\y small masses of dirty brown rock, 
measuring less than 2 cubic yards in the aggregate, are seen by the side of 
a field road. There are no signs of any working, so I suppose only loose 
pieces were taken away to test its commercial value, which cannot be great. 
The emery is very impure and of poor quality, and with good corundum 
obtainable in quantity in various other parts of the country is not deserving 
of any attention. 

Asbestos. — Only one asbestos-yielding locality came under my notice, to 
the west of BeUibetta. The matrix rock in which the asbestos really occurs 
is not seen in the little pit from which the stone had been dug. The surface 
of the country just here consists of reddish kankar underlying red soil. 
The asbestos I saw had been included in the kankar, having apparently been 
weathered out from its original matrix, whatc\er that may ha\e been. The 



62 GEOLOGY 

show of asbestos at the i)it was very small and of inferior qiiahty. The 
lar},^est pieces showed a coarse fibre, 4 to 5 indies long, cream-coloured, and 
of dull lustre. I only noticed one piece with fine silky fibre and silvery- 
white colour. In the present condition of the pit, it is impossible to form 
an opinion as to the capabilities of the place. 

Kaolin. — Kaolin is mentioned by Air. Lavelle as occurring in several 
places and of good quality and colour, but he does not state whether it is 
available in large quantities. To be of real value commercially it must be 
of the highest degree of purity and free from all iron-mould or stain. To 
raise it on a large scale requires the presence on the spot of a large supply of 
perfectly liinpidiuater, with which to work the rock by hydraulic sluicing, and 
facilities for the construction of large settling pits, which must be protected 
from the influence of ferruginous dust of any kind. In Europe, china clay 
works are found to pay only where the industry can be carried out on a really 
large scale. I have never yet seen in India a place combining the two most 
essential requirements for a successful industry, namely, a large develop- 
ment of kaolinized granite and a sufficient supply of limpid water. The 
limpidity of the water is a sine qua non for success. There is no demand 
for large quantities of kaolin in India, and speculators would do well to 
make sure before starting such an industry in India that they could find a 
profitable market for their produce in Europe or elsewhere. 

Marble. — I noticed a good bed of grey crystalline limestone running north 
and south across one of the gullies near the main gold pit at Holgere. The 
limestone lies half way down the slope to the Holgere tank, and is of good 
quality, and would be a useful stone for decorative and monumental 
sculpture. Immense quantities of grey crystalline limestone, divided by 
partings and small beds of quartzite, occur on the east side of the main 
ridge lying between Chiknayakanhalli and Dod-Rampura. The limestones 
are several hundred feet thick and deserve to be prospected, for they may 
very likely contain beds of other colour than grey which would be valuable 
in sculpture. 

Granite. — .A. very beautiful variety of granite gneiss, eminently fitted for 
cutting and polishing on a large scale, forms the mass of Chotnaremaradi in 
the little Karadihalli gold-field, two miles east of Banavar. The rock is 
remarkably free from joints, and monoliths of great size could easily be 
quarried. It is by far the handsomest granite I have seen in Mysore. 

Porphyry. — A great dyke of beautiful porphyry traverses the hills east of 
the Karigatta temple overlooking Seringapatam. The porphyry, which is of 
warm brown or chocolate colour, includes many crystals of lighter coloured 
felspar and dark crystals of hornblende. The stone would take a very high 
polish, and for decorative purposes of high class, such as vases, panels and 
bases for busts and tazzas, etc., it is unequalled in South India, and deserving 
of all attention. If well polished it fully equals many of the highly prized 
antique porphyries. The dyke is of great thickness and runs for fully a 
mile, so is practically inexhaustible. Blocks of very large size could be 
raised, and, from the situation of the dyke on the sides of two steep hills, it 
would be very easy to open up large quarries if needful. 



Kii lapiir^ 









V' 



^Pant 



iiJblpatam 









Jtumoa 



../^ 



^'^uidvaP-, 



Mtrttth<r of' thf KH.shna 



J \ 



iGaAtif 



^h„,„i,,„„,,.,ii, 









\' 



;>-" 









\jc.A., 



NeJjore 






Duila. 



UChitUK 



.A 



,' I \PHhcat 






/. 






IRAS 

'Uavartun 



Cannan*} 



i^ g>/ 



'^^S 



Ssilem 



.i^ 



Calic 



"OotScoiiiuiiH. 



jfCannbatDre 



Tonarul 
GEOLOGICAL MAP 



After R. D. Oldham (ochmi'>^ 



Idndii 



^ Tiuchiiiopolv 



i ^TlCiidjialOT-i" 



7hantpu-har 



Tinnt OiJi/TUTV 



REFtRENCt TO COLOURINO \\l L\ '^ 

Recent and Subrecent -^/'/'/"W\ ^ 

Deccan tra^ 

Cretaceous 



I Upper Gondwana 

' Upper (Vindhyan) )_ Older 
j Lower (Kadapa) j'Palxozoic 

I I Transition Systems 

i Jj CrystaUine,(Gneis8, Granite &c.) 






'~r<n\itii'oiTii 



■/ 



Cape 'omorlii 



-^Jiz-, 




METEOROLOGY 

The Hindus divide the year into six seasons. Of these the first, 
vasaitta ritu or spring, commences with the opening of the Hindu year 
in March. It is the season of love and pleasure, and is a favourite 
theme of Indian bards. The weather is serene and clear, the farmer's 
occupations are mostly over, and he has time to celebrate the yearly 
festivals of his gods and the marriages of his kinsfolk. The mango is 
then covered with blossom, and the landscape is gay with the beautiful 
and sweet-scented flowers of the kakkc or Indian laburnum. The 
southerly breezes that blow during the night are the voluptuous zephyrs 
of this vernal season. The grishiiia ritu, literally sweating season, is 
the second. It is the hottest part of the year, the sun being nearly 
vertical. The dust of the arid fields is frequently carried up in small 
whirlwinds, forming what are c^iWed pisdchis or devils. Nightly illumina- 
tions of the ghats and hills are seen, the result either of spontaneous 
combustion from the friction of bamboos against each other, or of a 
spark blown into the long withered grass which covers the slopes. The 
heat is intense and the air often still and stagnant. The sunset sky 
glows with the most fervid tints. It is the time of cyclones. Thunder- 
clouds suddenly gather, and — preceded by storms of dust, which sweep 
impetuously over the surface of the ground, obscuring the view for 
miles, — the rain, accompanied with vivid flashes of lightning, close 
followed by startling claps of thunder, descends in large and distant 
drops, often mixed with hail. These short-lived tempests prelude the 
grateful bursting of the monsoon, and introduce the varsha rifii or rainy 
season. The south-west monsoon blows steadily during this period 
and should bring with it abundance of rain. The rivers are swollen and 
sometimes impassable for days. Hie face of nature is clad in green and 
the ploughed fields receive the precious seed. The s'arad ritu or 
autumn next succeeds, during which the sun being again vertical in his 
southern declination but shedding a moderate heat, the fruits of the 
earth ripen. This season closes with the change of the monsoon, which 
is marked by the loudest thunder aud heaviest rain of the year, the wind 
settling steadily in the north-east. The largest tanks are often filled in 
a few hours and a store of water obtained that will last over the succeed- 
ing dry months. The hemauta ritu or winter next sets in, with chilly foggy 
morp.ings and bright sunny days. The fields are reaped and the grain 
stacked. The s'is'ira ritu or cold season concludes the circle of the 
year. Piercing north-east winds dry up all trace of moisture, and clouds 



64 METEOROLOGY 

of dust arise from every movement over the thirsty ground. 'J'lie skin 
is parched and feverish. I3ut the larger trees put forth new leaves or 
cover themselves with a mass of gorgeous blossom. 

The year in Mysore may, however, with sufficient accuracy be divided, 
according to another Hindu system as old as the Vedas, into three 
seasons — the rainy, the cold, and the hot. The first commences with 
the bursting of the south-west monsoon, at the end of May or early in 
June, and continues with some interval in August or September to the 
middle of November, closing with the heavy rains of the north-east 
monsoon. Tt is followed by the cold season, which is generally entirely 
free from rain, and lasts till the end of February. The hot season then 
sets in, towards the beginning of March, and increases in intensity to 
the end of May, with occasional relief from thunder-storms. 

The close of the rainy season in November is marked by dense fogs 
which prevail all over the country during December and January. 
They begin about three in the morning and last till seven, when they 
are dispersed by the heat of the sun. But in some parts fogs or rather 
mists follow the earlier rains. Thus about Chitaldroog from August to 
October the hills are obscured till nearly ten in the forenoon. 

The temperature is the most equable during the rainy months, the 
range of the thermometer at Bangalore at that season being between 64° 
and 84". In the cold season the mercury falls there as low as 51° in 
the early morning, and sometimes rises to 80° during the day. The 
minimum and maximum in the shade during the hottest months are 
about 66° and 91°, or in extreme seasons 96". The observations 
registered in the several Districts are given in Vol. II. 

Situated midway between the eastern and western coasts, Mysore 
shares in both monsoons, the south-west and the north-east. The rainfall 
ranges from 200 inches or more^ a year in the Western Ghat regions, to 
little more than 10 inches in the north centre. But these are extremes 
that apply only to limited areas. The excessive rain of the ]\Ialnad 
rapidly diminishes eastwards, and from 30 to 36 inches may be accepted 
as the general average for the greater part of the country. The least 
quantity of rain falls throughout the tracts lying north-east from the Baba 
Budan range along both banks of the Vedavati or Hagari to the 
Chitaldroog frontier of the Province. Compared with the rest of the 
country this may be termed a rainless district, and the scanty fall is 
attributed, no doubt correctly, to the influence of the towering mass of 
the Baba Budan chain intercepting the moisture with which the south- 
west monsoon wind is charged. 

1 Mr. R. H. Elliot mentions that no less than 291 '53 inches fell between April and 
the end of September (1893) at a cardamom plantation on the crests of the ghats. 



RAINS 



65 



The annual rainfall may be conveniently distributed into four periods, 
namely : — 

The cold weather rains ... ... December to March. 

The hot weather rains ... ... April and May. 

The south-west monsoon ... ... June to September. 

The north-east monsoon ... ... October and November. 

The cold weather rains are insignificant, scanty in quantity, and not 
much needed for the standing crops. But they are useful in keeping 
up the pasture supply of the country. The /lot iveather rains (some- 
times called mango showers) are of the accidental kind ; heavy short 
storms from the east. They are very important to successful agriculture, 
as a copious fall replenishes the tanks and enables the cultivators to 
prepare the land for the following south-ivest moisoon rains. These are 
perhaps the most essential for the country, which, on account of its 
general dryness, requires the steady drizzling and persevering rains of 
this season to make the soil productive. The north-east monsoon rains 
are especially important for filling the tanks and providing a store of 
water that may last over the rainless months. 

The following averages for each District have been calculated for each 
season, based on the registered fall in the various taluqs in inches and 
cents for twenty-four years, from 1870 to 1893 :— 





Cold 


Hot 


s.w. 


N.E. 


Annual 
Average. 


District. 


Weather. 


Weather. 


Monsoon. 


Monsoon. 




Dec— Mar. 


Apr. — May. 


June— Sept. 


Oct.— Nov. 


Bangalore 


1-32 


4-80 


15-64 


7-88 


29-64 


Kolar 


I -08 


3-69 


13-53 


7-06 


25-36 


Tumkiir 


0-85 


4-38 


13-66 


6-69 


25-58 


Mysore 


1-63 


6-98 


IO-2I 


8-36 


27-18 


Hassan 


1-32 


6-42 


19-37 


8-15 


35-26 


Shimoga . 


I -03 


5-58 


48-96 


7-50 


63-07 


Kadur .... 


I "29 


6-29 


43-96 


9-39 


60-93 


Chitaklroog 


i-io 


372 


10-40 


6-69 


21-91 


Average for the Province 


I '20 


5-23 


21-96 


772 


36-11 



There seems to be a periodicity in the rain-fall, particularly well 
marked at Tumkur, which is situated at an equal distance from either 
coast and between the eastern and western mountain systems. A refer- 
ence to the observations there recorded will show that for a considerable 
period every sixth year was one of abundant rain. This rule is not 
exhibited with equal precision in the register of other Districts. But 
there seems to be a general impression that about one year in five is a 

F 



66 METEOROLOGY 

good season for rain. And this accords to some extent with scientific 
discoveries ; for a connection or correspondence has been traced between 
the terrestrial rainfall and the solar spots which gives a period of five 
and six, or of eleven, years during which the mutual variation is more 
or less constant.^ 

A special department has now (1893) been formed for meteorology 
in Mysore, with a well-equipped Observatory at Bangalore, where 
reports will in future be received from 151 rain-gauge stations. 
But meanwhile the following information from Mr. H. F. Blanford's 
book-' is of interest, ^^'riting of the summer monsoon, he remarks that 
" in Mysore, the Ceded Districts of Madras, the Deccan and Hyderabad, 
more rain falls when the strength of the monsoon to northern India 
relaxes, than when the interior plateau of the peninsula is swept by a 
strong current from the west coast." The mean annual relative humidity 
of the Mysore Province is set down as 66, that of Malabar and Coorg 
being 79, and of the Carnatic 67. The mean monthly rainfall at the 
following stations, based on the records of 50 years, is thus given, in 
inches and cents. : — 

Jan. FeH. Mar. Apr. May June 
Bangalore... o'z ... o"i ... o"6 ... 1 '3 ... 5 "o ... 3 "2 . 

Mysore o"i ... ot ... 07 ... 2 "2 ... 5 "6 ... i"9 

Shimoga ... o'l ... o'l ... 0*3 ... I'S ... 3*3 ... 47 . 

The maximum is 25'9 at Shimoga in July, i9"5 at Bangalore in 
October, and 15 '3 at Mysore in July. 

Another important item is the estimated mean rainfall, as follows, on 
the several river basins. The figures, it must be remembered, include 
the portions that are beyond the limits of Mysore. Pennaur (N. 
Pennar), 26 inches; Palar, 36; Panar (S. Pennar), 38; Kave'ri, 44; 
Krishna above junction, 59 ; Tungabhadra, 43. 

" Earthquakes " — Dr. Heyne observes — " are never violent and by no 
means frequent in this country, occurring only about once in five years." 
My own experience does not enable me to confirm this latter statement, 
but shocks have been occasionally felt in the neighbourhood of the hills 
running from Kankanhalli to Madgiri. From an inscription at Nelaman- 
gala, it appears that an earthquake occurred there in July, 1507. "I 
felt one at Tumkur," writes Dr. Heyne, " on the 23rd of October, 1800. 
It is remarkable that at the same time a violent hurricane raged along 
the coast from Ongole to Masulipatam. The shock was felt at Bangalore 

^ Generally speaking, there appears a tendency with maxima (of sun-spots) to 
anticipate the middle time between the consecutive minima, the interval ii"iiy 
being divided into two unequal sub-intervals of 477 >" and 6*34 >". — Chambers, 
Astron., 17. 

^ " Climates and Weather of India," pp. 211, 50, 353, 2S4. 



July 


Aug. 


.Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


.4-0., 


,.5-9., 


..6-3.. 


.6-4. 


..1-9. 


..07 


.2-3. 


..3-2. 


••3-9- 


.6-4. 


..1-6. 


..0-5 


.6-6. 


..4-2. 


..3-1.. 


.5-0. 


.. 1-2 . 


..0-4 



CYCLONES 67 

and in most other parts of Mysore ; and it was stronger in the south 
than where I was. It seemed to come from the north, proceeding 
southward along the inland range of hills, and to be guided farther by 
those of which Sivaganga and Savandurga are the most conspicuous." 
Colonel \\'elsh says, with reference to Bangalore : — " On the 29th of 
December (1813), we experienced a pretty smart shock of an earth- 
quake, which was very general in its effects all over the cantonment ; it 
was accompanied by a rumbling noise, like a gun-carriage going over 
a drawl)ridge, and appeared to come from the westward. Our roof 
cracked as if a heavy stone had been thrown upon it, and every part of 
the house shook for some seconds. .Some older and weaker buildings 
were actually shaken down, and the walls of others separated or opened 
out." An earthquake was felt at Tumkur in 1865, and several shocks 
at Dangalore on the 31st of December, 1881. 

Aerolites or meteoric stones sometimes fall. On the 21st of 
September, 1865, one weighing 11^ lbs. fell near Maddur in the 
Mysore District. It is deposited in the Museum. 

Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal occasionally extend their influence far 
inland. One of the 2nd of May, 1872, was very destructive in its effects ; 
it blew a hurricane that overturned large trees even so far west as Coorg, 
and was accompanied by a deluge of rain. Again on the 4th of May, 1874, 
when a cyclone was raging on the Madras coast, a steady rain poured at 
Bangalore, which continued without intermission for about forty-eight 
hours. It had been preceded for several days by a still and hazy 
appearance of the atmosphere. At the end of November, 1880, just at 
the beginning of the ragi harvest, when but little was cut and the bulk 
of this most important crop was all but ripe, a great part of the State 
was visited by a storm of wind and rain of unusual severity, which did 
very considerable damage to the crops, and was the cause, moreover, of 
the breaching of a number of irrigation tanks. On the i6th of Novem- 
ber, 1885, again, there was a continuous downpour lasting for more 
than forty-eight hours, but this was not of a violent character. 

"Next to its sunny skies and its notorious and somewhat oppressive 
heat, perhaps no feature of the Indian climate," says Mr. Blanford,^ " is 
more characteristic than the prevailing lightness of the wind." And to 
this cause, rather than to want of mechanical skill on the part of the 
cultivators, he attriljules the absence of wiiKlniills in India. The 
average daily movement of the wind at Bangalore is put down at from 
82 (Feb.) to 92 miles from Octol)er to March, 128 to 183 in May and 
August to Septenilfer, 203 in June and 208 in July. 

' I.oc. <it. p. 30. 

F 2 



68 



FLORA 

The situation of Mysore within the tropics, combined with an eleva- 
tion which gives it a temperate chmate, and its almost complete environ- 
ment by lofty mountain chains, are features which contribute to the 
formation of a rich and varied flora. 

The forests^ of the country, which yield a considerable item towards 
its revenue, have been estimated to cover a total area of 2,975 J^Quare 
miles, exclusive of scrub jungle which grows on much of the waste 
land. They may be roughly divided into evergreen and deciduous 
forests ; which again are distributed in three distinct forest belts, of 
very unequal width, and running north and south. These are the 
evergreen delf, the dry belt, and an intermediate one, combining some 
of the features of both, which may be called the mixed belt. 

The evergreen belt of forests is confined to the west, and comprises 
the country in the Western Ghats and below them, extending from the 
north of Sagar taluq to the south of Manjarabad. Its greatest width, 
which is at its northern extremity, nowhere exceeds from 12 to 14 miles, 
and at some points is not more than six. The tree vegetation is magni- 
ficent. Many of the hills are covered to their summits with heavy 
forest, while the valleys and ravines produce trees which can scarcely 
be rivalled in India, — so luxuriant is their growth, so vast their height, 
so great their size. In some parts the undergrowth is dense, elsewhere 
the forest is open, and on all sides trees with clear stems to the first 
branch of from 80 to 100 feet meet the eye. 

The following are some of the more valuable trees growing in this 
belt- : — 

Artocarpus hirsuta ... Wild jack ... ... Heb-halasu, hesava^ 

Good shade for coffee. Yields the anjeli wood of commerce. Wood hard and 
durable when well seasoned, yellowish-brown, close-grained. Much used on the 
western coast for house and ship-building, furniture, and other purposes. Weight 
about 35 lbs. per cubic foot. 

1 Originally based chiefly upon the Forest Report for 1869-70, by Captain van 
Someren, Conservator of Forests. 

- The third edition of " Forest Trees of Mysore and Coorg,"' by the same, edited 
by Mr. J. Cameron, may be referred to for fuller information ; or Watts' " Dictionary 
of the Economic Products of India." 

•' In common use the Kannada name is put into the genitive case, followed by the 
word niara, tree. Hence heh-halasina /nam, kesavaiia niara : diipada mara would 
be more intelligible to a native than the bare name. 



TREES 69 

Calophyllum tomenlosum I'oon spar ... ... Kuve, bobbi 

Yields poon spars, which fetch a good price, and are used for masts. Wood reddish 
and coarse-grained. Weight 48 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Diospyros ebenum Ebony Kare, mallali 

lieartwood black, very hard, durable, and takes a fine polish. Weight al»ut 80 lbs. 
per cul)ic foot. In great demand for cabinet work, turnery, inlaying, and musical 
instruments. 

Erythroxylon monogj-num Red cedar ... ... Devadaru, adavi go- 

ran ti 
I leartwood dark brown and fragrant ; sometimes used as a substitute for sandal. 
From it is distilled a tar or oil used in Ceylon to preserve timber. Leaves and bark 
medicinal. 

Garcinia morclla ... ... Gamboge-tree ... ... Kankutake 

The yellow pigment which exudes from an incision in the trunk is the true gamboge 
of commerce. W^ood hard and mottled. Weight aljout 56 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Lagerstroemia flos-regina; Challa, maruva 

Very handsome in blossom. Root, bark, leaves, and flowers used medicinally. 
Wood light red, strong, and very duraljle under water. Weight alwut 42 lbs. per 
cubic foot. 

Soymida febrifuga ... Redwood ... ... Swami mara 

Bark used for tanning and as an inferior dye ; is also a febrifuge. lieartwood very 
hard and close-grained, reddish-black, very durable, not attacked by white ants. 
Weight about 76 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Valeria indica ... ... White dammar ... ... Di'ipa 

Magnificent tree. Yields the gum-resin known as white dammar or Piney resin, 
locally used as an incense and varnish. A fatty oil from the seeds is employed like 
tallow for making candles. Heartwood grey, tough, moderately hard, porous. 
Weight 41 Ujs. per cubic foot. Not much in demand. 

The mixed belt of forest extends the whole length of the Province, 
from the extreme north of Sorab taluq to Bandipur in the south of 
Gundlupet talucj. It is very unequal in width, varying at different 
points from 10 to 40 or 45 miles. It includes the greater number of 
the timber-producing State forests, large tracts of District forests, and 
much sandalwood. In it are the leans of Sorab and other portions of 
Nagar, the areca nut and cardamom gardens of western Mysore, the 
coffee plantations of Koppa and Manjarabad, and the rich rice-flats of 
Sagar, Nagar, Tirthahalli, Chikmagalur and Heggadadevankote. The 
division between this rich and productive belt and the far less u.seful strip 
to the west of it cannot be very easily defined. The presence of a number 
of fine tiajidi and blackwood trees, which grow abundantly and attain 
great size on the eastern confines of the evergreen belt, form a sufificiently 
clear line. The eastern limit may be taken to be a line which, com- 
mencing near Anavatti in the north, would run south-east to half-way 
between Shikarpur and Honnali ; thence due south to Sakrebail, where 



70 FLORA 

it turns due east till it reaches a [)oint north of Lakvalli ; thence south, 
through Lakvalli and along the eastern crests of the Ilaba Budans to 
Vastara ; on through Pdlya, and passing a few miles west of Arkalgud 
and Peryapatna it turns south-cast to Antarsante, and so by way of 
Kurnagal reaches Bandipur. 

The tree vegetation varies considerably in the large extent of country 
comprised in this belt. All along the western confines, where it 
approaches the Ghats, trees proper to the evergreen forests occur fre- 
quently. The wild jack, the dupa, the redwood and sometimes the 
poon are met with in varying quantities. But in the south portion of 
the belt, in the Mysore District, wild jack and poon are unknown. The 
following is a list of the more important trees found throughout this 
tract : — 

Adina cordifolia ... ... ... ... ... ... Arasina tega 

Wood yellow, moderately hard, even-grained. Seasons well, takes a good polish, 
and is durable, but lial)le to warp and crack. Weight 45 lbs. per cubic foot. Turns 
well, and specially used for small articles, such as combs, gunstocks, and ornamental 
boxes. 

Albizzia lebbek ... ... Siris ... ... ... Bagi 

Heartwood dark brown ; takes a good polish, and fairly durable. Weight 50 lbs. 
per cubic foot. Its use for domestic purposes considered unlucky in many parts, but 
used for picture frames, oil-mills, etc. Leaves a good fodder for cattle. Flowers a 
cooling apjilication for boils. 

Albizzia odoratissima ... ... ... ... ... Bilvara 

Heartwood rich brown, tough and strong ; seasons well, takes a good polish, and 
is durable when kept dry. Weight 50 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for wheels, oil-mills, 
and agricultural implements. Bark medicinal. One of the most valuable jungle 
trees for the use of the villagers. 

Anogeissus latifolia ... ... ... ... ... Dindiga 

Good fuel and charcoal tree. Sapwood yellow ; heartwood small, purplish-brown, 
tough, very hard. Weight about 65 lbs. per cubic foot. Splits in seasoning and 
must be kept dry to last. Gum used by calico printers for dyeing purposes ; green 
leaves employed for tanning. 

Bombax malabaricum ... Silk-cotton ... ... Buruga 

Wood soft, white, spongy, and, except under water, very perishable. Used to 

some extent for planking, packing cases, toys, floats, etc. A medicinal gum exudes 
from the trunk. 

Chloroxylon swietenia ... Indian satin-wood ... Huragalu 

Wood hard, yellow-mottled, and prettily veined, dark towards the centre ; has a 
fine satiny lustre, and is well adapted for delicate cabinet work, carpentry, and 
turnery. Weight 56 lbs. per cubic foot. Heartwood said to be black, hea\y, and 
not easily burnt. The wood is also very durable under water. Used for beams, 
posts, boats, etc., and in Europe for backs of brushes, stethoscopes, and fancy 
articles. 

Cordia myxa ... ... ... ... ... ... SoUe 

There are three local varieties — kadu solle, kempu solle, and solle kendal — differing 



TREES 71 

in size, form, and colour of the fruit. The last is the Sebasten of commerce (a name 
said to be derived from sag-pistan, Persian for dogs' nipples). It is very mucilaginous 
and demulcent ; given for coughs and chest affections. Wood grey, soft, porous, 
seasons well, and is fairly strong ; but soon attacked by insects. Used for agricultural 
implements, sugar-cane mills, boats, and fuel. Rope made from the bark, which is 
also medicinal. 

Dalbergia lalifolia ... ... Blackwood ... ... Biii 

Valuable furniture wood, resembling rosewood. Heartwood dark purple and 
extremely hard, but somewhat brittle. Weight 55 lbs. per cubic foot. Used in 
Mysore city for articles inlaid with ivory, also elsewhere for cart-wheels, gun-carriages, 
etc. Shade tree for coffee. 

Dalbergia paniculata ... ... ... ... ... Pachari 

Wood greyish-white, soft, and }jerishable ; very subject to attacks of insects. 
Weight aliout 42 lbs. per cubic foot when seasoned. 

Dalbergia sissoo ... ... Sissoo ... ... ... Kiridi 

Wood very durable, seasons well, and highly esteemed for all purjioses where 
strength and elasticity are required. Suitable for boats, carriages, etc. 

Dillenia pentagyna ... ... ... ... ... Koltega 

Wood nicely marked, but heavy, coarse-grained, and dif'iicult to season. Weight 
50 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Gmelina arborea ... ... ... ... ... ... Kuli 

Wood cream to pale yellow, close-grained, strong, and does not warp or crack in 
sea.soning. Weight about 30 lbs. per cubic foot. Much esteemed for furniture, car- 
riages, and ornamental work of all kinds. 

Grewia tilirefolia ... ... ... ... ... ... Tadasalu 

Wood light reddish-brown, compact, close-grained, durable, elastic, and easily 
worked. Valuable where strength and elasticity are required. Used in cart and 
carriage building, also for masts, oars, and shafts. Weight 35ll>s. per cubic foot. 
Fruit eaten. 

Holoptelea integrifolia ... Kntirc-leavcd ehn ... Tapasi 

Wood yellow or light brown, no heartwood, soft, open-grained, but strong. 
Weight 37 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for charcoal ; also for country carts, and some- 
times for carving. 

Lagerstroemia lanceolala ... ... ... ... ... Nandi 

Wood red, smooth, even-grained, elastic, tough, and of great transverse strength. 
Weight about 45 lbs. per cubic foot. Seasons well, and durable if preserved from 
moisture. But felled trees soon decay if left exposed in the forest. Used in Coorg 
for buildings ; also used for furniture, carts, and mills. 

Mallotus philippinensis ... ... ... ... ... Kunkuma 

The powder from the ripe fruit forms the Kamala dye, also known in the south of 
India as Kapila. Wood only fit for fuel. Weight 48 ll)s. per cubic foot. 

Michelia champaca ... Champac... ... ... Sampige 

A favourite tree of Hindu poetry, well known for the fragrance of its blossoms, 
which are worn in the hair, etc. Wood soft, seasons and polishes well. Very 
durable. Weight about 40 lbs. jier cubic foot. Used for furniture, carriages, etc. 

Phyllanthus emblica ... Emblic myrobalan ... Nelli 

Wood mottled-reddish, hard and close-grained, warps and splits in seasoning. 



72 FLORA 

Weight alxjul 50 ll)s. per cubic foot. Remarkaljlc for its dural>ilily under water, 
which it also clears of impurities. For this purpose chips of it are thrown into wells 
or ponds. The hark is used for tanning. The fruit, resembling a gooseberry, is acid 
and astringent. Much used as an article of food, raw, preserved, or pickled. 

I'terocarpus marsupium ... Indian kino ... ... Honne 

Wood close-grained, reddish-brown, tough, slrc^ng, durable, seasons well, and takes 
a good polish. Weight 53 lbs. per cul^ic foot. Makes good furniture, and widely 
used for carts, window frames, agricultural implements, etc. Bark yields crimson 
gum, the true kino of commerce. 

Schleichera Irijuga ... Ceylon oak Sagade, chendala 

Wood very hard, strong, durable, and takes a fine polish. Weight about 70 lbs. 
per cul)ic foot. Used for pestles, axles, teeth of harrows, screw rollers of mills. In 
the Central Provinces lac is produced on this tree, known as kusiima lac, the most 
highly prized of all. Bark and oil from the seeds medicinal ; the latter said to be the 
original Macassar oil. 

Stephegyne parvifolia ... ... ... ... ... Kadaga 

Similar to Adina cordifolia, but not used much in the south of India. 

Sterculia villosa Shi-anvige 

Wood said to be firmly close-grained, suitable for Ijuilding and furniture. Bags 
and ropes made of the fibrous l)ark. 

Tectona grandis ... ... Teak' ... ... ... Tegu, tyaga 

The chief value of this well-known wood arises from its strength, added to its 
durability, due probably to the resinous matter in the pores, which resists the action 
of water. Weight varies in different localities, but approximately 45 lbs. per cubic 
foot when seasoned. Used in India for numerous purposes — construction, ship- 
building, sleepers, and furniture ; in Europe for railway carriages, ships, and the 
backing of armour plates in ironclads. 

Terminalia chebula ... Black myrobalan ... Alale, arale 

The fruit is most valuable as a tan. The gall-nuts make excellent ink and dyes. 
Wood hard and fairly durable. Weight about 60 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for 
furniture, carts, and agricultural implements. 

Terminalia paniculata ... ... ... ... . . Huluve, hunal 

Timber of middling quality, especially when seasoned in water. Heartwood dark, 

hard, and fairly durable. Weight 47 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for the same purposes 

as Matti. Also for fuel, planking, and country carts. In the ground is liable to 
attacks of white ants. 

Terminalia tomentosa ... ... ... ... ... Matti 

Wood dark brown, with darker streaks, hard, but not very durable. Weight about 
60 lbs. per cubic foot. Good fuel tree ; leaves useful as manure for areca-nut 
gardens. Yields a gum said to be used as an incense and cosmetic. Bark used for 
tanning. 

Vitex altissima ... ... ... ... ... ... Naviladi 

Valuable wood ; brownish-grey when seasoned. Weight 63 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Used, when procuralile, for building and agricultural work. 

• The finest teak in Mysore is found in the State forests of Lakvalli, Bisalvadi, 
Kakankote, Begur, and Ainur Marigudi. The teak plantations in Mysore cover an 
area of about 4,000 acres. 



TREES 73 

Xylia dolabriformis ... Iron wood ... ... Jambe 

Wood dark red or brown, very strong, hard, tough, and durable ; not attacked by 
white ants. Weight 65 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for building and agricultural 
implements, also for the best charcoal. 

The bamboo, scientifically reckoned a giant grass, abounds in the 
large forests, and is one of the most valuable products. The common 
species is Bambusa arundinacea, the spiny bamboo {bidaru). Dendra- 
calamus strictus is the " male bamboo " {gandu bidaru), a solid bamboo 
used for spear or lance staves, walking-sticks, &c. The largest bamboos, 
known as atide bidaru, are said to be found in the forests of the Mysore 
District. The periodical dying off of the bamboo after seeding is a 
well-known phenomenon. The seed, called bamboo rice, generally 
appears at a time of drought, when the crops have failed, and is eaten 
by the poorer classes. The uses of the bamboo are innumerable, and 
there is scarcely a domestic purpose to which it is not applied. 

The following trees are also common in these forests : — 

Acacia arabica Babul Kari Jali, goljli 

Yields the Indian gum arable. Wood pale red, turning darker on exposure, close- 
grained, tough, and very durable when seasoned in water. Weight about 54 lbs. per 
cubic foot. Much used for naves, spokes and felloes of wheels ; also for rice-pounders, 
oil and sugar mills, agricultural implements, etc. Tan, dye, fibre, food, and medicine 
are obtained from the bark or pods. 

Acacia leucophloea... ... ... ... ... ... Bill Jali, topal 

Good fuel tree. Sapvvood large ; heartwood reddish-brown, tough, and easily 
seasoned. Weight about 55 lbs. per cubic foot. Bark used in distilling arrack. The 
young pods given to sheep supposed to improve the quality of the mutton. Gum, 
dye, fibre, and medicine are also obtained from this tree. 

^Egle marmelos ... ... Bael ... ... ... Bilpatre 

Greatly esteemed for the medicinal properties of root, bark, leaves, and fruit. The 
pulp of the latter a specific for dysentery and diarrhoea. Its shell or rind is made 
into snuff-bo.xes. Wood strongly scented when fresh cut, yellowish-white, hard, and 
durable. Weight about 50 lbs. per cubic foot. Seldom felled, as it is considered 
sacred, and the leaves indispensable for the worship of Siva. 

Butea frondosa ... ... ... ... ... ... Muttaga 

\Miole tracts of country are gay with its gorgeous orange-crimson flowers at the 
beginning of the hot weather. The leaves are used as plates, and the branches for 
sacrificial purposes. A red gum called bastard kino obtained from the bark. From 
the flowers is prepared the red juice squirted about in the Holi festival. The seeds 
anthelmintic and a common remedy for horses. Wood of little value, but said to be 
durable under water. Weight 35 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Eugenia jambolana ... Black plum, Jamoon ... Nerale 

There are two varieties, caryophyllifolia (nayi nerale) and obtusifolia (jaml)u 
nerale). The latter, bearing larger fruit, is most abundant in the Malnad. Fruit, 
which has a verj' astringent taste, leaves, seeds, and bark medicinal, and the latter 
used for dyeing and tanning. Wood whitish, hard, tough, and durable in water. 
Weight 45 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for buildings and agricultural implements. 



74 FLORA 

I'ciDniu I'lcplianluni ... Wood-apjilc ... ... Bcla, lj)ala 

TIk' acid i)iil|) of llic fruit generally eaten, either raw or sometimes in the form of 
a jelly like Mack currant. Wood yellowi.sh, close-grained, hard, and durable. 
Weight 5oll)s. ])er cubic foot. Used like the foregoing. The bark yields a white 
transparent gum resembling gum arable. 

Kicus bengalensis Banyan Ala 

Clood shade for cofTee. Wood of little value, Init durable under water, and there- 
fore used for well frames. Weight aljout 37 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood of the 
aerial roots used for tent-poles, cart-yokes, etc. From the milk sap birdlime is made ; 
it is also applied to sores and bruises. The young leaves are used for plates. 

I-'icus glomerala ... ... Country fig ... ... Atti 

Uses similar to those of the above. Cattle eat the fruit greedily ; it is also eaten 
by the poor in times of scarcity. The tree imparts moisture to the soil around its 
roots. 

Ficus religiosa Peepul Arab, ragi, asvattha 

Wood of no value. Other uses similar to those of the above. A sacred tree, 
planted at the entrance of every village along with the margosa, to which it is married 
with the due ceremonies. Perambulations of the tree supposed to confer male issue 
and other blessings. 

Mangifera indica Mango Mavu 

Well known for its delicious fruit throughout India. Wood used for minor works 
of carpentry, but does not stand exposure, and is liable to attacks of insects. Weight 
about 40 lbs. per cubic foot. Besides being eaten raw, the fruit is made into 
chatnis, pickles, and preserves. Medicinal properties are attributed to almost ever>' 
part of the tree. The leaves, strung on a thread, are hung up as a sign of welcome 
at the lintel of doorways. 

Phcenix farinifera Dwarf date Sanna ichalu 

The leaves are used for thatch, and as fuel for potteries. The farinaceous pith of 
the stem seems not to be eaten here as in some other parts of India. 

Phoenix sylvestris Wild date. Toddy palmi Ichalu. 

From the juice is produced the toddy or arrack of the country ; and a small propor- 
tion is boiled down for making jaggery and date-sugar. Good mats are made from 
the leaves. 

Tamarindus indica... ... Tamarind ... ... Hunise 

Most valued for its fruit, which is largely used in food and for making a cooling 
drink. The seeds are also roasted and eaten ; and a size made from them is used by 
Kuruljars as a dressing for kamblis or country-made blankets. Fruit, leaves, and seed 
are also medicinal. Heartwood very hard and durable, but difficult to work. Weight 
about 60 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for naves of wheels, rice-pounders, mallets, tent- 
pegs, oil and sugar mills, handles to tools, and .so on. 

The third or dry belt Hes to the east of the mixed forest belt, and 
includes the far greater portion of the Province. The tree vegetation is 
much inferior to that immediately to the west, the change being in some 
parts gradual, in others very marked. The latter is especially per- 

* The groves of this toddy palm, which is a Covernment monopoly, cover altogether 
an area of something like 30,000 acres in the Maidan parts of the State. The finest 
are in the Chitaldroog and Mysore Districts. 



TREES 75 

ceptible near the Baba Budan hills, which from their elevation arrest 
much of the rain which would otherwise pass to the east and north-east. 
The difference between the abundant vegetation of the Jagar valley to 
the west, and the scanty vegetation to the east, of the Kalhatti hills in 
the Baba Budans is remarkable. 

Many of the trees found in the mixed belt are common to this third 
tract, but as a rule they are of smaller growth. This is specially notice- 
able in teak, which is only met with stunted, twisted and small ; in 
some of the coDibrefacecc, and very marked in some of the leguininosce. 

Besides the different kinds of Jiciis, the mango, tamarind and jamun, 
the ippe {ixxssia lafifolid) and jack {artocarpus integrifolia) grow well. 
The acacias of the preceding list, the wood-apple, bael-tree and pachari 
also thrive. The wild date {pJuvnix sylvestris) grows in the western 
part and tlie dwarf date {phcetitx farinifera) in the centre and west. 
The custard-apple {anona squainosci) grows wild rather abundantly in 
the waste lands of the Sira taluq. Among others the more valuable and 
common trees are : — ■ 

Acacia catechu ... ... ... ... ... ... Kagli 

Catechu {kdchii) is obtained by boiling down a decoction from chips of the heart- 
wood. It is not much made in Mysore, and is principally used for mastication and 
medicine. There are two kinds, dark and pale, of which the latter only is used for 
chewing. Ileartwood dark red, hard, durable, seasons well, and takes a fine polish ; 
not attacked by white ants. Weight about 70 ll^s. per cubic foot. Much used for 
fuel and charcoal. Also for oil and sugar mills, l)ows, handles to arms, and for 
agricultural implements. 

Alangium lamarckii ... ... ... ... ... Ankule 

Good for fuel and fences. Wood light yellow outside, dark brown in the centre, 
hard, even-grained, tough, and durable. A beautiful wood when well seasoned. 
Weight about 52 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for pestles, wooden bells, and other 
minor purposes. Fruit acid ; nearly every part of the tree medicinal. 

Anogeissus lalifolia ... Dindiga 

See above (p. 70). 

Averrhoa carambola ... ... ... ... ... Kamaraka 

Fruit eaten raw, also stewed, curried, and pickled. Wood light red, hard, and 
close-grained. Weight about 40 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Buchanania latifolia ... ... ... ... ... Murkali 

Well known for its edible seeds, in some places used as a substitute for almonds. 
1 leartwood seasons well and sufficiently duralile for protected work. Weight 36 lbs. 
per cubic foot. Bark can be used in tanning. 

Dalhergia lanceolaria ... ... ... ... ... llasar ganni 

Wood whitish, heavy, weighing 62 lbs. per cubic fool, l)Ul not durable. Root, 
bark, and an oil from the seed, medicinal. 

Diospyros tupru ... ... ... ... ... ... Tupra 

Fruit eaten by cowherds. Leaves used for folding native cigarettes. The 
Mahrattis obtain from the root a coloured paste for caste marks. 



76 FLORA 

Dulicliaiidronc falciita ... ... ... ... ..• Udi 

A coarse dark I'lhro obtained from the inner bark. IIcarlw<jod hard enough for 
implements and village buildings. 

(jardenia gumniifera ... ... ... ... ... liikke 

The medicinal gum-resin, known in trade as dikamali, exudes from the e.xtremities 
of the ycnmg shoots and buds ; said to have an offensive smell. Wood white, very 
hard, might serve for bo.K-wood. 

llardwickia binata ... ... ... ... ... Karachi 

One of the most durable timl)ers in India.' Ileartwood aliundant, close-grained, 
dark red tinged with purple, soft and easy to work when fresh cut, Ijut afterwards 
becomes extremely hard. Weight unseasoned 80 lbs. per cubic foot ; seasoned wood 
much lighter. Used for bridges, houses, and agricultural implements. Gum, tan, 
and fil^re are also obtained from it. The young shoots and leaves very extensively 
used for fodder. 

Ixora parviflora Torch-tree Gorivi, hennu gorivi 

The branches are used as torches by travellers and postal runners. The flowers, 
pounded in milk, used as a remedy for whooping-cough. Wood, though small, said 
to be hard and even-grained. Weight about 60 lbs. per cul:>ic foot. Well suited for 
turning. 

Lagerstro^mia parviflora ... ... ... ... ... Chaunangi 

Wood light grey, tinged with red, and darker towards the centre ; straight-fibred, 
tough, elastic. Weight about 50 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for agricultural imple- 
ments, and considered fairly durajjle. Fibre, tan, dye, and an edible gum obtained 
from the bark. The tasser silkworm feeds on the tree. 

Morinda umbellata ... ... ... ... ... Maddi 

From the root is obtained the yellow dye known as Maddi bamia. Fruit said to 
be curried and eaten. 

Pongamia glabra ... ... Indian beech ... ... Honge 

Wood tough and light, weighing about 40 lbs. per cubic foot, white when cut but 
turning yellow on exposure, coarse-grained, fibrous, and not durable, but said to improve 
when seasoned in water. Large trunks used for the solid wheels of waddar carts. 
Oil from the seed is used for lamps and medicinally ; also other parts of the tree for 
the cure of rheumatism and .skin diseases. Leafy branches used as green manure for 
paddy fields. The flowers also used for manure to crops. Honge cake forms a 
manure to coffee. 

Semecarpus anacardium ... Marking nut ... ... Geru 

Wood of little value, as it cracks in seasoning. Weight 42 lbs. per cubic foot. 
The juice from the growing tree said to cause blisters when handled ; is therefore 
ringed some time before felling. The fleshy cup on which the fruit rests is eaten. 
The juice of the fruit proper is used as medicine, also for varnish, and mixed with 
lime for marking linen. Oil from the seed is said to be made use of in taming wild 
elephants, and birdlime prepared from the fruit when green. 

Shorea talura ... ... Lac-tree-... ... ,., Jalari 

The lac insect is propagated on it, and besides lac, a kind of dammar is obtained 
from the tree. Wood yellowish, heavy, and dural^le, capable of taking a good polish, 
and used for building. Weight 54 lbs. per cubic foot. 

' Mostly confined to the Tumkur and Chitaldroog Districts, and specially abundant 
in Bukkapatna, near Sira, and in Molkalmuru taluq. 

- Most abundant in the Anekal and Closepet taluqs, and in the Nandidroog hills. 



SANDAL 77 

Stereospernnim chelonoides ... ... ... ... Padri 

Wood said to l^e tremendously hard and almost indestructil)le under water. 
Sawyers object to saw it. U.sed for beams and posts. 

Zizyphus jujul)a ... ... Indian jujul:)e, ber ... Velachi 

The fruit is lietter known in northern India. Wood hard, even-grained, tough 
and dural)le. Weight 58 11k. per cubic foot. Bark very astringent and exudes a 
medicinal gum. 

Zizyphus xylopyrus ... ... ... ... ... Challe 

The fruit used as a dye for l^lackening leather. Wood hard and tough. Weight 
about 6oll)s. per cuImc foot. Used for walking-sticks and torches. 

Among shrub.s and u.scful bushes are : — 

Calotropis gigantea ... Madar, giant swallow- ^'ekka 

wort 
The jilant is filled with a milky sap which hardens on exjiosure to light, forming a 
kind of gutta percha, except that it is a conductor of electricity. Medicinal virtues 
are attributed to every part of the plant. The inner bark yields a bast fibre, which 
has been suggested as a material for making paper. The silk-cotton of the seed forms 
the Madar floss of commerce. 

Cassia auriculata ... ... Tanner's bark ... ... Tangadi 

The bark is one of the best Indian tans,' and the root bark is used for tempering 
iron with steel. Bark and seeds are also medicinal. Twigs used for native tooth- 
brushes. 

Cassia fistula ... ... Indian laburnum ... Kakke 

Wood small but duralile, weighing 50 lbs. per cul)ic foot. Hard l)ut brittle and 
apt to fracture. Used for paddy-grinders, posts, and agricultural implements. From 
the bark are obtained fil:)re, tannin, and gum. The fresh pulp of the fruit forms a 
purgative, and the dried leaves are laxative. 

Jatropha curcas ... ... Physic nut ... ... Mara haralu 

The young twigs are used as tooth-brushes, the milky juice being considered to 
strengthen the teeth and gums. The milk sap is a good styptic, and dried in the sun 
forms a reddish-brown substance like shell-lac. The external application of a 
decoction of the leaves will excite the secretion of milk. Commonly planted for 
fences, as cattle will not eat it. 

The sandal-tree {sanfahtiii albiini), gandha, srigandha -a [jroduct 
I)n'ncipally of My.sore and a State monopoly, yielding the largest 
share of the forest revenue — is found all over the country, but grows 
very unequally in different parts. It is never met with in the evergreen 
belt or in heavy forests of the mixed belt, but is most abundant along 
the eastern skirts of the last-named tract ; in the taluqs bordering on 
the Kaveri ; and in those lying along the chain of hills which runs from 
Kankanhalli up to Madgiri. In the Chitaldroog and Kolar Districts it 
is very scarce. 

' .\n analysis by Professor Hummel, of the Yorkshire College, Leeds, showed the 
bark to contain 20*5 per cent, of tannic acid. 



78 FLORA 

'I'lic tree altains its grcalesL bulk and height in takiqs with a 
moderately heavy rain-fall, but the ])erfunie of wood grown in such 
localities is not so strong as of that grown in more arid spots, especially 
where the soil is red and stony. It will thrive among rocks where the 
soil is good, and trees in such places though small are generally fuller 
of oil. The bark and sapwood have no smell, but the heartwood and 
roots are highly scented and rich in oil. The girth of a mature tree 
varies, according to circumstances, from i8 to 36 or, in exceptional 
cases, 40 inches. It attains maturity in about twenty-five years. The 
older the tree, the nearer the heartwood comes to the surface ; while 
the bark becomes deeply wrinkled, is red underneath, and frequently 
bursts, disclosing in old specimens the absence of all sapwood. In 
colour and marking, four varieties of the wood are distinguished : — 
/'///, white ; kei/ipii, red ; iidga, cobra ; and 7iavi/u, peacock. The two 
latter command fancy prices : the names indicate the supposed resem- 
blance of the marks, which are really " caused by the death of 
adventitious buds." 

The heartwood is hard and heavy, weighing about 61 lbs. per cubic 
foot. The best parts are used for carving boxes, cabinets, desks, walk- 
ing-sticks, and other useful and ornamental articles. The roots (which 
are the richest in oil) and the chips go to the still ; while the Hindus 
who can afford it show their wealth and respect for their departed 
relatives by adding sticks of sandalwood to the funeral pile. The wood, 
either in powder or rubbed up into a paste, is used by all Brahmans in 
the pigments for making their caste marks. The oil forms the basis of 
many scents, and is sometimes used for disguising with its scent articles 
which, being really carved from common wood, are passed off as if 
made from the true sandal. The far greater portion of the wood sold 
yearly in Mysore is taken to Boml)ay, where it finds its way principally 
to China, France, and Germany. 

Efforts for the propagation of sandal did not meet with much success 
some years ago, owing to the delicate nature of the young plant, and its 
exposure to the ravages of hares and deer. More recently the lantana 
shrub, which grows with the rankness of a weed, has been found to be 
an effectual nurse for the seedlings. 

The following timber trees are also found in ISIysore : — 

Acacia farnesiana ... ... ... ... ... Kasturi jali, kasti'iri gobli 

The yellow flower heads diffuse a pleasant odour, and are known as Cassia flowers 
in European perfumery. The plant is said to be obnoxious to snakes arid vermin. 
Wood white, hard, and tough, but too small for general utility. Weight 49 lbs. per 
cubic foot. A gum like gum arabic is obtained from the stem. Bark and pods 
medicinal. 



TREES 79 

Acacia ferruginea .. . ... ... ... ... ... Banni 

Yields a good gum. Kark very astringent ; used in distilling arrack. Heartwood 
.small in proportion, reddish-brown, very hard. Weight 70 lbs. per cubic foot. Little 
used on account of its being considered sacred. 

Acacia sundra ... ... ... ... ••• ... Kenipu khaira 

Little more than a variety of A. catechu. The Itranches are a darker brown, and 
the wood heavier and more durable. Weight when seasoned about 80 lbs. per cubic 
foot. U.sed for posts in hou.se-building. 

Aglaia roxburghiana ... ... ... ... ... Toitila 

Fruit l)uff-coloured, eaten medicinally. 

Albizzia amara ... ... ... ... ... ... Sujjalu 

Oood locomotive fuel. Heartwood purplish-ljrown, very hard and durable, of 
great transverse strength. Weight al)out 65 lbs. per culjic foot. Used for carts and 
agricultural implements. Seasoned limbs used for ploughs. 

Albizzia stipulata ... ... ... ... ... ... Hotte bagi 

Good charcoal tree. Wood used for various purpo.ses, but not very durable. 
Weight about 40 lbs. per cubic foot. The green leaves a fodder for cattle. 

Alstonia scholaris ... ... ... ... ... ... Jantala 

liark and leaves medicinal : the former known out of India as Dita bark, containing 
the active principle Ditain, said to equal the best sulphate of quinine. Wood soft 
and light, of little value. Weight 28 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for schoolboys' 
writing-bf)ards, whence the name scholaris. 

Boswellia serrata, var. glal)ra ... ... ... ... Sambrani 

Wood inferior and only used for fuel or charcoal. The gum-resin is a Ijastard 

olibanum, much used as medicine, and as incense in the temples. The branches 
make good torches. 

Careya arborea Gauju, kavalu 

Sajiwood al)un{lant, white ; heartwood red, dark in old trees, even-grained, and 
beautifully mottled. Weight aljout 50 lbs. per cubic foot. A durable and pretty 
wood, but not much used in Mysore e.xcept for wooden %-essels and agricultural 
implements. Formerly used for the drums of sepoy corps. Bark astringent and 
yields a very strong fibre, employed as a slow match to ignite gunpowder, and for 
fuses of native matchlocks. Fruit and flowers medicinal. 

Cedrela toona ... ... Indian niahngany, ... Gar.dagarige 

while cedar 
Wood suitable fnr furniture and l)uil(iings. Said to be duraljle and not attacked by 
white ants. Weight about 33 lbs. per cubic foot. Red and yellow dyes obtained 
from the flowers. Bark medicinal. 

Chickrassia tabularis ... Chittagong wood ... Dalmara 

Wood Ijeautifully marked, durable, fragrant, easily worked, and takes a good 
polish. Used especially for furniture and cabinetwork. Weight 46 lbs. per cubic 
foot. Bark astringent. Red and yellow dyes obtained from the flowers. 

Cochlcspernum gossypium Arisina buruga 

The fine floss from the seeds, also called silk-cotton, is used for stuffing pillows in 
hospitals in Europe, but locally considered to cause much heat. The gum from the 
trunk is used for tragacanth in mirthern India. Wood of no value ; weight about 
17 lbs. per cubic foot. 



8o FLORA 

Cordia iililiijua ... ... ... ... ... ... Chadle 

Very simil.ir to C. niyxa (p. 70) in character. Flowers larger, and jilant more hairy. 

Cordia rothii ... ... ... ... ... ... Narvalli 

A coarse fibre from the hark used for ropes. Wood said to be grey, compact, and 
hard. 

Crata-va religiosa ... ... ... ... ... ... Nirvala 

Wood soft and even-grained. Said to be used for drums, combs, and in turnery. 
I<eaves and bark medicinal. 

Diospyros embryojHeris ... ... ... ... ... ? Kusharta 

Fruit rich in tannic acid, but when ripe this disappears and it is eaten. Bark and 
an oil from the seed medicinal. Wood light brown and not of much value. Uses of 
the tree not much known in this part of India. 

Guazuma tomentosa ... Bastard cedar ... ... Rudrakshi 

Leaves and fruit much relished by cattle. Bark medicinal. Timber of old trees 
said to be durable, though light and apt to split. Weight 32 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ilardwickia pinnata ... ... ... ... ... Yenne mara 

An oil or oleo-resin obtained from deep incision into the heart of the tree resembles 
copaiva balsam in composition and properties, though not so transparent, and of a 
dark red colour. Sapwood large, heartwood brown. Weight 47 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Used for building in the parts where it grows. 

Macaranga roxburghii ... ... ... ... ... Chenta kanni 

A medicinal gum, reddish, and with the odour of turpentine, exudes from the young 
shoots and fruit. Said to be used for taking impressions of coins, etc. , and for sizing 
paper. Wood soft and useless. 

Machilus macrantha Chittu tandri 

The properties of this tree are unknown. 

Melia azadirachta ... ... Neem, margosa ... ... Bevu 

Every part medicinal. Heartwood used for making idols. The wood is not 
attacked by insects, is hard, durable, and beautifully mottled. Weight about 50 lbs. 
per cubic foot. Suitable for cabinet work and carpentry. Neem oil, obtained from 
the seed, is used for killing insects. Leaves antiseptic, and in the native treatment 
of small-pox are placed under and around the patient at certain stages of the disease. 
The tree is considered sacred and planted with the peepul at the entrance of villages, 
the two being married with due ceremonies, the latter representing the female and 
the former the male. 

Melia azedarach ... ... Persian lilac, bead-tree Turuka bevu, huchu 

bevu 
Leaves much relished by sheep and goats. Wood nicely mottled and takes a good 
polish. Weight about 35 lbs. per cubic foot. Not used. The seeds generally 
worn as rosaries. The products of the tree resemble those of the neem, but seem to 
be more used in America than in- India. 

Melia dubia ... ... Giant neem ... ... Heb be\-u 

Wood soft and light, weighing about 25 lbs. per cubic foot. Used by planters for 
buildings. Not easily attacked by white ants. The dried fruit, resembling a date, is 
a remedy for colic. 

Meliosma arnottiana ... ... ... ... ... Massivala 

Wood used for poles and agricultural implements : also, apparently, for building 
purposes. 



FRUIT TREES 8i 

Moringa pierygosperma ... Horse-radish ... ... Nugge 

Also, from the form of the flower, known as the drumstick-tree. The fleshy root is 
a perfect substitute for horse-radish. The Ben oil of commerce, valued as a lubricant 
by watchmakers, is obtained from the seed, but is seldom made in India, owing to 
the fruit being saleable as a vegetable, and the seed therefore not being allowed to 
mature. Nearly every part considered medicinal. 

Ochrocarpus longifolius ... ... ... ... ... Surgi 

The dried flower-buds, known in commerce as tamra nagakc.sari, yield a dye for 
silk. The flowers are used for decoration in temples and on the person. Wood used 
for local building. Hard, red, close and even-grained. Weight 55 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Odina wodier ... ... ... ... ... ... Udi, simti 

Wood of little value and liable to attacks of insects. Weight about 55 lbs. per 
cubic foot. Bark and gum medicinal. Cattle fond of the green leaves. 

Poeciloneuron indicum ... ... ... ... ... Ballagi 

Wood very hard and heavy. Not much used except for rice-pounders, agricultural 
implements, and perhaps walking-sticks. 

Polyalthia cerasoides ... ... ... ... ... Sanna hesare 

Wood olive-grey, moderately hard, close-grained. Weight 52 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Much used for carpentry in the Bomlmy country, but not here. 

Prosopis spicigera ... ... ... ... ... ... ? Perumbe 

Good fuel tree, especially for locomotives. Sapwood large and perishal)lc ; heart- 
wood extremely hard but not durable. Weight 58 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Sapindus trifoliatus ... Soap-nut... ... ... Kugati, antavala 

The nut commonly used for washing clothes. Flannels may be washed with it 
without shrinking. Root, bark, fruit, and oil from the seed medicinal. Wood hard, 
yellow, cross-grained, and not very durable. Weight about 64 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Occasionally used for carts, but more commonly as handles for axes and similar tools, 
and for combs. 

Saraca indica ... ... ... ... ... ... Asoka 

A sacred tree, grown in gardens and near temples for its l)eautiful flowers, which 
are a rich orange, changing to dull red. Used also medicinally. The tree is supposed 
to be a protector of chastity. Sita, the wife of Rama, when carried off" by Ravana, 
took refuge in a grove of asoka trees. 

Sterculia guttata ... ... ... ... ... ... ?Jen-katalu 

Bark ash-coloured and very fibrous, used on the Western Coast for making cordage 
and rough articles of clothing. 

Strychnos potatorum ... Clearing-nut tree ... Chillu 

The ripened seeds are used for clearing muddy water. A paste of the .same 
removes the pain from the sting of a centipede. Often felled for fuel. 

Thespe.sia populnea ... Portia, tulip-tree ... Huvvarasi 

Formerly much planted as an avenue tree, but does not attain perfection so for 
inland. When raised from seed the timber is free from knots, straight, even-grained, 
and tough : suitable for carriages and work requiring lightness and pliability. Bark, 
fruit, and heartwood medicinal. 

Wrightia tinctoria Beppale, Hale 

Wood highly valued by native turners on account of its ivory-wliite colour. Used 
for the celebrated Channapatna toys and for wooden idols. The leaves, which turn 
black when dry, afford a kind of indigo, called in Mysore /«z/a indigo. 

G 



82 



FLORA 



Of fruit trees grown in native gardens, the following are the more 
important. Most of them are too well known to need description : — 



Anacardiiim occidentalc ... 


... Cashew-nut 


... Geru 


Anona reticulata ... 


Bullock's heart .. 


Ram phal 


,, squamosa ... 


. . . Custard apple . . 


Sita phal 


Artocarpus integrifolia 


... Jack 


... Ilalasina mara 


Averrhoa carambola 


. . . Carambola 


Kamarak 


Carica papaya 


Papay 


I'erangi 


Citrus aurantium ... 


... Orange ... 


... Kittale 


,, decumana 


... Pumelo 


Sakote 


,, medica 


... Citron 


... Madala 


, , , , var. acida . . . 


... Lime 


... Nimbe 


>> 5) jj limetta 


Sweet lime 


... Gaja nimbe 


,, ,, ,, limonum 


Lemon ... 


... Herile 


Cocos nucifera 


... Cocoa-nut palm .. 


... Tengina mara 


Eriobotrya japonica 


.. Loquat ... 


... Lakote 


Eugenia jambos 


Rose apple 


Pan nerale 


Ficus carica 


- Fig 


Anjura 


Mangifera indica ... 


... Mango 


Mavina mara 


Musa sapientum ... 


... Plantain .. 


... Bale 


Phyllanthus distichus 


Star-gooseberry .. 


... Kiri nelli 


, , emblica 


Emblic myrobalar 


I ... Nelli 


Psidium guyava 


... Guava 


... Shepe 


Punica granatum ... 


. . . Pomegranate 


Dalimbe 


Pyrus malus 


... Apple 


. . . Sevu 


Vitis vinifera 


... Vine 


... Drakshi 



The cashew fiut proper is eaten roasted, and used in native sweet- 
meats. It yields an oil equal to oil of almonds. From the shell are 
obtained a black caustic oil, known as cardol, a good preventive of 
white ants, and anacardic acid, having rubefacient properties. A weak 
spirit may also be distilled from its juice. Gum obtained from the 
bark is obnoxious to insect pests. Juice from incisions in the bark 
forms an indelible marking ink. Jack fruit is a favourite article of food 
among the natives. It is enormous in size and weight, commonly about 
20 inches long, and 6 or 8 inches in diameter, weighing 30 to 40 lbs., 
and grows from the trunk or main limbs with a short stout stalk. The 
papay fruit, something like a small melon, is eaten by all classes, and 
also pickled. Its juice yields papaine, said to be superior to animal 
pepsin in its peptonising powers. Meat suspended under the tree 
becomes tender. The seeds are universally believed to be an effectual 
emmenagogue and abortive. 

The best oratiges are imported, and are the produce of Satghur near 
Vellore, or of the Sherveroy Hills, &c. The loose-jacket orange is 
obtained from Coorg. Of cocoa-nuts a rare variety is produced at 
Honnavalli in Tilmktir District, which, on account of the delicious 
sweet flavour of its milk, is called Ganga-pani, or water of the Ganges. 



FRUIT TREES 83 

The dried kernel of cocoa-nuts, called kobari, is a great article of export 
from the central parts of Mysore.' 

Of mangoes there are many varieties, bearing the following names : — 
gbl kdyi (the most common, roundish), bdddmi (almond-shaped), 
rasapuri (reddish pulp), jirige (has the scent of cummin seed), pick 
kdyi (small kind), kari kdyi (black fibres in the skin), giiii mnti or gini 
mdvu (shape of a parrot's beak), gti'ige mdvu (generally has a bee in the 
stone), sakkare or shi nidvu (sweet kind), chit ^iy/ (small kind), hu/i 
mdvu (used only for pickle). The cultivated kinds, which are pro- 
pagated by inarching or grafting by approach, have the following 
names : — ami'ni, badami, Chittilr, dil-pasand, Malgova, nilam, Peter- 
pasand, puttu, rasapuri, Salem, sandarsha. The formation of graft 
mango plantations has greatly extended during recent years. 

Plantains are very plentiful and a favourite article of diet. The 
most esteemed are rasa bd/e and rdja rasa bd/e (with a yellow custard- 
like pulp), putta bd/e or pufta sugandha bd/e (a small sweet plantain, the 
Guindy plantain), madhuranga, gujja, china, and giiliir bd/e (all butter 
plantains), yr//?^ A?76' (honey plantain), rdja bd/e (royal ^\d.xv\.dXx\), chandra 
bale (red plantain), sakaldti bdle (red and cottony), pacJicha bdle (green 
when ripe), hdvu bd/e (long and slender), yelakki bd/e, arisina bd/e, due 
bd/e (a very large kind), kaiydjii bd/e (very large and coarse), h'ldi bd/e 
(greyish, used only for cooking), liddti bd/e (the wild plantain). 

Guavas, of which there are three or four varieties, white and red, are 
very plentiful. The grafted kinds are superior. A delicious jelly, closely 
resembling red currant, is made from the common kind by Europeans. 

The grapes, though sweet, are small, owing probably to want of atten- 
tion in thinning out the clusters. Both green and purple varieties are 
grown. Those from the neighbourhood of Seringapatam are the most 
highly esteemed. Of imported varieties, fourteen are named in Mr. 
Cameron's catalogue as in local cultivation. Efforts are being made to 
extend viticulture. Apples are cultivated principally in Bangalore for 
the European market, and grow to great perfection. The different 
varieties are distinguished by numbers indicating the order in which 
they were introduced. 

The following are names of vegetables of which the leaves are used 
l)y natives in curries and stews. Some of these vegetables are cultivated, 
while others grow wild. The leaves only are used in curries or boiled 
with chillies to be eaten along with rice. 

/Eschynomene grand iflora Agase soppu 

Achyranthes lanata ... ... ... ... ... ... Bili suli ,, 

,, muricata Akvi goraji 

,, triandra Ponnaganli soppu 

' Further particulars regarding cocoa-nuts will be found under "Cultivation." 

c; 2 



84 



FLORA 



Amaranlus campeslris 

,, Candidas 

„ gangclicus ... 

,, inamnenus 

,, mangostanus ... 

,, oleraceus 

,, viridis 

Arum esculentum ... 
Basella rubra and all)a and var. 
Boerhaavia diffusa 
Brassica alba 
Canthium parviflorum 
Cassia tora 
Chenopodium viride 
Cleome pentaphylla 
Convolvulus esculentus ... 
Corchorus olitorius 
Coriandrum sativum 
Hibiscus cannabinus 

,, sabdariffa 
Hyperanthera moringa ... 
Leucas aspera 
Marsilea quadrifolia 
Mollugo striata 
Portulaca oleracea 

,, quadrifida 

Trianthema decandra 

,, monogyna 

Trigonella foenum grKcum 



Country greens 



Indian spinach 
Hogweed 
White mustard 



Goosefoot 



Jew's mallow 
Coriander 
Deccan hemp 
Rozelle . . . 
Horse-radish 



Indian purslane ... 



FenuOTeek 



Kirakasale soppu 
Bill 

Dantu ,, 

Harive ,, 

Chilki soppu 
Soppu 

Daggali soppu 
Kesave ,, 
Dodda basali 
Bilavarga 
Bill sasive soppu 
Kare gida 
Gundu tagasi 
Sakotti soppu 
Narobeda 
Tutti soppu 
Kotna goraji 
Cottambari soppu 
Fundi, pundrika 
Kempu ,, 
Nugge soppu 
Tumlje ,, 
Chitigina ,, 
Parpataka soppu 
Dodda gora 
Hull bachcheli 
Galija 

Nuchchu govi 
Mente soppu 



The fniits and seeds of the following trees and plants are also used 
in curries. Fruits introduced into curries are generally unripe ; when 
ripe they are unfit for the purpose. 

.^schynomene grandiflora 

... Jack fruit 



Artocarpus integrifolia 
Bryonia umbellata 
Capparis zeylanica 
Cucurbita alba 

,, lagenaria 

Cucumis acutangulus 

,, pentandra 

,, species ... 

,, utillatissimus 
Dolichos lablab 

„ ,, var. 

,, minimus... 

,, spicatus ... 

, , suratu 
Hibiscus esculentus 
Hyperanthera moringa 
Momordica charantia 
,, dioiea 



Pumpkin ... 
Bottle siourd 



Country cucumber 



Cow gram 



Morinea fruit 



Agase kayi 

Halsina ,, 

Tonde ,, 

Totli „ 

Dodda kumbala kayi 

Dodda sore kayi 

Hire kayi 

Tuppa hire kayi 

Huli saute ,, 

Saute kayi 

Man avare 

Bili man avare 

Ghatt avare 

Dodda man avare 

Budame kayi 

Bende kayi 

Nugge ,, 

Hagal ,, 

Gid hagalu 



HORTICULTURE 



85 



Momordica operculala 
Musa sapientum ... 
Solanum melongena 
,, trilobatuni 
,, varietas ... 
Trichosanthes cucumerina 
,, nervifolia ... 

J, palmata .., 

Trigonella tetrapetala 



Plantain 
Brinjal 



Bale hannu 
Badane kayi 
Kakamunchi kayi 
Molalu badane 
Kiri podia kayi 
Podia kayi 
Avagude hannu 
Gori kayi 



A few names may be added of plants the roots of which are used in cur- 
ries. Of these the country or sweet potato grows here to great perfection. 
xVrum campanulatus Arum Churna gadde 



,, colocasia 
Convolvulus batatas 
Daucus carota 
Dioscorea sativa . . . 
Raphanus sativus ... 



Sweet potato 
Carrot 
Vam 
Radish . . . 



Kesave ,, 
Genasu ,, 
Gajina ,, 
Heg-genasu gaclde 
MuUangi ,, 



The Catalogue, which here follows, of plants in the Lai Bagh or 
Government Botanical Gardens at Bangalore, compiled by Mr. J. 
Cameron, F.L.S., the Superintendent, will serve to show the capabilities 
of the climate and the attention bestowed on horticulture : — 

Dicotyledons. 



Kantinculacea. 
Clematis, 5' ... Virgin's bower 

Naravelia, i 

Thalictrum, i ... Meadow rue 
Delphinium, 2 ... Larkspur 
Nigella, 2 ... ... Fennel flower 

Aquilegia, 2 ... Columbine 

Several species of Clematis grow wild 
in Mysore. 

DillcniacecB. 
Delima, i 
Dillenia, 3 
Candollea, i 

Several Dillenia are elegant trees for 
scenic planting. 

Magnoliacea:. 
Magnolia, 3 

Michelia, 2 Champaka Sampige 
The fragrant Champaka is a favourite 

flower of Indian poetry. 

AnonaceLe, 
Uvaria, 2 
Artabotrys, i 
Polyalthia, 2 
Anona, 5 Custard apple Sita phal 



Miliusa, I 
Saccopetalum, i 

The custard apple and bullock's heart 
(Rama phal) are abundant in many parts. 

JSIenisperniacece. 
Tinospora, i 
Anamista, I 
Cocculus, I 

Berberidea. 
Berberis, i 
Nandina, i 

Himalayan plants almost impossible 
to cultivate here. 

Nymphixaccic. 
Nymphoea, 3 Waterlily... T.-ivare 
Nelumbium, i Lotus ... Kamala 
Victoria, i ... Amazon lily 

Lotus and waterlilies are common 
in tanks or sacred ponds all over the 
country. 

Papaveraceit. 
Papaver, 5 ... Poppy ... Ga.sagase 
Argemone, I 

The cultivation of poppy for opium is 
prohibited. 



' These figures show the number of species under each genus. 



86 



FLORA 



I'liinariaccti'. 


Cerastium, 2 ... Chickwced 


Fumaria, I l'"uiiiiU)ry 


Slellaria, i 




Polycarpoea, 2 


Criicifercc. 


Various strains of pinks do well at 


Matlhiola, 2 ... Stock 


Bangalore 

Portiilacecc. 


Cheiranthus, i Wallflower 


Nasturtium, 3... Watercress 


Portulaca, 4 


Cardaniine, i ... Cuckoo flower 


Calandrinia, I 


Malcolmia, i ... Virginian stock 




Coronopus, i 


Tainariscinece. 


Erysimum, 2 


Tamarix, i 


Brassica, 7 ... Turnip 


Hypericinea. 


Cabbage Mudde kosu 


Hypericum mysorense St. John's wort 


Mustard Sasiva 


Common at Nandidroog 


Capsella, i ... Shepherd's purse 
Lepidium, i ... Garden cress 


Gidtiferce. 


Iberis, i ... Candytuft 


Garcinia, 4 


' J 

Raphanus, i ... Radish Mullangi 


Ochrocarpus, i 


Calophyllum, 2 Pinnay Surahonne 


The European vegetables of this order 


oil tree 


are fully established in the market 


Poon tree Kuve, Bobbi 


gardens. 


Mesua, i... ... ... Nagasampige 


Capparideie. 
Cleome, 6 


Poeciloneuron, i... ... Ballagi 

Clusia, I 


Gynandropsis, i 

Cratoeva, i Caper-tree 

Cadaba, i 


From the Ballagi tree walking-sticks 
are made. 


Capparis, 6 


Ternstram iacecz. 




Kesedacea. 


Camellia, 2 Tea shrub 


Reseda, i Mignonette 


DipterocarpecE. 


Violaceic. 


Shorea, 2 ... Lac tree . . . Jalari 


Viola, 2 Violet, Pansy 


Sal tree 


lonidium, i 


Ilopea, 2 


Bixinea. 


Vateria, i ... Indian Dhupada 


Cochlospermum, i 


Copal tree mara 


Bixa, 2 ... Annatto ... Rangumale 


Malvacccc. 


Flacourtia, 3 


Althrea, 2 ... Hollyhock Dodda 


Gynocardia, i 
Hydnocarpus, i 


bindige 
Lavatera, I 


Pittosporecv. 


Malva, 3 Sanna 


Pittosporum, 4 
Billardiera, i 


bindige 
Malvastrum, 2 


Bursaria, i 


Sida, 7 


Hymenosporum, i 


Abutilon, 6 Tutti 

Malachra, i 


Sollya, I 




Fo/ygalece. 
Polygala, 3 


Urena, 2 
Pavonia, 2 
Decaschistia, 2 


Cmyophylku. 


Hibiscus, 23... Shoe-flower Dasala 


Dianthus, 5 Pink 


Rozelle ... Kempu 


Saponaria, i ... Soapwort 


pundrike 


Silene, 4 Catchfly 


Paritium, i 


Lychnis, 2 ... ... Campion 


Thespesia, 2 



HOR TIC UL TURE 



87 



Gossypium, 5 Cotton ... Arale 

Kydia, I 

Adansonia, i I^aolmli 

Bombax, i Kempu 

buruga 

Eriodendron, I Biji In'iruga 

Lagunaria, i 

Durio, I ... Durian 

Under Abiitilon 12 garden varieties 
are enumerated. Under Gossypium the 
cottons known as Hinginghaut, Dacca, 
Berar, Upland Georgian, and China are 
varieties of herbaceiini ; those known as 
Barbadoes, Bourbon, New Orleans, and 
Sea-Island are from barhadense. 

Sfercitliacecv. 
Sterculia, 8 
Cola, I 
Heritiera, 2 
Kleinhovia, i 
Helicteres, 2... Indian ... Vedamuri 

Screw-tree 
Pterospermum, i 
Eriolxna, i 
I'entapetes, I 
Melhania, 2 
Domljeya, i 
Mclochia, I 
Waltheria, i 
Abroma, i 
Guazuma, i ... Bastard ... Rudrakshi 

cedar 
Theobroma, i Chocolate-tree 



Tiliacece. 



Bcrrya, i 
Grewia, 9 



Bi'itale, 

Tadasalu 
Triumfetta, 3 

Corchorus, 4 Jute plant 
Eloeocarpus, 2 

The genus Grewia is well represented 
in the reserved jungles of Mysore, where 
some of the climbing species form dense 
thickets for the preservation of wild 
animals. The jute plant is found only 
rarely in local cultivation. 



Erythroxylon, 2 Bastard Dcvadaru 

sandal 
Cocaine is the active principle of the 
leaf of E. coca. 

Malpigh iacetc . 
Malpighia, 3 
Hiptage, 2 
Aspidopterys, i 
Banisteria, i 
Stigmatophyllum, i 

Zygophyllecc. 

Tribulus, 2 Sanna neggilu 

Guaiacum, I 
Melianthus, i 

The herb sauna neggilu is well known 
for its medicinal properties. The intro- 
duced tree, G. officinale, y\&\As the valuable 
wood known as lignum vitiC. 

Geraniacecc. 
Pelargonium, 3 Garden geranium 
O.xalis, 4 ... Wood sorrel 
Biophytum, 2 
Averrhoa, 2 ... ... ... Komarak, 

Bilimbi 
Impatiens, 7 
Tropoeolum, 3 
Hydrocera, i 



Linum, 2 
Rienwardtia, i 



Linccc. 
Flax plant 



Kulaceie. 




Ruta, I ... Common ... 


IL-ivu-nan- 


rue 


jina gida 


Zanthoxylum, 2 




Toddalia, i ... 


Kadu 




menasu 


Glycosmis, i 




Murraya, 2 ... China box 


Angaraka 


Curry-leaf tree 


Kari bevu 


Clausena, 2 




Triphasia, I 




Limonia, 2 




Atalantia, 2 




Citrus, 6 ... Cilrun 


Mddavala 


Lemon 


Herale 


Lime 


Nimbe 


Orange 


Kittale 


Pummelo ... 


Sakotti 


Feronia, i ... Wood-apple 


Belada 




mara 


/Egle, I ... Bael-tree .. 


Bilvapatre 


Calodendrum, i 




The fcctid herb A', graveol 


ens is said to 


be obnoxious to snakes, and is often 


cultivated near dwellings on 


that account. 



88 



FLORA 



Siinarubctc. 
Ailantus, I 
Balanites, I ... ... ... Ingalika 

Quassia, i ... Quassia shrub 



Ochna,' 2 



Ochnacctc. 
Biirseracecc, 



Sambrani 



Boswellia, 2 ... 
Garuga, i 
Balsaniodendron, 2 
Protium, I 
Bursera, i 
Filicium, i 

Meliacece. 
Naregamia, i 

Melia, 3 ... Neem-tree... Bevu 
Cipadessa, i 
Walsura, i 

Soymida, I Svami 

Chickrassia, i Chittagong wood 
Cedrela, i ... White cedar Noge 
Chleroxylon, i Satin wood Huragalu 
Swietenia, 2 ... Mahogany 

Olacinea. 
Ximenia, i 
Olax, I 
Opilia, I 

Ilicinea:. 
Ilex, 2 

Europe holly does not succeed at 
Bangalore, but the Chinese species is not 
a bad substitute. 

Celastrinea. 
Euonymus, 3 
Celastrus, i ... ... ... Kangondi 

Gymnosporia, 2 ... ... Tandrasi 

Elreodendron, i Mukkarive 

Rhaiiuiece. 

Ventilago, i Popli 

Zizyphus, 4 ... Bhere fruit Yelachi 
Rhamnus, 2 

Scutia, I Kurudi 

Colubrina, i 

The root bark of Popli affords a good 
orange dye. 

Ampelidea. 
Vitis, 12 ... Grape vine Drakshigida 
Leea, i 
Ampelopsis, i Virginia creeper 

Of the varieties of grape in local 
cultivation 16 are named. 



Sapindacea. 
Cardiospcrmum, i 
Allophylus, I 
Sapindus ... Soap-nut- ... Ki'igati 

tree 
Nephelium, 3 Litchi 
DodonKa, i 
Melianthus, i 
Paullinia, i 

Anacardiacea, 

Rhus mysorensis Native sumach 
Pistacia, i 

Mangifera, 2... Mango ... Mavu 
Anacardium, i Cashew-nut Turuka 

Gem mara 
Buchanania, I 
Odina, i 

Semecarpus, i Marking-nut Geru mara 
Spondias, 3 ... Hog-plum... Amate 
Schinus, i ... Bastard pepper 

Aloringea:. 

Moringa, i ... Horse-radish- Nugge 
tree 

Legiimhtosa. 
(Papilionacese) 
Genista, i ... Spanish broom 
Rothia, I 
Heylandia, i 
Crotalaria, 19 ... ... Sanabu 

Trifolium, 2 ... Clover 

Trigonella, i... Fenugreek Mentya 

Medicago, 4 ... Lucerne 

Cyamopsis, I 

Lupinus, 5 

Indigofera, 9 Indigo ... Niligida 

Mundulea, i 

Tephrosia, 6 

Sesbania, 5 ... ... ... Jinangi 

Hedysarum, i 

Zornia, i 

Stylosanthes, i 

^FLschynomene, 2 

Ormocarpum, i 

Eleiotis, i 

Pseudarthria, I 

Uraria, i 

Lowria, I 

Alysicarpus, 2 

Desmodium, 8 Sensitive plant 



HORTICULTURE 



89 



Abrus, I 

Cicer, i 
Vicia, 2 
Ervum, i 
Arachis, i 

Lathyrus, I ... 
Pisum, 2 
Glycine, 2 ... 
Teramnus, i 
Mucuna, 4 .. 
Erythrina, 8 .. 
Galactia, i 
Butea, 2 
Canavalia, 3 
Phaseolus, 8 .. 



Wild liquor- Guraganji 

ice 
Bengal gram Kadale 
Bean 
Lentil 
Ground-nut 



Nela 
kadale 



Sweet pea 
Garden pea 



Kad-avare 



Vigna, I 
Pachyrhizus, I 
Clitoria, 4 
Uolichos, 3 .. 



Cowitch 

Indian coral Varjipe 

Pulas kino Multuga 
Sword bean 
Kidney bean Hurali 
kayi 
Green gram Hesaru 
... Alasandi 



Dholl 



Togari 



Rosewood... 
Kino 



Biridi 
rionne 



Indian beech Honge 



Cow gram . . . Avare 
Horse gram Hurali 

Psophocarpus, i 

Atylosia, 3 

Cajanus, i 

Cylista, I 

Rhynchosia, 6 

Flemingia, 2 

Dalbergia, 8 . . . 

rtcrocarpus, 2 

I'ongamia, I ... 

Derris, 2 

Sophora, 2 

Virgilia, I 

Goodia, I 

Templetonia, I 

Swainsonia, i 

Myrospermum, 2 Myroxylon 

Viminaria, 1 

Clianthus, 2 

Robinia, I 

Carlanospermum, I 

Brownea, 2 

(Ccesalpinise) 

Cssalpinia, 10 Sappanwood 

Mysore thorn Kurudu 
gajjige 



Pellophorum, i 

Mezoneurum, i 

Pterolobium, 2 

Poinciana, 2... Gold-mohur tree 

Parkinsonia, i Jerusalem thorn 

Wagatea, i 



Gleditschia, 
Cassia, 17 



I Honey locust 
... Indian 

laburnum 
Tanner's 

cassia 



Ilardwickia, I 

Saraca, i ... Asoka 

Amherstia, i 

Tamarindus, 2 Tamarind ... 

Ilymencea, I... Locust-tree 

Humboldtia, i 

Bauhinia, 13... Camel's foot 



Kakke 

Tangadi 

Karachi 
Asoka 

Hunise 



Kanchi- 
vala 



Ikumatoxylon, I Logwood 
Colvillea, I 
Ccratonia, I 
Louchocarpus, I 

(Mimosex) 
Neptunia, i 

Adenanthera, i Redwood' ... ALanjatti 
Prosopis, 2 
Dichrostachys, i 
Parkia, i 
Desmanthus, i 
Leucaena, i 



Mimosa, 2 
Acrocarpus, 
Acacia, 18 



Shingle-tree 
Babool 



Soap-nut 



Ilaulige 
Jali 
Mugali 
Kaggali 
Sige gida 

All)izzia, 5 Bage 

Sujjalu 

Pithecolobium, 3 Rain-tree 

Korakapulli Sime 

hunise 

The shingle-tree is considered by many 
planters to be one of the best trees for 
coffee shade. The Australian wattles 
have not succeeded well at Bangalore, 
but the indigenous Jdlh are common 
everywhere. 



' The scarlet seeds, each supposed to equal 4 grains exactly, used by goldsmiths 
and others as weights. Also worn as necklaces. The paste from the heartwood 
applied by Brahmans to the forehead after bathing. 



90 



FLORA 



Rosace<c. 
Prunus, 4 ... Peach, I'lum 
Sjiinua, i 

Rubus, 3 ... Rasplierry 
Fragaria, i ... Stra wherry 
Poteriuni, i 

Rosa, 17 ... Rose ... Gulabi 

Eriobotrya, i Loquat ... Lakkoti 
Pyrus, 2 ... Apple, Pear Sevu 

Of roses 258 varieties are named as 
cullivated in Bangalore. 

Saxifragacecc. 
Saxifraga, I 
Vahlla, I 
Hydrangea, I 

Crasstilacece. 
Tillaja, i 
Bryophyllum, i 
Kalanchoe, 4 
Cotyledon, 4 
Sedum, I 
Echeveria, i 

Droseracecc. 
Drosera, i ... ... Indian Sundew 

Haloragecc. 
Myriophyllum, i 

Combretacecr. 
Terminalia, 9 Myrobalan Tare, 

Arale kayi 

Anogeissus, i Dindiga 

Combretum, 5 

Poivrea, i 

Quisqualis, i Rangoon creeper 

Myrtacece. 
Melaleuca, 2 
Tristania, 2 
Callistemon, 2 
Eucalyptus, 15 Gum tree 
Myrtus, I ... Myrtle 
Psidium, 4 ... Guava ... Chepe 
Eugenia, 7 ... Rose-apple Pannerale 

Jamoon . . . Nayi nerale 
Barringtonia, I 
Carey a, i 
Couroupita, i 

Me las to in acecc. 
Osbeckia, 2 

Melastoma, i Indian rhododendron 
Sonerila, i 



Ileterotrichuni, i 
Memecylon, 3 

Lythracecc. 
Ammannia, 5 

Lawsonia, i ... Henna ... Goranti 
Lagerstrcemia, 4 ... ... Nandi 

Punica, 3 ... Pomegranate Dalimbe 
Lafoensia, i 
Heimia, i 
Cuphea, 2 



Jussisea, 2 
Ludwigia, i 
Clark ia, 2 
Godetta, 4 
Oenothera, 2 
Fuchsia, 3 
Napa, I 



Onagracecs. 



Water chestnut 



PassiJiorecF. 
Passiflora, 12... Passion-flower 
Tacsonia, 3 
Modecca, i 
Carica, i ... Papay ... Parangi 

Cuctrrbitacea. 
Trichosanthes, 3 Snake gourd Padavalu 



Lagenaria, I .. 
Luffa, 4 
Benincassa, i 
Momordica, 3 
Cucumis, 3 ... 

Citrullus, 2 ... 



Bottle gourd Sore 



Melon ... Kekkarike 

Cucumber ... Savute 

Colocynth 

Water melon Karbuj 



Cephalandra, i 
Cucurbita, 3 ... Gourd 
Bryonia, i 
Mukia, I 
Zehneria, i 
Rhynucarpa, i 
Zanonia, I 



Kumbala 



Begonia, 27 
Opuntia, 5 



Melocactus, 2 
Cereus, 9 
Echinocactus, I 
Epiphyllum, 2 
Pereskia, i 



Cactt'u. 
Prickly pear Papas 

kattali 
Cochineal plant 

Night-flowering cactus 



HOR TIC UL TURE 



91 



Ficoideic. 
Trianlhema, 3 
Orygia, i 
Mollugo, 4 
Tetragonia, i 
Mesembryanthemum, i Ice plant 

UmbelHfenv, 
Ilydrocotyle, 2 Indian pennyworL 
Apium, 2 ... Celery, parsley 
Carum, 4 ... Caraway 

Bishop'.s ... Omu 
weed 
Pimpinella, 2 
Fceniculum, i 
Polyzygus, i 
Anthriscus, i Chervil 
Pencedanum, I Dill 

Coriandrum, i Coriander ... Kottumbari 
Cuminum, I ... Cummin .seed Jirige 
Daucus, I ... Carrol ... Gajina 

gadde 
Partinaca, i ... Parsnip 
Arracacia, i 
lleracleum, i 

Araliacecr. 
Aralia, S ... Rice-paper plant 
Panax, 9 
Ileptapleurum, i 
Brassreia, 2 
Iledera, l ... Ivy 

Many varieties of Panax arc cultivated 
in gardens for their foliage. 

Corjiacece. 

Alangium, I Ankole 

Cornus, I 
Benlhamia, i 

Caprifoliacea. 
Lonicera, 2 ... Woodbine 
Rubiacea. . 
Sarcocephalus, i 
Anthocephalus, i 

Adina, i Bachanige 

Stephegyne, i ... ... Kadaga 

Nauclea, i Yettaka 

Wendlandia, 2 
Hedyotis, i 
Oldenlandia, 3 
Mussx'nda, I 

Webera, I Papati 

Randia, 2 Mangare 



Gardenia, 4 
Knoxia, i 

Canthium, 2 Kare 

Vangueria, I 

Ixora, 7 ... Torch-tree... Gorlvi 

Pavetta, i 

Coffea, 2 ... Coffee ... Kapi 

Morinda, 2 

Psychotria, i 

Spermacoce, i 

Rubia, 2 ... Madder 

Pentas, i 

Hamelia, i 

Cinchona, 4 

Rondeletia, i 

Manettia, i 

Catesboia, i 

Hoffmania, i 

Dipsacea. 
Dipsacus, I ... Fuller's teazel 
Scabiosa, 4 

Cornpositce. 

Centratherum, i 
Vernonia, 5 ... Speedwell 
Elephantopus, i 
Adenostemma, i 
Ageratum, 2 
Solidago, I 
Eupatorium, 2 
Dichrocephala, i 
Grangea, i 
Brachycome, 2 
Aster, 3 
Callistephus, i 
Erigeron, i 
Conyza, i 
Blumea, 6 
Laggera, i 

Pluchea, 2 

Spha;ranthus, 3 ... Mudugattina 
soppu 
Bodukadale soppu 
Often mixed with stored grain to pre- 
serve the latter from the attacks of 

insects. 

Filago, I 

Anaphelis, i 

Gnaphalium, 2 

Helichrysum, 2 Everlasting 

Vicoa, I 

Lagascea, I 



92 



FLORA 



Xanlhium, I 

Siegcsbcckia, i 

Kclipla, I ... ... Gariigahi soppii 

Hlainvillca, I 
Wadelia, I 

Spilanlhus, 3 Muguli 

Guizolia, I ... Foolish oil... Iluchch- 

planL ellu 

Bidens, i ... Bur marigold 
Achillea, i ... Milfoil 
Chrysanthemum, 4 ... ... Sevantige 

Cotula, I 

Artemisia, 3 ... Wormwood 

Gynura, I 

Emilia, I 

Nolonia, I 

Seneico, 4 ...Kadugobli 

Calendula, I... Marigold 

Echinops, I 

Tricholepis, 2 

Centaurea, 4... Cornflower 

Carthamus, i Safflower ... Kusumba 

Dicoma, i Sanni 

Cichorium, 2 Succory, Endive 

Taraxacum, i Dandelion 

Lactuca, 2 ... Lettuce 

Sonchus, I ... Sow thistle 

Farfugium, 3 

Flauria, i 

Zinnia, 4 

Argyranthemum, i 

Cosmos, I 

Cacalia, i 

Gaillardia, 3 

Gazania, i ... Treasure flower 

Helenium, i 

Tagetes, 3 ... African and French 

marigold 
Calliopsis, 4 
BelHs, 2 ... Daisy 
Cineraria, i 
Sanvitalia, i 

Pyrethrum, 3 Peverfew 
Cynara, I ... Globe artichoke 
Dahlia, i 

Helianthus, 4 Sunflower ... Surya 

kanti 
Jerusalem artichoke 
Polymnia, i 

Viltadenia, i Australian daisy 
Verbesina, i 



Campamilacea. 
Pratia, i 
Lobelia, II 
Cephalostigma, 2 
Wahlenbergia, I 
Sphenoclea, i 

Campanula, 5 ... Harebell 

Trachelium, i ... Throatwort 

Pin m bagin acea. 
Plumbago, 3... Leadwort ... Chitra- 

mula 
PrimiilacecB. 

Primula, i Primrose 

Anagallis, I ... Pimpernel 

Cyclamen, i ... Sow bread 

Myrsinece. 
Msesa, i 
Embelia, i 
Ardisia, 4 
Jacquinia, 3 

Sapotacece. 
Chrj'sophyllum, i Star-apple 
Sideroxylon, I ... Iron wood 
Bassia, 2 ... INIahwa ... Ippe 

Mimusops, 2 ... Pagadi 

Achras, i ... Sapod ilia 

Ebenacecc. 
Diospyros, 6... Ebony ... Bale 

OleacecB, 
Jasminum, 15 Jasmine ... Mallige 
Nycthanthes, i ... ... Parijata 

Olea, 2 ... Olive 

Ligustrum, i... Indian jorivet 
Myxopyrum, i 
Noronhia, I 

Salvadoracece. 
Azima, i ... ... ... Bili uppi 

ApocynacecE. 
Carissa, 4 ... ... ... Korinda 

Ranwolfia, I 

Cerbera, i 

Kopsia, I 

Vinca, 3 ... Periwinkle Kasi gana- 

galu 
Plumiera, 3 ... Pagoda-tree Devagana- 

galu 

Alstonia, 2 ... Jantala 

Holarrhena, i 

Taberncemontana, 3... ... Nandi 

batlu 



HORTICULTURE 



9S 



Vallaris, I 


Bugadi 


Hydrophyllacece. 


Wrightia, 2 ... Ivory wood 


Beppale 


Wigandia, I 


Nerium, 3 ... Oleander ... 


Ganagalu 


Hydrolea, i 


Beaumontia, 2 




Nemophila, i 


Thevetia, i ... Exile tree 




Boraginea. 


Allamanda, 4 




Cordia, 4 .. Tapasi 


Ichnocarpiis, I 




Ehretia, 5 


Roupellia, i 




Coldenia, i 


Dipladenia, I 




Heliotropium, 3 Heliotrope 


Echites, 2 




Trichodesma, 3 


Landolphia, 3 




Anchusa, i ... Alkanet 


Rhyncospermum , I 




Myosotis, 2 ... Forget-me-not 


Adenum, i 




Symphytum, i Prickly comfrej' 


Asclepiadacea. 




Borago, i ... Borage 


Hemidesmus, i Bastard sar- 


Sugandhi 


Cynoglossum, i 


saparilla 
Cryptolepis, 2 




Coiivohnilacecr. 


Cryplostegia, I 




Erycilje, i 


Secamone, i... 


Siranige 


Rivea, 2 


Oxystelma, I 




Argj'reia, 6 ... Elephant ... Samudra- 


Calotropis, 3... Mudar 


Vekkc 


creeper palal)alli 


Asclepias, I ... Swallowvvor 




Lettsomia, 2 


Da;mia, I 


Juttuve 


Ipoma;a, 23 ... Moonflower creeper 


Cynanchum, 2. 
Sarcostemma, i 




Morning glory 


Hamlni 


Hewittia, i 




kalli 


Convolvulus, 5 Scammony 


Gymnema, I 




Exogonium, i Jalap 


Pergularia, i 




Jacquemontia, I 


Stephanotis, I 




Evolvulus, I 


Tylophora, 4 




Porana, i 


Hoya, 5 ... Waxflowcr 




Cuscuta, I 




Solanacece. 


Leptadenia, i 






Brachystelma, i 




Solanum, 14... Night.shade Kdchi 


Ceropegia, 5 




Brinjal, egg- Badane 


Gomphocarpus, i 




plant 


Caralluma, 2 




Potato ... Urala gadde 


Boucerosia, 2 




Cyphomandra, i 


Loganiacea. 




Lycopersicum, i Tomato 




Physali.s, 2 ... Cape gooseberry 


Mitrasacme, i 




Capsicum, 5 ... Chilli ... Menasu 


Buddleia, i 




Withania, I 


Fagr;va, i 




Nicandra, I 


Strychnos, 2... Nux vomica 


Nanjina 


Datura, 5 ... Thorn-apple Ummatti 


GentianacecE. 


koradu 


Brugmansia, I Trumpet flower 


Exacum, 2 
Hoppea, 2 




Hyo-scyamus, l Henbane 
Petunia, 3 
Habrothamnus, i 


Erythrcea, i 




Nicotiana ... Tobacco ... Hoge 


Canscora, 2 






Limnanthemiim, 2 




soppu 
Scroph idarineic. 


Poknwuiacea:. 




Vorbascum, I ... Mullein 


Phlox, 3 




Celsia, i. 


Cobixia, 1 




Linaria, 2 Toad-flax 



94 



FLORA 



Antirrhinum, I ... Sna]i-<lraf^on 

Minuihis, 3 Monkey flower 

Lininopliyla, 2 
Ilerpestis, i 

Torenia, 2 Sispara creeper 

Vandellia, 4 
Ilysanthes, 2 

Veronica, i Speedwell 

Striga, I 

Rhamphicarpa, i 

Sopubia, 2 

Maurandia, 3 

Penslemon, 5 

Angelonia, 2 

Browallia, 2 

Lophospermum, i 

Collinsia, 2 

Calceolaria, i ... Slipperwort 

Paulownia, i 

Russellia, 2 

Brunfelsia, i 

Franciscea, 2 

Sanchezia, 2 

Calceolaria is not successfully cultivated 
at Bangalore. 

Orobanchacecc. 
.Eginetia, 2 
Orobanche, 2 

Lcntibiilariacea:. 
Utricularia, 2 

Gesiieracece. 
-Eschynanthus, 2 
Klugia, I 
Gesnera, 6 
Achimenes, 3 
Gloxinia, 4 
Streptocarpus, i 

Bignoniacea:. 
IMillingtonia, i Indian cork- Biratu 

tree 
Oroxylum, i 

Bignonia, 3 ... Trumpet-flower 
Tecoma, 7 
Dolichandrone, I 
Spathodea, i 
Heterophragma, I 
Stereospermum, 4 ... ... Padar 

Amphilophium, i 

Catalpa, i 

Crescentia, i Calabash-tree 



Kigelia, i 

The spathodea, when in flower, is one 
of the handsomest trees in our parks and 
gardens. 

redaliarete. 
Pedalium, I 

Sesamum, 2 ... Gingelli ... Olle yellu 
Marly nia, 2 

Acanthacea. 
Thunbergia, li 
Nelsonia, i 
Ilygrophila, 2 
Calophanes, I 
Ruellia, 3 
Phaylopsis, i 
Dcedalacanthus, 2 
Hemigraphis, I 
Strobilanthes, 8 
Blepharis, 2 
Acanthus, i 
Barleria, 9 
Crossandra, I 
Asystasia, 2 
Eranthemum, 10 
Andrographis, 2 ... ... Nelavembu 

Gymnostachyum, i 

Lepidagathis, 2 ... ... Gantu kalu 

Justicia, 8 
Adhatoda, i 
Rhinacanthus, I 
Ecbolium, I 
Graptophyllum, 3 
Rungia, 2 
Dicliptera, 2 
Peristrophe, 3 
Cyrtanthera, 2 
Aphalandra, i 
Meyenia, 2 
Fittonia, 2 

Verbenacece. 
Lantana, 2 
Lippia, I ... ... ... Kere 

hippali 
Stachyturpheta, 2 Bastard Vervain 
Priva, I ... ... ... Sirantu 

Verbena, 4 
Callicarpa, i 

Tectona, 2 ... Teak-tree ... Tegada 

mara 
Premna, i ... ... ... Narave 

Gmelina, 2 ... ... ... Kuli 

Vitex, 4 ... Chaste-tree Nekkilu 



HORTICULTURE 



95 



Clerodcndron, 13 

Holmskioldia, I 

Petrea, i 

Duranta, 2 

Aloysia, i ... Lemon-.scented verl^ena 

Citharexylum, I 

Lanlana is very entensively used for 

hedges. 

Labiata. 

Ocymuni, 5 ... Sweet baril Tulasi 
Orthosiphon, 2 
Plectranthus, 2 

Coleus, 4 ... Indian ... Dodda 
Ijorage patri 

Garden varieties of coleus are much 
prized as foliage plants. 
Anisochilus, 2 
Lavendula, 2 Lavender 
Pogostemon, 2 ... Pachche tene 

Dysophylla, i 
Perilla, i 

Mentha, 2 ... Peppermint I'udina 
Origanum, 2... Marjorum 
Thymus, i ... Thyme 
Ilyssopus, I ... Hyssop 
Melissa, i ... Balm 
Salvia, 8 ...Sage Karpura gida 

Marrubium, i Horehound 
Anisomeles, 2 ... Mangamari 

Stachys, i ... Woundwort 
Leonorus, i ... Motherwort 

Leucas, 5 Tumbe 

Leonotis, i 
Gomphostemma, i 
Rosmarinus, I Rosemary 

PlantaginecB. 
I'lantago, i Sirapotli 

Nyctaginea:. 
Boerhaavia, 4 ... Hogweed 

Pisonia, i Lettuce-tree 

:Miral)ilis, I ... Marvel of Peru, 

?"our o'clock plant 
Bougainvillea, 3 

The last grow and flower profusely at 
Bangalore. 

Ainaranlaccic. 

Dceringia, I 

Celosia, 3 ... Cockscomb 

Allmania, i 

Digera, I 

Amaranlus, 12 Danlu 



Pupalia, 2 ... ... Antu purule 

/Erua, 3 

Achyranthus, 3 Uttarani 

Alternanthera, 3 

Extensively used as edgings for garden 
paths. 

Gomphrena, 2 Globe amaranth 
Iresine, 4 

CheiiopodiacCiC. 
Chenopodium, 2 Goosefoot 
Beta, I ... Beet 
Spinacia, I ... Spinach ... Basale 
Atriplex, 3 ... Orache 
Basella, i BayiBasali 

Phytolaccacea. 
Rivina, i 

Polygo)iace<e, 
Polygonum, 7 ... ... Siranige soppu 

Fagopyrum, i Buckwheat 

Rheum, i ... Rhubarb 

Emex, I 

Rumex, 2 ... ... Sukke soppu 

Coccoloba, I 
Antigonon, i 

Nepenthacece. 
Nepenthes, i... Pitcher plant 

Aristolochiacea. 
Aristolochia, 5 

Piperacea. 
Piper, 6 ... Pepper ... Menasu 

Betel leaf ... Vilyad-ele 
Peperomia, 4 

Myristicecc. 
Myristica, 3 ... Nutmeg-tree Jaji kayi 

Laitraccic. 
Cinnamomum, 2 Cinnamon Lavanga 

patte, 
Dalchini 

Machilus, i ChilUi 

tandri 
Alseodaphne, i 
Litscea, i 

Persea, i ... Alligator Pear 
Hernandia, 2 

Proteaceit. 
Plelicia, i 

Macadamia, i jVuslralian nut-tree 
Grevillea, 2 ... Silver oak 
Ilakea, 3 



96 



FLORA 



El(vagnace(t. 
EliJeafjnus, 2 Ilcjjalii 

f.oranthaccic. 

Loranthus, 4 Badanikc 

Old mango-trees in Mysore are much 
infested by these mistletoes. 

SantalacecE. 
Santalum, I ... Sandalwood Srigandha 
The most valuable tree in Mysore. 

EuphorbiaceiE. 
Euphorbia, 10 Milk hedge Kalli 
Buxus, I 

Bridelia, I Gurige 

Phyllanthus ... Gooseberry-... Nelli 

tree 
Glochidion, i 
Fhieggia, i 

Breynia, i Suli 

Putranjiva, i 

Antiderma, i 

Jatropha, 7 ... Physic-nut 

Manihot, i ... Ceara rubber 

Tapioca 
Aleurites, i ... Belgaum walnut 
Croton, I ... Crotonoil... Japala 

plant 
Of so-called garden crotons, which 
properly belong to the genus Codiceum , 
122 varieties are named as cultivated at 
Bangalore. 
Givotia, i 
Codi^Eum, I 
Chrozophora, i 

Acalypha, 7 Kuppi 

Trewia, 1. 

Mallotus, I ... Kamaladye Kunkumada 

mara 
Ricinus, 2 ... Castor-oil ... Haralu 

plant 
Gelonium, I 
Tragia, i 
Dalechampia, i 
Sapium, 2 ... Tallow-tree 
Exccecaria, I 
Baloghia, i 

Poinsettia, 2... Sandbox-tree 
Hura, I 
Anda, i 

Hevea, 2 ... Para rubber 
Xylophylla, i 



Pedilanthus, 2 
Synadcnium, i 

Celtis, I 
Trema, I 



Urlicecc. 



Bendu 
Gorklu 



, Charcoal- 
tree 
Humulus, I ... Hop 
Cannibis, i ... Hemp ... Bangi soppu 
Cultivation prohibited in Mysore. 

Streblus, i Mitli 

Broussonetia, i Paper mulberry 
Morus, 5 ... Mulberry Reshme gida, 
Kamljali gida 
Dorstenia, I 

Ficus, 25 ... Banyan Alada mara, 
Goni mara 
Pipal Asvatha, arali 

mara 
Basuri mara 
Country fig Atti mara 
Goni mara {F. mysoreiisis) is the 
largest species in the Mysore country. 
Specimens are not unusual with trunk 
30 feet circumference, and head 140 feet 
diameter. The Java fig {F. Benjainiiia) 
and Moreton Bay chestnut {F. macro- 
phylla) are highly ornamental trees. 
Artocarpus, 4 Jack-tree ... Halasina 

mara 
Urtica, I ... Nilgiri nettle 
Fleurya, i 
Girardinia, i 
Pilea, I 
Boehmeria, 3... Rhea Fibre or 

Grass-cloth plant 
Pouzolzia, I 
Debregeasia, i 

PlatanacecT. 

Platanus, i ... Oriental plane 

CasuaruiecE. 
Casuarina, 7 . . . ... ... Kesarike 

C. eqtiisetifolia is very extensively 
cultivated as a fuel-tree. 

CupiiHfera;, 
Quercus, i ... Oak 
Will hardly grow here 

Salicaceic. 
Salix, 2 ... Willow ... Niravanji 

Ceratophylk(.e. 
Ceratophyllum, i 



HORTICULTURE 



97 



Gymnospermae. 



Conifera. 




' Wellingtonia, i ... Mammoth-tree 


Cupressus, 7 


Cypress 




Cryptomeria, I 


Juniperus, i 


Juniper 




Thuja, I Arbor vita- 


I'odocarpus, 2 






Retinospara, 3 


Danimara, 2 


New Zealand pine 




I'inus, 2 


Cheer pi 


ne 


Cycadaceie. 


Frenela, 2 ... 


Tasmanian pine 


Cycas, 5 


Araucaria, 4 


Pines 




I Macrozamia, i 


Abies, 2 


Spruce 




1 Encephalartus, i 






Monocotyledons. 


Hydrocharidecc. 




Amomum, \ 


Hydrilla, i 






Eletlaria, 2 ... Cardamom Velakki 


Lagarosiphon, i 






(Marantacere. ) 


Vallisneria, i 






Maranta, 21 


Blyxa, I 






Canna, 10 ... Indian shot 


Ottelia, I 








Orchid 


\c. 




(Musacere.) 


Dendrobium, 37 






Musa, 5 ... Plantain ... Bale gid; 


Bulbophyllum, 2 






Of M. paradisiaca 15 varieties a 


Eria, 3 






named as in local cultivation. 


Phajus, 3 






Heliconia, 2 


Ccelogyne, 7 






Strelitzia, i 


Pholidota, 2 






Ravenala, i ... Travellers' tree 


Calanthe, 2 






Iridacem. 


Arundina, i 








Cyml^idium, 3 






Gladiolus, 5 ... Corn flag 


Eulophia, i 






Iris, 3 Fleur-de-lis 


Cyrtopera, i 






Tigridia, I Tiger flower 


Phalaenopsis, 2 






Pardanthus, 1 ... Leopard flower 


.brides, 5 






Antholyza, i. 


Vanda, 6 






Amaryllidea. 


Saccolaliium, 6 






Crinum, 7 


Vanilla, 2 






Pancratium, I 


Cultivated at Bangal 


ore for it> 


fruil. 


Nerine, i ... (juernsey lily 


I'ogonia, i 






Amaryllis, 5... Mexican lily 


Habenaria, i 






Eucharis, 2 ... Amazon lily 


Cypripediuni, 4 


Lady's si 


pper 


Zephyranthes, 3 American crocus 


Angrivcum, i 






Curculigo, 2 


Bletia, i 






Cyrtanthus, i 


Oncidiuni, i 






Hsemanthus, 3 Blood flower 


A number of orchidh 


are still 


undeter- 


Doryanthes, i 


mined. 






Agave, 6 ... American aloe Kaltali 


Scitai)n)icu-. 




Fourcroya, 4 


(Zingiberaceiv. ) 




Broiiieliaccie. 


Alpinia, 5 






.^chmea, 2 


Zingi])er, 2 ... dinger 


... Sonti 


Anana.ssa, 2 ... I'inc apple Ananas 


Costu.s, 2 






Billbergia, i 


Ksempferia, 2 Indian 


crocus 




Tillandsia, 2 


Hedychium, 4 darland flower 




Pilcairnia, 2 


Curcuma, 4 ... Turmeric ... Arisina gida 


Bromelia, 1 



98 



FLORA 



Dioscorcacece. 
Dioscorca, 8 Yam 

SniilacciF. 
Smilax, 3 ... Sarsaparilla 

Philesiacea. 
Lapageria, 2 

Liliacecz. 
Lilium, 5 ... Lily 

Succeed indifferently at Bangalore. 

Gloriosa, i Karadi kan- 

nina gida 
Agapanthus, 2 African blue lily 
Ilemerocallis, i Day lily 
Anthericum, 2 St. Bruno's lily 
Tulipa, 2 ... Tulip 
rdianthes, 2 

Ornithogalum, I Star of Bethlehem 
Sanseveira, 3 Bow-string Manju 

hemp 
Allium, 5 ... Onion ... Irulli 
Garlic ... BellulH 

Asparagus, 4 Majjige 

Aspidistra, 3 

Dracaena, 20... Dragon's blood 

Very useful for decorative purposes. 
Phormium, 2 New Zealand flax 
Aloe, 3 ... Hedge aloe 

Yucca, 5 ... Adam's needle 
Eustrephus, i 

Pontederiacecc. 
Monochoria, 2 

Commclynageic. 
Cyanotis, 2 
Commelyna, 4 
Aneilemma, i 
Nadescantia, 4 

Palmacea:. 
Areca, 7 ... Areca-nut ... Adike 
Arenga, i ... Sugar palm 
Borassus, i ... Palmyra palm Tale 
Caryota, 4 ... Sago palm Bagani 
Chamcerops, 3 

Cocos, 2 ... Cocoa-nut... Tengina 

mara 
Several distinct varieties are cultivated. 
Corypha, 2 ... Fan palm 
Phoenix, 9 ... Date palm... Karjura 

Toddy palm Ichalu 
Sabal, 2 ... Palmetto 



Seaforthia, I 

Livistona, 2 

Licuala, 2 

Calamus, 6 ... Rattan-cane palm 

Ekx;is, I 

Oreodoxa, I 

Kentia, i 

Thrinax, 3 

Rhapis, I ... Ground rattan 

Hyophorbe, I 

Dictyosperma, i 

Dypsis, I 

Wallichia, I 

Alismacea. 
Sagittaria, I 

PandajjacecE. 
Pandanus, 4 ... Screw pine Gedige 

Typhacece. 
Typha, 2 ... Elephant ... Jambu 
grass huUu 

Aroidea. 
Acorus, 2 ... Sweet flag 

Calla, I ... Arum lily 

Aglaonema, 3 
Alocasia, 18 
Amorphophallus, 3 
Anthurium, 13 

Arisjema, 2 ... Snake lily 

Arum, 2 ... Lords and ladies 

Caladium, 46 

Grow to great perfection in Bangalore. 
Dieffenbachia, 12 
Philodendron, 5 
Pothos, 5 
Syngonium, 3 
Curmeria, I 

PistiacecB. 
Pistia, I ... Water soldier 

Lemna, i ... Duckweed 

Eriocaidonea. 
Eriocaulon, 2 

Cyperacetz. 

Cyperus, 18 Jambu huUu 

Timbristylis, 6 ... Sabbasige hullu 

Isolepis, 3 ... ... Usumani hullu 

Scirpus, I Club-rush Hommugali 

hullu 
Courtoisia, I 
Tuirena, 2 ... ... Petlugori huJlu 

Kyllingia, I ... Anantagonde hullu 



HORTICUL TURE 



99 



Graminea. 
Triticum, i ... Wheat ... Oodhi 
Oryza, i ... Rice ... Nellu 

There are specimens of io8 varieties 
in the Bangalore Museum. 



Zea, I 


Maize 
Indian corn 


. Jola 


Euchln?na 


Teosinte 




Paspalum, 2 .. 




.Sanna tapri 
hullu 


I'anicum, 21 .. 


Little millet 


Haragu 




Italian mille 


t Navane 
Same 
Maraka 


Pencillaria, I... 


Spiked mille 


L Sajje 


Setaria, 4 




. Korle 
hullu 


Saccharum, 2.. 


Sugar-cane 


Kabbu 


Andropogon,5. 


Lemon grass Nese hullu 






Lavanchi 






hullu 






Kasi hullu 




Kuskus 


Ganjalu ga- 




grass 


rika hullu 


Sorghum 


Oreat millet Bili jola 


Cymljopo- 




Dodda kasi 


gon, I 




hullu 


Chrysopogon, 2 






Coix, I 
ApUida, I 
Anatherium, i 


Job's tears 








Aristida, 4 ... 


Broom 


Ilanchi 




grass 


hullu 


Cynodon, I ... 


Ilariali, or.. 


. Oarike 



doub grass hullu 
The best Indian grass for making hay. 



Fox-tail grass 



Buffalo-head grass 



Nose hullu 



Chloris, I 
Microchlon, i 
Lappago, I 
I.sachne, i 
Sporobolus, 2... 
Oplismenus, 4 
Manisurus, i 
Batratherum, i 
Trachys, I 
Dactyloc- 

tenium, i 
Leptochloa, 2 
Perotis, i 
Eragrostis, 11 
Leersia, i 
ChaniKraphis, i 
Imperata, i 
Gymnothrix, i 
Spodiopogon, i 
Ileteropogon, i 
Elytrophorus, I 
Anthisteria, i 
Hemarthria, I 
Arundinella, 2 
Eleusine, 2 ... 

The staple grain of Mysore, 
Avena, i ... Oat grass 

Briza, i 
Dactylis, i 
Lolium, I 
Heleochloa, i ... 

(Bambusacece. ) 
Dendrocalamus, I 
Arundinaria, 2 

Bambusa, 5 ... Bamboo ... Bidiru 
Beesha, 2 ... Quill bamboo 



Ragi 



Ragi 



Quaking grass 
Cock's-foot grass 
Darnel rye grass 

Jandu hullu 



Filices. 



Acroslichum, 8 
Actinopteris, i 
Adiantum, 32 
Alsophila, I 
Anemia, i 
Angiopleris, i 
Aspidium, 4 
Asplenium, 20 
Athyrium, i 
Blechnum, 4 
Ceropteris, i 
Cheilanlhus, 3 
Cyrtomiuni, 2 



Maiden -hair fern 
Tree fern 



Wood fern 
Spleenwort 
I>ady fern 
Hard fern 



Cryptogams. 

Davallia, 5 
Doodia, i 
Drynaria, i 
Gleichenia, i 
Goniopteris, i 
Gymnogramma, 

Hemionitis, i 
Hemilalia, i 
Hypolepis, I 
Lastrea, 3 
Lindsiva, i 
Lomaria, i 
Lygodium 2 



Golden fern 
Silver fern 



Climbing fern 
H 2 



FLORA 



Nciihrddium, 17 

Nciiliiolcpis, 8 

Niphohulus, I 

Onychiuni, 2 

Ophioglossuni, 1 

Osmunda, 1 ... l^oyal fcni 

Pelljea, 2 

Pleopelti.s, i 

I'olyliotrya, i 



I'olypodiiim, 12 
Pteris, 15 
Sagenia, i 
Scolopendrium, i 

Lycopodiaccd. 
lyycopodium, 2 ... Clulj-moss 
Selaginella, 13 



O'i grasses indigenous to Mysore, the following is a descriptive list of 
those fit for stacking' :• — 

Garike. — A kind of haridii, grows to about 3 feet, a i:;;ood nourishing,' gra.ss, grow.s 
almcst anywhere, l)ut is l)est in light soil and with nifxlerate moisture (Cynodon 
dactylon). 

Gaiijalu Garike. ^A. kind of hariali, very valuable for all purposes, and .said to 
increase the milk-giving powers of cows ; makes very good hay. Clrows in light soil 
with moderate moisture (Andropogon Bladhii). 

Haiichi. — A coar.se common grass, grows in any sort of place, it runs much to stalk, 
and is not very nourishing because of the hardness of the stalk ; there are two kinds, 
one coarser than the other (Aristida cterulescens). 

Karda. — (Spear grass.) Good when young, but dries up into sticks in the hot 
weather ; very common all over the country (Andropogon pertusus). 

Darbhe. — A rushy kind of grass, grows in swamps and jheels, has a feathery flower, 
and its seeds fly. It grows to about 4 feet in height. Cattle only eat it when young ; 
it makes indifferent hay (Eragrostis cynosuroides). 

Phara or Mdiii. — A very valuable grass, good for every kind of cattle, grows any- 
where, but best on black cotton soil ; attains the height of about i foot, and throws up 
a long flowering stalk. 

Uppala. — A rushy kind of grass in jheels and swamps, height about 4 feet, nourish- 
ing and liked by cattle. Makes indifferent hay. 

Sunti. — Grows in jheels, paddy fields and swamps, very good grass, makes good 
hay, reaches about 3 feet in height (Panicum repens). 

Node. — A long rushy grass, grows only in damp jungles, acts as a purge on cattle, 
good for hide-bound beasts. 

Solali. — Found in jheels, and grows to about 3 feet, makes indifferent hay. When 
young it is liked by, and good for, cattle, but its chief value is from the small gras.ses 
which are always found growing round the bottom of its stem. 

Marahiillii.—A. good grass, grows to about 3 feet, is of a nourishing nature, requires 
a good deal of moisture. 

The following are not good for stacking ; they grow mixed together, 
gondyada or che/ildgatii, bhhna/ii, Indiirii-yck, ycnua/iiaffi, Inli-huIIu^ 
iim/nattakam, nariM/a, akki-hullii, hire. 

There are also certain plants or herbs which are of great use to 
cattle ; the best of these is called J>urta?iipiili, which has seeds like 
burrs, with a thick-jointed sappy stem ; grows along the ground, is very 
good for milch cattle. 

^ From a memorandum by Colonel Boddam. The botanical name has been added 
where it could be identified. 



lOI 



CROPS AND CULTIVATION^ 



Cultivated lands are usually classed as dry, hishki ; wet, tari ; and 
garden, tbta or bdgdyat. In the first are raised crops which do not 
require irrigation, pair-dramba : the wet crops are those dependent for 
their growth entirely on irrigation, nir-dramba : the products of garden 
cultivation are fruits or drugs requiring a moist situation with an 
abundant supply of water. Gardens are of four kinds : tarkdri tbta, 
vegetable gardens ; iengina or adike iota, cocoa-nut or areca-nut 
plantations ; yek tbta, betel leaf plantations ; and hi/vina tbta, flower 
gardens. The agricultural seasons are two, and the produce is called 
Kdrtika fasal ox Vais dkJia fasal -^ccoxdiAXiglo the time of ripening.- In 
the Mysore District the seasons are named kdru and haiiiii. In parts 
of the Malndd the former has the name kbdii. 

But the farmer's calendar is regulated by the rains that fall under 
each of the jiakshatras or lunar asterisms, after which they are called. 
The following are the names, with the generally corresponding 
months : — 

Lunar Mouth. Solar Month. 

Chailra 

April 



Nakshatra 
As'vini 
Bharani 
Krittika 
Rohini 

Mrigas'ira . . . 
Ardra 

I 'unarvasu . . . 
I'ushya 
As'lesha 
Magha 
Tuliba 
U tiara 
Hasta 
China 
Svati 
Vis'akha 
Amiradha ... 
Jyeshtha 
Mula' 

ri'irvashadha 
Utlarashadha 
S'ravana 



\'ais'akha 

Jyeshtha 

Ashadha 

S'ravana 
Bhadrapada 
.Vs'vija 
Kartika 

Margas'ira 
I'ushya 



May 
June 

July 

August . . . 
September 
October ... 
November 

December 
January ... 



Mcsha ... 
N'rishabha 
Milhuna ... 
Karkataka 

Simha 
Kanya 
Tula 
\"ris'chika 

Dhanus ... 
Makara .., 



Aries 



Taurus 



Cjemini 



Cancer 



Leo 



Virgo 



Libra 



Scorpio 



Sagittarius 
Capricornus 



ind accurate accounts have l)een freely used in describing the 



' Buchanan's full 
modes of cultivation. 

'^ Kartika falls in October — November ; Vais'dl;ha in April — May. 



I02 FLORA 

Nakshatra. Lunar Month. Sola)- Mont/i. 

Dhanishtlia... ... Magha 

S'atal)liisha... ... ... .. February... Kuinljlia ... Aquarius 

l\'irval)ha(lra ... I'halj^una 

Utlarabhddra ... ... .. March ... Mina ... Pisces 

Rcvati 

Bharani rain is considered to prognosticate good seasons throughout 
the year. This is expressed in the Telugu proverb Bharani vaste 
dharani pandudu — if Bharani come, the earth will bring forth. The 
rains from Mrigas'ira to A.s'lesha are the sowing time, for food grains 
in the earlier part, and horse-gram in the later. Svati and Vis'akha 
rains mark the close of the rainy season. Anuradha to Mula is the 
reaping time, when only dew falls. At this season the future rains are 
supposed to be engendered in the womb of the clouds. Sugar-cane is 
planted in Pilrvabhadra and Uttarabhadra. 

The absolute dependence of all classes on \\\^ panchdtiga or almanac 
is thus explained by Buchanan : — " Although, in common reckoning, 
the day begins at sunrise, yet this is by no means the case in the 
cha7idra]iidnain almanac. Some days last only a few hours, and others 
continue for almost double the natural length ; so that no one, without 
consulting the Panchangadava or almanac-keeper, knows when he is to 
perform the ceremonies of religion. What increases the difficulty is, 
that some days are doubled, and some days altogether omitted, in order 
to bring some feasts, celebrated on certain days of the month, to happen 
at a proper time of the moon, and also in order to cut off six super- 
fluous days, which twelve months of thirty days would give more than 
a year of twelve lunations. Every thirtieth month one intercalary moon 
is added, in order to remove the difference between the lunar and solar 
years. As the former is the only one in use, and is varying continually, 
none of the farmers, without consulting the Panchangadava, knows the 
season for performing the operations of agriculture. These Panchanga- 
davas are poor ignorant Brahmans, who get almanacs from some one 
skilled in astronomy. This person marks the days, which correspond 
with the times in the solar year, that usually produce changes in the 
weather, and states them to be under the influence of such and such 
conjunctions of stars, male, female, and neuter ; and everyone knows 
the tendency of these conjunctions to produce certain changes in the 

weather." 

The following is a list of the most generally cultivated productions of 

the soil : — 

Dry Crops. 
Cereals. 

Eleusine corocana, Gartn. ... Ragi Ragi- 

Panicum frumentaceum, AW(5. ... Little millet Same, save. 



CROPS 



103 



Panicum italicum, IJim. ... 

,, miliaceum, Linn. 

,, semiverticillatum 
Pennisetum typhoideum, lizc/i. 
Sorghum vulgare, I'ers. ... 

Cajanus indicus, Spreng. . . . 
Cicer arietinum, Z?««. 
Dolichos biflorus, Linn. ... 

,, lablab, Linn. 
Lens esculenta, Mcench. ... 
Phaseolus mungo, Linn. . . . 

,, ,, var. radiatus, /,///« 

Vigna catiang, Endl. 

Guizotia abyssinica, Cass. 
Ricinus communis, Linn. 



Sesamuni indicum, D.C. ... 

Brassica nigra, Koch. 
Crotolarea juncea, Linn. 
(iossypium herbaceum, Linn. 
I libiscus cannabinus, Linn. 
Nicotiana tabacum, Linn. 



OiyzB. sa.tiya., Linn. 
Saccharum officinarum, Li>in. 



Allium cepa, Linn. 

,, sativum, Linn. 
Arachis hyjxjga'a, Linn. ... 
Capsicum annuum, Li)in. 
Carum copticum, Benth.... 
Carthamus tinctorius, Linn. 
Coriandrum sativum, /.inn. 
Cuminum cyminum, Linn. 
Curcuma longa, Roxb. 
Trigonclla focnum gra*cum, Linn. 
Zingiber officinale, Rose. ... 

Areca catechu, Linn. 

Cocos nucifera, />?';/;/. 

Coffea arabica, /,///;/. 

Elettaria cardamomum, Maton. .. 

Morus indica, Linn. 

Musa sapientum, Linn. ... 



Italian millet 
Common millet ... 

Spiked millet 
Great millet 

Pulses. 
Pigeon pea, doll 
Bengal gram, chick pea 
Horse gram, kujli 
Cow gram 

Lentil 

Green gram 
Black gram 

Oil seeds. 
. Foolish oil plant 
. Castor oil 

Wild „ 

. Gingelli, sesame 
Miscellaneous. 

. Mustard 

Indian hemp 
. Cotton 

. Dekhan hemp ... 
. Tobacco ... 

Wet Crops. 

Rice 
Sugar-cane 

Garden Crops. 

. Onion 
. Garlic 

Ciround-nut 
. Chilly 

Bishop's weed 

Safflower... 

Coriander 
. Cummin seed 

Turmeric 

Fenugreek 

Ginger ... 

J\Iiscellaneo us. 
Areca-nut 
Cocoa-nut 
Coffee 
Cardamom 
Mulberry 

i'lantain ... 



Navane. 

Baragu. 

Haraka. 

Sajje. 

Joja. 

Togari, tovari. 

Kadale. 

Hurali. 

Avare. 

Channangi. 

Hesaru. 

I'ddu. 

Alsandi, tadugani. 

Huchchejlu, ramtil. 

Ilaralu. 

Kad-, dod-, or mara- 

haralu. 
Woljclju, achchel]u. 

Sasive. 
Sanabu. 
Arale. 
Pundi. 
Hoge soppu. 



Bhatta, nellu. 
Kabbu. 



Nirulli. 
Bejluiji. 
Kallekayi, nela kadale. 
Mensina kayi. 
Oma. 
Kusumba. 
Kottambari. 
Jirige. 
Arisina. 
Mentya. 
Sunti. 

Ad ike. 

Tengina kayi. 

Bundu, kapi. 

Velakki. 

Uppu nerle, kambali 

gida. 
Bale. 



I04 



J' LOR A 



I'ijK'r Ijctlc, Liiiii. 

,, nigrum, Linn. 
Triticuiii sativum, La/iik. 



Ik'tcl vine 
lilack pepper 
Wheat ... 



Viled-ele. 

.Menasu. 

(;6dhi. 



The total area taken up for cultivation in 189 1-2 is stated at 
5,685,160 acres, of which 4,601,729, or 8o'9 per cent, were for dry 
cultivation ; 697,419, or i2'2 per cent., for wet cultivation; 234,955, or 
4"i per cent., for garden cultivation; and 148,834, or 2*6 per cent, for 
coffee. The approximate area actually under crops from 1870, so far 
as figures are available from the Annual Reports, may be gathered 
from the following statement, expressed in millions of acres : — 



IS70 


• 5-15 


1876 


•• 5-53 


1882 . 


• 4-51 


1887 


•• 5-24 


I87I 


.. 4-91 


1877 


.. 4-38 


1883 . 


• 4 '65 


1888 


.. 5-28 


1872 


.. 5-26 


187S 


•• 4'39 


1884 . 


• 4 '47 


1889 


•• 553 


1873 


.. 5-20 


1879 


•• 3-99 


1885 . 


. 4-88 


1890 


• • 5 '60 


1874 


■• 5 "22 


1880 


.. 4-28 


1886 . 


• 5"io 


1891 


.. 5-68 


1875 


• • 5 '02 


1881 


•• 4-35 











In 1865 the acreage seems to have been 3 "14 millions, so that culti- 
vation has increased 80 per cent, in twenty-seven years since. But part 
of the increase may, no doubt, be attributed to more accurate measure- 
ment, resulting from the progress of the Revenue Survey. In the first 
series- the highest point was reached apparently in 1876, just before 
the great famine ; but the crops of that year perished, and it was 
thirteen years before cultivation spread to the same extent again. 
Adopting intervals of five years, the percentage of approximate acres 
returned as under various crops was as follows : — 



Crops. 


1871. 


1876. 


1881. 


1886. i 


1891. 




r Ragi 

Other Food Grains ... 


j- 66 '04 


84- 


75-11 


t 
73-4 


45 '9 
1 28^6 


Dry ... - 


Oil Seeds 


2'I 


2-2 


3-06 


4'5 1 


4*1 


Cotton 


•78 


•09 


— 


•87 


•71 




Tobacco 


•4 


•21 


— 


•92 


"■> 




l Wheat 


•25 


•I 


•4 


•36 


■06 




r Rice 


24-5 


8- 


1273 


^y3, 


12-7 


Wet... \ 


Sugar-cane 


•45 


•2 




•72 j 


•62 




Mulberry 


•28 


■2 


— 


•2 i 


•24 




r Cocoa-nut and 




} 2-3 










Areca-nut 


!• 


3-1 


27 


2-8 


Garden - 


Vegetables 


1-9 


•s 


— 


•66 


!•! 




. Coffee 


2-3 


2-1 


3-2 


2-1 , 


2-6 



CROPS 105 

The most important fluctuation exhibited by these figures is an 
apparent reHnquishment of rice cultivation in favour of the cultivation 
of ragi and associated food grains, and of oil seeds. This movement, 
which took place in the years 1871 to 1873, is not specially noticed in 
the Reports. But it appears to have been coincident with a change of 
policy whereby the control of irrigation channels and tanks was trans- 
ferred from the Revenue officers to the Public Works Department, 
with the view of their being systematically repaired, the necessity for 
which had long been recognized, and brought up to a good standard of 
safety. The former frequent waste of water was now checked, and 
steps were taken to enforce the responsibilities of the cultivators in 
regard to the maintenance of the restored irrigation tanks. Moreover, 
as the new Revenue Survey approached the rice districts, it was now- 
real i/.ed that all occupied lands were liable to pay the assessment, 
whether cultivated or not. Hence perhaps a reduction in the area of 
wet cultivation which the statistics disclose, the actual area under rice 
having dropped from i"32 million acres before 187 1 to little over half 
a million in the subsequent year. Another explanation may be found 
in the following statement from the Report for 187 1-2 : — "The fall in 
the value of produce has been attended by considerable relinquishments 
of land, chiefly on the part of speculators, who appear to have taken 
up land wherever it could be obtained during the period of high prices, 
and who, doubtless, in many instances have found it no longer worth 
retaining," 

The following figures, taken from the returns for 1 891-2, are instruc- 
tive as showing the Districts in which the cultivation of particular pro- 
ducts is most extensive. Mysore and Bangalore grow the most ragi, 
followed by Tumkilr, Hassan, and Kolar, in this order. Chitaldroog 
and Mysore have the largest area under other dry grains and oil seeds. 
Chitaldroog is pre-eminently the cotton district, and also takes the prin- 
cipal lead in the limited area under wheat. Mysore produces the most 
tobacco. Shimoga is the chief rice district, the cultivation being to a 
great extent dependent on the rains alone : Mysore follows, with its 
splendid system of irrigation channels: Kadur and Hassan come next, 
partaking of the character of both. Shimoga, Kolar, and Hassan are 
the principal sugar-cane districts. Mulberry cultivation, for the nourish- 
ment of silkworms, is confined entirely to Mysore and the eastern 
districts. Tumkilr stands first in cocoa-nut and areca-nut gardens, 
especially the former, followed by Hassan, Mysore and Shimoga, 
which last excels in areca-nut. Kolar cultivates the largest extent of 
vegetables, while Bangalore and Tumkiir come next, a good way after. 
Kadur and Hassan are almost exclusively the coffee districts. 



io6 



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RAG I 107 

Ragi — (the manva or mandwa of northern India) is by far the most 
important of any crop raised on dry fields and suppHes all the lower 
ranks with their common diet. It is reckoned the most wholesome 
and invigorating food for labouring people.' Three kinds are distin- 
guished of it, which, however, are only varieties ; the kari or black, 
ketnpu or red, and hnllupare. All are equally productive, but the third 
when nearly ripe is very apt to shake the seed. In some places all 
three are sown intermixed in the same field, but in others more atten- 
tion is paid to the quality of the grain. The black is considered in 
some parts to be simply grain that has got wet when it is threshing. 

The principal varieties in the eastern districts are' the gidda rdgi and 
dodda rdgi. The former ripens in four months, and the latter in four 
and a half; and the latter is esteemed both the best in quality, and the 
most productive ; but when the rain sets in late, as it requires less time 
to ripen, the gidda is preferable. In the Mysore District the gidda 
ragi is called kdr rdgi, and somewhat different. There are three kinds 
of kdr rdgi: the ba/aga, or straight-spiked rdgi, which is always sown 
separately from the others ; the />i/i iiiodga/a, or white nigi with incurved 
spikes ; and the kari viodgala, or incurved black ragi : the two latter 
are sometimes kept separate, and sometimes sown intermixed. The 
cultivation for all the three is quite the same and the value of the 
different kinds is equal ; but the produce of the kari modgala is rather 
the greatest. 

"The whole world," says ^^'ilks, "does not, perhaps, exhibit a 
cleaner system of husbandry than that of the cultivation of ragi in the 
home fields of Mysore. On the first shower of rain after harvest the 
home fields are again turned up with the plough,- and this operation, 
as showers occur, is repeated six successive times during the dry season, 
at once destroying the weeds and opening the ground to the influence 

* The following is the composition of nigi grain according to Professor Church in 
Food Grains of India : — 

In 100 parts 







Husked 


Whole 


In I lb. 


Water 




13-2 .. 


. 12-5 . 


2 oz grains 


Albumino: 


ids 


7-3 •• 


• 5-9 • 


• • ,, 413 „ 


Starch 




73-2 .. 


. 74-6 . 


■ II ,, 409 >. 


Oil... 




15 .. 


. 0-8 ., 


.. ,, 56 ,, 


Fibre 




2-5 .. 


. 36 ., 


,, 252 ,, 


Ash 




2-3 .. 


. 2-6 .. 


. ,, 182 ,, 



The nutrient ratio is liere i : 13, llie nutrient vahie S4. The percentage of phos- 
phoric acid in the whole grain is about 0*4. 

- This is the practice in the Mysore District, but in the eastern di.slricts the fields 
are left untouched after harvest, with the stubbie standing, until the early rains of the 
following spring. 



To8 FLORA 

of the sun, the dcc()m[)()silioii of water and air, and the formation of 
new compounds. 'I'lic manure of the village, which is carefully and 
skilfully prepared, is then spread out on the land, and incorporated 
with it by a seventh ploughing, and a harrowing with an instrument 
nearly resembling a large rake, drawn by oxen and guided by a boy : 
when the field is completely pulverized, a drill plough, of admirable 
and simple contrivance, performs the operation of sowing twelve rows 
at once by means of twelve hollow bamboos at the lower end, piercing 
a transverse beam at equal intervals and united at the top in a wooden 
bowl, which receives the seed and feeds the twelve drills : a pole at 
right angles with this beam (introduced between two oxen) is connected 
with the yoke ; the bamboos project below about three inches beyond 
the transverse beam, being jointed at their insertion for the purpose of 
giving a true direction to the projecting parts, which being cut diagon- 
ally at the end, serve, when the machine is put in motion, at once to 
make the little furrow and introduce the seed : a flat board, placed 
edgewise and annexed to the machine, closes the process ; levelling the 
furrows and covering the seed. If the crop threatens to be too early or 
too luxuriant, it is fed down with sheep. Two operations of a weeding 
plough of very simple construction, at proper intervals of time, loosens 
the earth about the roots and destroys the weeds ; and afterwards during 
the growth of the crop, at least three hand weedings are applied. This 
laborious process rewards the husbandman in good seasons with a crop 
of eighty fold from the best land. The period between seed-time and 
harvest is five months. There is another kind of ragi which requires 
but three months. It is sown at a different season in worse ground, 
and requires different treatment." 

In some parts, as near Seringapatam, the ground having been 
prepared in the same way, the ragi is sown broad-cast, and covered by 
the plough. The field is then smoothed with the halivc, which is a 
harrow or rather a large rake drawn by two bullocks. Then, if sheep 
are to be had, a flock of them is repeatedly driven over the field, which 
is supposed to enable it to retain the moisture ; and for this purpose 
bullocks are used when sheep cannot be procured. Next day single 
furrows are drawn throughout the field at the relative distance of six feet. 
In these are dropped the seeds of either avare or tovari, which are 
never cultivated by themselves ; nor is nigi ever cultivated without 
being mixed with drills of these leguminous plants. The seed of the 
avare or tovari is covered by the foot of the person who drops it into 
the furrow. Fifteen days afterwards the kiuite or bullock-hoe is drawn 
all over the field ; which destroys every young plant that it touches, and 
brings the remainder into regular rows. On the thirty-fifth day the 



RAG I 109 

kiintc is drawn again, at right angles to its former direction. On the 
forty-fifth day it is sometimes drawn again ; but when the two former 
ones have sufficiently thinned the young corn, the third hoeing is not 
necessary. At the end of the second month, the weeds should be 
removed by the small iron instrument called iijari. According to the 
quantity of rain, the ragi ripens in from three to four months. The 
avare and tovari do not ripen till the seventh month. The reason of 
sowing these plants along with the ragi seems to be that the rains 
frequently fail, and then the ragi dies altogether, or at least the crop is 
very scanty ; but in that case the leguminous plants resist the drought 
and are ripened by the dews, which are strong in autumn. When the 
ragi succeeds, the leguminous plants are oppressed by it and produce 
only a small return ; but when the ragi fails, they spread wonderfully 
and give a very considerable return. 

In other places, as in Kolar, where the seed is sown by the drill- 
I)lough, ki'/n'ge ; behind the kiirige is tied the implement called siidike, 
into which is put the seed of the avare or tovari ; by this method, for 
every twelve drills of ragi there is one drill of pulse. After the field 
has been sown, it is harrowed with the bullock-rake called halive, and 
then smoothed with a bunch of thorns, which is drawn by a bullock 
and pressed down by a large stone. Here sheep are only used to 
trample the ragi fields when there is a scarcity of rain. The bullock- 
hoe called kunte is used on the fifteenth and eighteenth days after 
sowing. On the twenty-sixth day the harrowing is repeated. On the 
thirty-second the field is cleared from weeds with the implement called 
oravari. In four months the ragi ripens and in five the pulses. 

In the west, about Periyapatna, in very rich soils, nothing is put in 
drills along with ragi ; but immediately after that grain has been cut, a 
second crop of kadale is sown, which does not injure the ground. 
Sometimes a second crop of same or of huchcheHu is taken ; but these 
exhaust the soil much. ^Vhen rain does not come at the proper 
season, the nigi fields are sown with ht/ra/i\ kadalc, huchchclju, or kari- 
siiDie. The two leguminous plants do not injure the soil ; but the 
huchcheUu and same render the succeeding crop of nigi very poor. 

In Shimoga the ragi seed, mixed with dung, is placed very thin with 
the hand in furrows drawn at the distance of about seven inches 
throughout the field, a small quantity being dropped at about every 
ten inches. In every seventh furrow are put the seeds o{ (ivurc, tovari^ 
and pinidi intermixed, or of uddu by itself. 

Ragi is reaped by the sickle, and the straw is cut within four inches 
of the ground. For three days the handfuls are left on the field : and 
then, without being bound up in sheaves, are stacked, and the whole is 



no 



FLORA 



well thatched. At any convenient time within three months it is 
opened, dried two days in the sun, and then trodden out by oxen. 
The seed, having been thoroughly dried in the sun, is preserved in 
straw i?iude. The remainder is put into pits, or hagevii ; where, if care 
has been taken to dig the pit in dry soil, it will keep in perfect 
preservation for ten years. 

Rdgi is always ground into flour, as wanted, by means of a hand-mill 
called Msa-gcinu. In this operation it loses nothing by measure. The 
flour is dressed in various ways. The most common are, a kind of 
pudding called hittii, and two kinds of cakes called rotti and doshe, 
both of which are fried in oil. For all kinds of cattle, the ragi straw is 
reckoned superior to that of rice.' 

' The following is an estimate by Dr. Forbes Watson of the food-value of ragi and 
other Indian grains, taken from Mr. Elliot's l)ook {Experiences of a Planter). 

"The position of ragi as food, when compared with some of the other Indian 
cereals, appears from the following table : — 







Bajree 


Jowaree 


Rice 


Ragi 


Name of the Grain 


Wheat 


{Penicillaria 


(Sorghum 


(pryza 


(Eleusim 






sjticata) 


vulgarc) 


sativa) 


corocand) 


Number of analyzed samples 


9 


3 


2 


9 


7 




Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Moisture 


I2"00 


I2-00 


12-00 


1200 


12-00 


Nitrogenous matter 












Ciluten, alljumen, &c. ... 


1 3 '42 


10-27 


9-38 


740 


6-53 


Cellulose or woody fibre 


2 69 


1-49 


2-23 


•39 


336 


Carbonoiis viatter 












Starch, gum, &c. 


68-81 


71-01 


7268 


78-97 


74*44 


Fat or oil 


I-I5 


3-27 


2-04 


•57 


1-17 


Oxide of iron 


•019 


•026 


-018 


•008 


064 


Potassa... 


•214 


•405 


•207 


■066 


•534 


Soda 


•392 


•132 


•135 


•082 


•019 


Lime 


•068 


064 


-094 


"026 


•617 


Magnesia 


•241 


•239 


•260 


•103 


•163 


Chlorine 


•059 


•058 


•016 


•016 


•048 


Phosphoric acid 


•817 


-678 


•856 


•287 


•595 


Sulphuric acid ... 


•154 


-105 


•108 


-080 


•no 


Silica ... 


•029 


•375 


•088 


•092 


•334 



The order according to which these cereals are arranged is determined by the 
amount of nitrogenous matter they contain. Wheat stands pre-eminent, followed by 
bajree and jowaree [or sajje and jola], w-hilst rice and ragi occupy the lowest position. 
It will be observed that, in order to avoid the perturbations in the natural order 
which may arise from a varying amount of moisture in the grains, all the analyses 
have been reduced to a common moisture of twelve per cent. , which is that to which 
all grains more or less approach. The numbers inserted in the table are, therefore, 
true comparative numbers. 

The ragis grown at different places seem to show almost a greater latitude in com- 
position than most of the other grains. Among the seven samples analyzed the 
amount of nitrogenous matter varies between 5-49 and 9*24 per cent., so that, although 



RAGI III 

Tbta or ndt rdgi is not the same with that cultivated on dry grounds, 
although in the sense adopted by botanists it is not specifically 
different ; but the seed which is raised on dry fields will not thrive in 
gardens ; nor will that which is raised in gardens thrive without 
irrigation. Garden ragi is always transplanted, and hence it is called 
ndti. The following is the process followed in the Kolar District. 
For the seedling bed, dig the ground in Pushya (Dec. — Jan.) and give 
it a little dung. Divide it into squares, and let it have some more 
manure. Then sow the seed very thick ; cover it with dung, and give 
it water, which must be repeated once in three days. The ground 
into which it is to be transplanted, is in Pushya ploughed five 
times, and must be dunged and divided into squares with proper 
channels. About the beginning of Magha, or end of January, 
water the seedlings well, and pull them up by the roots : tie them in 
bundles, and put them in water. Then reduce to mud the ground into 
which they are to be transplanted, and place the young ragi in it, with 
four inches distance between each plant. Next day water, and every 
third day for a month this must be repeated. Then weed with a small 

the average is inferior to the rice, there are samples which may be richer in nitrogen 
than most of the rices. Still, this is only one aspect of the question. The amount 
of nitrogen is too often looked upon as the only exponent of the nutritive value. 
This is a very circumscribed view of the extremely complicated and many-sided 
problem of nutrition. Each of the normal components of the human body can 
become of paramount importance under certain conditions. The oxide of iron in the 
ash of the grains amounts only to some tenths of a per cent. ; but still the regular 
supply even of this small quantity is essential for the proper performance of the vital 
functions, as it is indispensalole in the formation of the blood-corpuscles. A dearth 
of iron would, therefore, be just as fatal as a want of the nitrogenous, or carbonous, 
or other principal constituent of food. In judging, therefore, of the relative value of 
an article of food, the amounts of nitrogen and carbon cannot be relied on as the sole 
guide. The mineral constituents must be taken into account. At the time when I 
published my first analyses of ragi, these extended only to the organic compounds of 
the grain, and the position which I then assigned to it — guided only l)y the percentage 
of nitrogen — has been borne out by the subsequent analyses. Since then, however, a 
detailed examination of the ash has been made, which yielded some remarkable con- 
clusions. The ragi seems to be uncommonly rich in certain important mineral con- 
stituents. The amount of phosphoric acid in ragi is only lower by one-fourth than 
that in wheat, and it is more than twice as high as in rice. It contains eight times as 
much iron, and eight times as much potassa as rice, and, indeed, more of potassa 
than any of the other grains. It is, likewise, exceptionally rich in lime. The ash, 
composed, as it chiefly is, of the most important elements, amounts on the average 
to 2j per cent, in ragi, as compared with 0760 per cent, contained in rice. It is 
therefore possible, if not indeed probable, that the large amount and favour- 
al)le composition of the ragi ash may more than counterbalance its inferiority in 
nitrogen, so that although, according to the nutritive standard hitherto in use, it must 
be put below rice, ragi may still be, on the whole, a food satisfying by itself more 
completely the numerous exigencies of an article of human diet than rice."' 



112 FLORA 

hoc, and water once in four days. It ripens in three months from the 
time when the seed was sown; and in a middling crop, produces twenty 
fold. It is only sown on the ground at times when no other crop could 
be procured, as the expense of cultivation nearly equals the value of the 
crop. Another kind of nat ragi cultivated in Sira as a Vais'akha crop is 
called tripati. 

Avare — is never cultivated alone, but always with ragi, as 
described above. When ripe, the legumes are nearly dry. The plant 
having been cut and for one day exposed to the .sun, is beaten with a 
stick to separate the seed. That which is designed for seed is 
preserved in mudes ; while that for consumption is kept in pots, and 
is used in curries. The straw is eaten by all kinds of cattle except 
horses.' 

Togari (or Tovari) — is also cultivated only with ragi, as described 
above. It is cut when almost dry, then put up in heaps, and on the 
day after it is opened to dry in the sun. The grain is beaten out with 
a stick ; and that intended for sowing must be preserved in a straw 
miide. It is used in curry. After the seed has been threshed, cattle 
eat the husks of the legume. The straw is used for fuel. A larger 
variety, called hiruka togari, is produced by garden cultivation. - 

The best soil for the cultivation of these three articles is the black 
soil, or ere bht'imi; which yields a crop of ragi every year, and even 
without manure will give a considerable return ; but when it can be 
procured, dung is always given. After a crop oi jbla, ragi does not 
thrive ; but j61a succeeds after a crop of ragi. The next best soil for 
ragi, and the one most commonly used, is the kebbe or red soil. In 
this also it is sometimes cultivated without dung ; but it requires to be 
manured at least once in two or three years. In maralu, or sandy, and 
dare soils, it every year requires dung, 

Jola — next to ragi is the most considerable dry crop. In the south 
it is often sown for fodder; for, when the crop is not uncommonly good, 

1 The following is Professor Church's analysis of avare beans : — 



Water 

Albuminoids 

Starch 

Oil 

Fibre 

Ash 

The nutrient ratio deduced is I : ; 

- According to the same authority i lb of the pea would contain i oz 361 grains of 
water, 3 oz 208 grains of albuminoids, and 9 oz 1 1 grains of starch. The nutrient 
ratio would be about 1:3: the nutrient value 80. 



In 100 parts 
Husked With husk 


In I lb 
oz grs 


I2-I 


.. I2-I 


I 410 


24-4 . 


.. 22-4 


3 255 


57-8 . 


•• 54-2 


S 294 


1-5 ■ 


1-4 


9S 


I "2 . 


.. 6-5 ... 


I 17 


3-0 . 


• • 3-4 


23S 


he nutrient value 80. 





JO LA 113 

the grain is no object. It is cut and given to the cattle at a time when 
ragi straw is not- to be procured. Previously to being given to cattle, 
however, it must be dried, as the green straw is found to be very 
pernicious. There are two kinds of jbla ; the white (/>///) and red 
{ke7npii). When they are intended to be cut for the grain, these are 
sown separately ; as the red kind ripens in three months, while four are 
required to ripen the white jola. A red ragi soil is preferred for it, 
and crops of ragi and jola are generally taken alternately, the crop of 
ragi having an extraordinary allowance of dung. The j6]a requires less 
rain than the ragi, and admits of a second crop of hurali being taken 
after it; and thus, in the course of two years, there are on the same 
ground three crops. 

The j61a is both made into flour for puddings and cakes, and is 
boiled whole to eat with curry, like rice. It is a good grain; but at the 
utmost does not keep above two years. 

The j6/a that is cultivated on dry field in Madgiri is of three kinds : 
agara, kempu, and hasani. They are all, probably, mere varieties. 
The best soil for them is a black clay ; and the next, the same mixed 
with sand. For ragi these soils are of a poor quality ; but on the same 
dry field j6]a and ragi may be alternately cultivated without injuring 
either. In Wais'akha, or the second month after the vernal equinox, 
plough four times. After the next rain sow the seed. It is sown 
either broad-cast or by dropping it in the furrow after the plough. 
Smooth the field by drawing a plank over it. It requires neither 
weeding nor manure. For fodder its straw is inferior to that of rdgi, 
but superior to that of rice. Agara jd]a ripens in 4^ months, kcinpu 
and hasaru in four months. Their produce is rather less in the order 
they are mentioned. 

Towards llarihar the jola crop is always accompanied by one or 
more of the following articles : avare, togari, hasaru, 7)iadiki, hurali, and 
alasandi. These being intended chiefly for family use, a portion of 
each is wanted, and every man puts in his j6]a field a drill or two of 
each kind. Jd]a thrives on black clay, but is also sown on the red 
earth, and even sometimes on the stony soil. In Chaitra the field is 
hoed with a heg-kuiifc, which requires from six to eight oxen to draw it ; 
for this is the month following the vernal equinox, when the soil is very 
dry and hard. In the following month the field is ploughed once, and 
then manured. In the month preceding the summer solstice, the seed 
is sown after a rain by means of the drill ; while the rows of the 
accompanying grains are put in by means of the sudike, which is tied 
to the drill. The field is then smoothed with the bohi kuitk, a hoe 
drawn by oxen, of lighter make than the heg-kunte. On the twentieth 

I 



IT4 FLORA 

day the field is weeded willi the cdc kuii/c, and (jii the twenty-eighth 
day this is repeated. Tn five incjinlis the juja ripens, without further 
troul)le.' 

In the north of the Tumkiir District a few fields (jf watered land are 
entirely allotted for the cultivation of /'/// Jo/a. The soil of these is a 
rich black mould, but does not require much water. Only one crop a 
year is taken. The produce is great, not only as an immense increase 
on the seed sown, but as affording a great deal of food. The following 
is the mode of cultivation : — Begin to plough in Vais'dkha and in the 
course of seven months plough eight or nine times. Then manure 
with dung, mud from the bottom of tanks, and leaves of the honge ; 
and if there be no rain, water the field before .sowing. Previous to 
being planted, the seed must have been soaked in water. A man then 
draws furrows with a plough, and another places the seed in the 
furrows at the distance of four or five inches. By the next furrow it 
is covered. The field is then smoothed by drawing over it a plank, on 
one end of which a man stands, and by this means that forms a low 
ridge. Thus throughout the field, at the distance of six feet, which is 
the length of the plank, parallel rows of ridges are produced. The 
intermediate spaces are divided into oblong plots by forming with the 
hand ridges which at every eight or twelve cubits distance cross the 
others at right angles. At the same time the areas of the plots are 
exactly levelled. The waterings, after the first month, must be given 
once in twelve or fourteen days. In some villages the farmers weed 
the Jo/a when it is six weeks old ; in others they do not take this 
trouble. Some people around every field of Jo/a plant a row of 
kitsumba seeds, and the prickly nature of that plant keeps aw\iy cattle. 

Bi/i Jo/a is sometimes sown in place of the ^^ais'akha crop of rice. 
This must be followed by a Karttika crop of ragi, as after it the 
produce of rice would be very small. The jdla also thrives best after a 
Karttika crop of ragi. Agara Jo/a is also sometimes seen in place of 
the Vais'akha crop on rice ground. It ripens in four months. 

Save. — There are three kinds of save cultivated in the east : /ian\ 

' The nutrient ratio oi Jo/a is given In- Professor Church as i : S\, and the nutrient 
value as 86. It contains, he tells us, '86 per cent, of phosphoric acid and '21 per 
cent, of potash. The following is his analysis of the grain : — 





In TOO parts 


In I lb 


Water 


... 12-5 


2 OZ O 


Albuminoids 


... 9-3 


I ,, 214 


Starch 


... 72-3 


II ,, 248 


Oil 


2-0 


,, 140 


Fibre 


2*2 


,, 154 


Ash 


... 17 


,, 119 



SAVE 115 

/cari, and M/ or ^/7/. They are never intermixed, and the cultivation 
of the first kind differs from that of the other two. For /lari save 
plough three times in the same manner as for ragi. If there be any to 
spare, give the field dung, sow broad-cast, and harrow with the bullock- 
rake. In three months the grain ripens without farther trouble ; when 
it is cut down, stacked on the field for six days, and then trodden out. 
It keeps best in the store-house, and is never made into flour. Cattle 
eat the straw without injury, but it is inferior to the straw of either ragi 
or rice. For the other two kinds, plough three times in the course of 
Ashadha (June — July) ; then, after the first good rain, sow broad-cast, 
plough in the seed, and harrow. They do not necessarily require 
dung ; but if any can be spared, they will grow the better for it. When 
ripe, which happens also in three months, they are managed as the 
other kind is. The seed .ind produce of all are nearly the same. 

In Madgiri the best soil for same is considered to be the red or ash- 
coloured, containing a good deal of sand, which is common on high 
places, ^^'ithout much manure, this ground does not bear constant 
cropping. After resting a year or more, it is first cultivated for Jiiirali 
and next season for same. If manure can be procured, a crop of nigi 
is taken, and then it has another fallow. Dung being a scarce article, 
in place of the ragi a second crop of same is taken ; but it is a bad one. 
If the fallow has been long, and high bushes have grown up, after 
burning these, the crop of hurali will be great, and two or three good 
crops of same will follow. AVhen good ragi soil has for a year or more 
been waste, and is to be brought again into cultivation, the first crop 
ought to be same ; for ragi thrives very ill on land that is not constantly 
cultivated. In this case, the same gives a great quantity of straw, but 
little grain. When the rains have failed, so that the ragi has not been 
sown, or when, in consequence of drought, it has died, should the end 
of the season be favourable, a crop of same is taken from the fields 
that are usually cultivated with ragi. This crop also runs to straw, and 
the following crop of ragi requires more dung than usual. In the 
course of thirty days, any time between the middle of April and 
middle of July, plough three or four times. Then after a good rain, or 
one which makes the water run on the surface of the ground, harrow 
with the rake drawn by oxen, and sow the same seed with the drill, 
putting in with the sudikc rows of the pulses called hurali ox togari. 
In four months, without farther trouble, it ripens. 

The same in Sira is of three kinds : /'///, kari, and nialiga or iiiujika. 
The cultivation for the three kinds is the same, but the seeds are always 
kept separate. The soil that agrees with them is the mara/u, and dare, 
or poor sandy and stony lands. This soil, if it were dunged, would 



ii6 FLORA 

every year produce a croi) of same ; Init, as that can seldom be spared, 
the same is ahvays succeeded by a crop of hurali, which restores the 
ground \ and alternate crops of these grains may be continued, without 
any fallow, or without injury to the soil. Bili sdvie ripens in 3^ and 
kari in four months ; the inalit^a requires only three months, and is 
therefore preferred when the rains begin late; but it gives little straw, 
and therefore in favourable seasons the others are more eligible. Same 
straw is here reckoned better fodder than that of rice ; and, when 
mixed with the husks of hurali or togari, is preferred even to that of 
ragi. Except in case of necessity, jdja straw is never used. 

Save in the south is never sown on the ere or black clay, and rarely 
on the kebbe, or red soil ; the two worst qualities of land being 
considered as sufficiently good for such a crop. In the spring the field 
is ploughed five times. At the commencement of the heavy rains it is 
sown broad-cast, and the seed is covered by a ploughing. Even in the 
worst soil, there is no absolute necessity for dung ; but when any can 
be spared, the crop will doubtless be benefited by manure. It ripens 
without further care in three months, is cut close to the ground, and 
gathered into stacks. Five or six days afterwards it is spread on a 
threshing-floor, and the grain is trampled out by oxen. That intended 
for sowing is dried in the sun, and tied up in straw viudes. The 
remainder is preserved in kanajas. It is sometimes boiled whole, like 
rice ; at others, ground into flour for cakes. All kinds of cattle eat the 
straw, which is also esteemed the best for stuffing pack-saddles.' 

Navane. — There are two varieties cultivated in the Mysore District ; 
the one called gidda, or short ; and the other jbtu. or long ; and dodda, 
or great. Unless a quantity of dung can be spared, it is never sown on 
the two worst soils. On the two best soils it requires no manure, and 
does not injure the succeeding crop of ragi. In the spring, plough six 
times. When the heavy rains commence, sow, and plough in the seed. 
It requires neither weeding nor hoeing, and ripens in three months. 
Cut it close to the ground, and stack it for eight days ; then spread it 
to the sun for a day, and on the next tread out the grain with oxen. 
The seed for sowing must be well dried in the sun, and preserved in 
a fjiude. The remainder is kept in a kanaja. It is made into flour for 
hittu or pudding, and is also frequently boiled whole, like rice. The 
straw is used for fodder, but is not good. The jbtu navaiie is some- 
times put in drills with ragi, in place of the avare or togari. 

Toward Madgiri the navane is of three kinds, /'///, which is cultivated 

' The following analysis of the grain (with husk) is given by Professor Church : — 
In 100 parts there are contained, water I2'0 ; albuminoids, 8*4 ; starch, 72'5 ; oil, 3"0 ; 
fibre, 2*2 ; ash fg. The nutrient ratio is i : 9"S, and the nutrient value 88. 



NA VANE 1 1 7 

on watered land ; kt'iiipii, wliich is cultivated in palm gardens ; and 
/iio/ne, which is cultivated in dry field. It is sometimes sown along 
with cotton, but it is also cultivated separately. It grows on both ragi 
and jola ground, and does not injure the succeeding crop of either. 
In the course of twenty or thirty days, any time in Jyeshtha, Ashadha, 
or Sravana, the third, fourth, and fifth months after the vernal equinox, 
plough four times. If dung can be obtained, it ought to be put on 
after the first ploughing. With the next rain, harrow with the rake 
drawn by oxen, sow broad-cast, and harrow again. The straw is 
reckoned next in quality to that of ragi ; but the grain, in the opinion 
of the natives, is inferior. 

The navane cultivated on dry field in Sira is that called In/i, and is 
raised either on the two poorer soils, or on a black mould that has been 
prepared for it by a crop of the pulse called hesaru. It is considered 
as exhausting to the ground ; but this is obviated by ploughing up the 
field immediately after the navane has been cut, thus exposing the soil 
to the air. In the two months following the vernal equinox, plough 
four times. \\'ith the next good rain, harrow with the rake drawn by 
oxen, and sow the seed with the drill ; putting navane in the kurige, and 
the pulse called avare in the sudike. In three months it ripens without 
farther trouble. For cattle, the straw is better than that of rice. 

Baragu — is of two kinds ; white and black. A sandy soil of any 
kind agrees with this corn, which is also valuable as requiring very 
little rain. The straw is better fodder than that of rice. In the second 
month after the vernal equinox, plough three times. After the next 
rain, in the following month, either sow with the drill, and harrow with 
the rake drawn by oxen, or sow broad-cast, and plough in the seed. 
In three months it ripens without fi\rther trouble, and in a favourable 
season produces sixteen seeds. 

There is only one kind cultivated in Kolar. After the heavy rains 
have ceased, plough twice, and without manure sow broad-cast, and 
plough in the seed. Without any farther trouble it ripens in two 
months and a half, is cut down close by the ground, stacked for one or 
two days, and then trodden out. The grain is kept in store-houses, 
and preserves well for two years. It is boiled entire, like rice. The 
straw is only used for fuel. A good crop produces twelve seeds, a 
middling one, eight. It requires a rich black clay.' 

Haraka — as it is found to injure the succeeding crop of ragi, is 
never in the south cultivated on the best soil, and rarely on that of the 

' The following is given hy Professor Church as the chemical composition of the 
grain : — In lOO parts there are, water, I2"0 ; albuminoids, I2"6 ; starch, 69"4; oil,3"6 ; 
fibre, I 'O ; ash i "4. The nutrient ratio is i : 6, and the nutrient value 89. 



m8 J' lor a 

second quality. It is coinnionly followed by a crop of horse gram, and 
is seldom allowed any manure. In the si)ring plough five times. The 
dung, if any be given, must be put on before the last ploughing. When 
the heavy rains commence, sow broad-cast, and plough in the seed : 
next day form drills of togari in the same manner as with ragi. When 
the sprouts are a span high, hoe with the kunte, once longitudinally and 
once across the field. Next weed with the iijare. It ripens in six 
months ; and having been cut down near the root, is stacked for six days. 
It is then trodden out by cattle. The seed reserved for sowing must be 
well dried in the sun. The remainder is preserved in the katiaja, but 
does not keep long. It is both boiled like rice, and made into flour 
for dressing as hittu, or pudding. The straw is eaten by every kind of 
cattle ; but, of all the fodders used here, this is reckoned the worst. 

The following is the process of cultivation in the east. At the 
commencement of the rains, plough three times in the course of a few 
days. As soon as the heavy rains begin, sow the seed broad-cast, and 
cover it by a third ploughing. It requires no manure, and here the 
pulse called togari is never sown with haraka. At the end of a 
month weed it with the implement called woravdri. It requires six 
months to ripen, and is cut near the root, stacked on the field for five 
or six days, and then dried in the sun, and trodden out. The grain is 
commonly preserved in pits, and does not keep longer than one year. 
It is never made into flour. The straw is bad forage, and is used 
chiefly for manure. The produce in a good crop is twenty-fold ; in a 
middling crop fifteen-fold. 

Haraka at Madgiri is sown in low soft places, where, in the rainy 
season, water is found near the surface. The soil is of different kinds. 
In Vais'akha, Jyeshtha and Ashadha, or three months following the 
middle of April, plough three times in the course of thirty days. After 
the next rain that happens, harrow with the rake drawn by oxen, sow 
broad-cast, and then repeat the harrowing. It ripens in six months with- 
out farther trouble. As fodder for cattle, the straw is reckoned equal 
to that of ragi, or of hurali. The produce in a good crop is forty-fold. 

Alsandi. — Of this grain there is but one kind, and it is cultivated 
in the south only as a kdr crop, which is performed exactly in the 
same manner with that of the kdr icddii. The green pods, and ripe 
grain, are both made into curries, by frying them in oil with tamarinds, 
turmeric, onions, capsicum, and salt. Horses eat the grain ; but the 
straw is only useful as manure.' 

' According to Professor Church loo parts of the husked bean contain — water, 
I2'5 parts; albuminoids, 24"I ; starch, 56'S ; oil, i "3 ; fibre, fS; and ash, 3-5, of 
\\hicli I "o consists of phosphoric acid. 



HURALl 119 

Hurali or horsc-gra»i is of two kinds, black and while or red ; both 
are sown intermixed. The worst quahtics of soil are those commonly 
used for this grain in the east ; and on the same fields, same, haraka 
and huchchellu are cultivated, without one crop injuring the other, or 
without a rotation being considered as of the smallest benefit. For 
horse-gram plough twice, in the course of a few days, any time in 
Kartika. Then after a shower sow broad-cast ; or, if none happen, 
steep the seed for three hours in water. Plough in the seed. It has 
no manure, and in three months ripens without farther trouble. Cut 
it down early in the morning, stack it for one day, and then dry it five 
days in the sun. Tread it out, and clean it with a fan. It preserves 
best in a store-house, but does not keep longer than one year. The 
forage is here reckoned inferior to ragi straw. The produce in a good 
crop is fifteen-fold ; and in a middling one ten-fold. 

In the south the two varieties, the red and the black, are always 
sown intermixed. In the last half of Srdvana, plough three times. 
Sow broad-cast with the first rain of Bhadrapada. It requires no 
manure, and the seed is covered by a fourth ploughing. In three 
months it ripens without farther trouble, and is then pulled up by the 
roots, and stacked for eight days : after which it is spread in the sun to 
dry, and next day is trodden out by oxen. The seed for sowing must 
be well dried in the sun, and preserved in mudcs ; the remainder is 
kept in pots, or in the kcmaja. It is used for human food, either 
dressed as curry, or parched ; but the chief consumption of it is for 
cattle, both horses and bullocks. The straw is an excellent fodder, and is 
preferred even to that of ragi. It is generally sown on the two worst 
soils, in fields that are never used for anythingelse; but it also follows as a 
second crop after jola ; or, when from want of rain the crop of ragi has 
failed, the field is ploughed up and sown with horse-gram. In this 
case, the next crop of ragi will be very poor, unless it be allowed a 
great quantity of manure. In i)laces where the red and black horse- 
grams are kept separate, the black kind is sown from twehe to twenty 
days later than the other. 

The only kind cultivated towards the north-east is the white. 
Except after kdr e/he, or upon new ground, it never succeeds. The 
longer the ground has been waste, especially if it has been overgrown 
with small bushes of the taiigadi, or banddri (cassia auriculata and 
dodonea viscosa), so much the better for /ii/ra/i. It grows best upon ash- 
coloured soil, and next to that i)refers a red soil, in which there is 
much sand. In Srdvana, burn the bushes ; and either then, or in the 
course of the next month, plough once. After the next good rain sow 
the seed broad-cast, and plough the field across the former furrows. 



I20 FLORA 

'l"hc hiirali aL Sira is black and white mixed. It grows better on 
Stony than on sandy soils ; and gives the greatest crops when cultivated 
on land that has been waste, and over-run with bushes ; but it also 
thrives tolerably on land that is alternately cultivated with it and same, 
or sajje. In the month which precedes and that which follows the 
autumnal equinox, sow the seed broad-cast, and then cover it with the 
plough. In four months it ripens without farther trouble. Both straw 
and husks are reckoned good for labouring cattle ; but they are .said 
to be bad for milch cows.' 

Uddu — is of two kinds ; chik lufdu, and dod uddu. The chik uddii 
seems to be a variety, with black seeds. It is cultivated in Mysore 
District as follows : — The ploughing commences ten days after the feast 
Sivardiri, in February. Previous to the first ploughing, if there has 
not recently been any rain, the field must have a little water, and then 
it is three times ploughed. The seed is sown immediately before the 
third ploughing, by which it is covered. This crop obtains neither 
water, manure, nor weeding. The straw, when ripe, is pulled up by 
the roots, stacked for three days, dried two days in the sun, and then 
trodden out by bullocks. The flour, made into cakes, and fried in oil, 
is here a common article of diet. It is also mixed with rice flour, and 
made into w^hite cakes called dose, which are also fried in oil, and are 
a favourite food. The straw is reckoned pernicious to cattle. It is 
thrown on the dunghill, and serves to increase the quantity of manure. 
The grain is always preserved in the miide, or straw bag. 

Dod uddu is also called hatti uddu. It is cultivated and managed 
exactly like the other kind ; but the first ploughing is on the eighth 
day after the Swarna Gauri vrata, in August. The sowing season is 
fifteen days afterwards. The straw is equally pernicious to cattle, but 
the grain is reckoned better than that of the chik uddu. 

About Madgiri it grows best on a black soil, which it does not 
injure for the succeeding crop of j6]a. Plough twice in Ashadha or 
Sravana, the fourth and fifth months after the vernal equinox. After 
the next rain sow broad-cast, and plough in the seed. In three and a 

' The following is the result of Professor Church's analysis of horse-gram : — 

In loo parts In i lb 

unhiisked oz grs 

Water ii-o ... i t,t,t, 

Albuminoids ... ... 22*5 ... 3 262 

Starch ... ... ... 56"o ... 8 420 

Oil 1-9 ... o 133 

Fibre 5"4 ... o 37S 

Ash 3-2 ... o 224 

The nutrient ratio is i : 27, and the nutrient co-efficient S3. The ash contains 

nearly one-third its weight of phosphoric acid. 



UDDU 121 

half months it ripens without farther trouble. The straw is only useful 
as fodder for camels. 

Dod uddti is cultivated in the west on good ragi soils, and is taken 
as an alternate crop with that grain. After cutting the ragi the field is 
ploughed once a month for a year. At the last ploughing some people 
sow the seed broad-cast, and cover it with the plough ; others drop it 
into the furrow after the plough. In this last case, the young plants 
are always too thick ; and when they are a month old, part of them 
must be destroyed by the hoe drawn by oxen. If sown broad-cast, the 
weeds at the end of a month must be removed by the hand. The 
broad-cast sowing gives least trouble. The drill iiddu produces a little 
more. It ripens in three months. 

The chiffi/, or lesser uddii, is cultivated at the same season with the 
kdr ragi, and requires four months to ripen. Owing to a more 
luxuriant growth, even when sown broad-cast, it requires the use of the 
hoe drawn by oxen. It is not, however, so productive as the great 
uddu. Cattle eat the straw of uddu when mixed with the husks, and 
with those of hurali, kadale, avare, and togari, and \vith the spikes of 
ragi, after these have been cleared of grain. This fodder is reckoned 
superior to even the straw of rdgi. 

Hesaru. — It is of one kind only, but is cultivated in the south both 
as a hain and as a /'(/rcrop ; in both of which the manner of cultivation 
is exactly the same as that of the uddus. The straw, being equally 
unfit for cattle, is reserved for manure. The grain is dressed as curry. 

In the east it is commonly raised on dry field. It requires a black 
clay ; and, although it have no manure, it does not injure the following 
crop of ragi. In the course of a few days in Vaisakha, plough twice, 
sow broad-cast, plough the seed, and harrow. In three months it 
ripens without farther trouble. It is then cut by the ground, stacked 
for six days, dried in the sun for four, and trodden out by oxen as 
usual. The grain, for use, is preserved in store-houses, and does not 
keep good more than two months, even although it be occasionally 
dried. The straw is totally useless, and will not even answer for 
manure. 

The hesaru cultivated at Sira is called kari, or l)lack, and requires 
a black soil, to which it is said to add much strength. It is therefore 
taken alternately with itavaijc, or with //uc/ii/ic//i/, both of which are 
considered as exhausting crops. It is cultivated exactly in the same 
manner as hurali is, and ripens in three months. Except for feeding 
camels, its straw or husks are of no use. 

In a few i)laces in Shimoga where there is a moist black soil, the 
rice-ground produces a second crop of kadale, and of hesaru. For the 



122 FLORA 

hcsaru, the field after the rice harvest must he ploughed twice. In the 
month following the shortest day, it must be watered from a reservoir, 
and smoothed with the implement called koradu. As a mark for the 
sower, furrows are then drawn through the whole field, at the distance 
of four cubits ; and the seed having been sown broadcast is covered 
by the plough. The field is then smoothed with the koradu, and in 
four months the crop ripens. 

Wollellu — is cultivated near Seringapatam, and in some places is 
q:\\\c^ pJiulagana e/Ju. It is raised exactly like the kdr uddit, cut down 
when ripe, and stacked for seven days. It is then exposed to the sun 
for three days, but at night is collected again into a heap ; and, 
between every two days drying in the sun, it is kept a day in the heap. 
By this process the capsules burst of themselves, and the seed falls 
down on the ground. The cultivators sell the greater part of the seed 
to the oil-makers. This oil is here in common use with the natives, 
both for the table and for unction. The seed is also made into flour, 
which is mixed with jaggory, and formed into a variety of sweet cakes. 
The straw is used for fuel and for manure. 

In Kolar it is more commonly called achchellu, and is cultivated as 
follows. In Vais'akha plough twice, without manure, sow broad-cast, 
and plough in the seed. In three months it ripens without farther 
trouble, is cut down by the ground, and is afterwards managed exactly 
like the uddu. The seed is preserved in the same manner. The 
produce in a good crop is twenty seeds, and in a middling one twelve. 
The straw is used for fuel. 

North of the Tumkiir District are cultivated two kinds of sesamum, 
the karti or wollellu, and the gur-ellit. The last forms part of the 
watered crops ; the kar-e]]u is cultivated on dry field. The soil best 
fitted for it is da^-e, or stony land, which answers also for same 
and hurali. The ground on which kar-e]lu has been cultivated will 
answer for the last-mentioned grain, but not so well as that which has 
been uncultivated. After it, even without dung, same thrives well. 
The same ground will every year produce a good crop of this cllu. If 
a crop of ellu is taken one year, and a crop of same the next, and so on 
successively, the crops of eHu will be poor, but those of same will be 
good. After the first rain that happens in Vais'akha, which begins 
about the middle of April, plough three times. With the next rain sow 
broad-cast, and plough in the seed. In between four and five months, 
it ripens without farther trouble. The produce in a good crop is 
eighty-fold. 

In the west the kar-elju is sown on ragi fields that consist of a red 
soil, and does not exhaust them. The field is ploughed as for ragi, 



U'OLLELLU 123 

but it is not allowed manure. The seed is mixed with sand, sown broad- 
cast, and harrowed with the rake drawn by oxen. It r![)ens in four 
months without farther trouble. The seed is equal to half of the rigi 
that would be sown on the same field. The produce is about twenty 
seeds. The straw is burned, and the ashes are used for manure. 

Huchchellu — or the foolish-oil-plaut, is near Seringapatam most 
common])- sown after j61a as a second crop. When that has been 
reaped, plough four times in the course of eight days. Toward the end 
of Sravana, or about the middle of August, after a good rain, sow 
broad-cast, and plough in the seed. It requires neither manure nor 
weeding, and ripens in three months. It is cut near the root and 
stacked for eight days. Then, having been for two or three days 
exposed to the sun, the seed is beaten out with a stick, and separated 
from fragments of the plant by a fan. The seed is kept in pots. Part 
of it is parched and made into sweetmeats with jaggory ; but the 
greater part is sold to the oil-maker for expression. This oil is used in 
cookery, but is reckoned inferior to that of ivone/Ju. The stems are a 
favourite food of the camel ; but are disliked by the bullock, though 
want often forces this animal to eat them, ^^'hen not used as a second 
crop after j6]a, it is always sown on the two poorer soils. 

The hiicJichenu near Bangalore is managed exactly in the same 
manner as the wolleUu The 70 seers measure require a little more 
water than the other ehu, and gives 65 seers of oil (or a little more 
than 4^ gallons). This also is used for the table. The cake is never 
used for curry, but is commonly given to milch cattle. 

Huchchel/u is never sown at Kolar as a second crop. After the male, 
or heavy rains are over, plough once, sow broad-cast, and plough in the 
seed. It gets no manure, and in three months ripens without farther 
trouble. It is then cut down near the root, stacked for six days, dried 
in the sun for three, and trodden out. The seed is preserved in store- 
houses ; the straw is used only as manure. 

In IMadgiri liuchchelju is sown in places called Javi/gu, or sticking- 
land, which are situated at the bottom of rocks ; from whence in the 
rainy season the water filters, and renders the soil very moist. In such 
places nothing else will thrive. When the rain has set in so late as to 
prevent the cultivation of anything else, the huchchellu is sown also on 
any land, especially on ragi fields. On such soiks, however, it does not 
succeed. In Bhadrapada or Asvi'ja (from about the middle of August till 
about that of October), plough once, sow broad-cast, and plough in the 
seed, which rifjcns in four months. 

Haralu.- — Two varieties of it are common ; the c/iikka, or little 
haralu, cultivated in gardens ; and the dodda, or great haralu, that is 



124 FLORA 

cultivated in the ncld.s. To grow the latter : — In the •''pring, plough 
five times before the 15th of \'ai.s'akha. ^^'ith the first good rain that 
happens afterwards, draw furrows all over the field at a cubit's distance ; 
and having put the seeds into these at a similar distance, cover them by 
drawing furrows close to the former. ^Vhen the plants are eight inches 
high, hoe the intervals by drawing the kunte first longitudinally, and 
then transversely. When the plants are a cubit and a half high, give 
the intervals a double ploughing. The plant requires no manure, and 
in eight months begins to produce ripe fruit. A bunch is known to be 
ripe by one or two of the capsules bursting ; and then all those which 
are ripe are collected by breaking them off with the hand. They are 
afterwards put into a heap or large basket ; and the bunches, as they 
ripen, are collected once a week, till the commencement of the next 
rainy season, when the plant dies. Once in three weeks or a month, 
when the heap collected is sufficiently large, the capsules are for three 
or four days spread out to the sun, and then beaten with a stick to 
make them burst. The seed is then picked out from the husks, and 
either made by the family into oil for domestic use, or sold to the oil- 
makers. It is cultivated on the two best qualities of land, and on the 
better kinds of inaralu. When the same piece of ground is reserved 
always for the cultivation of this plant, the succeeding crops are better 
than the first ; when cultivated alternately with ragi, it seems neither to 
improve nor injure the soil for that grain. 

In Kolar District both the great and small kinds are cultivated ; but, 
although the mode of cultivation is the same for both, they are always 
kept separate. In the beginning of the female or slight rains plough 
twice. When the rains become heavy, plough again ; and then, at the 
distance of three-quarters of a cubit from each other in all directions, 
place the seeds in the furrows. When the plants are a span high, weed 
with the plough, throwing the earth up in ridges at the roots of the 
plants. At the end of the first and second months from the former 
weeding, repeat this operation. In four months it begins to give ripe 
fruit ; and once in four days the bunches that are ripe are collected in 
a pit until a sufficient quantity is procured. It is then exposed to the 
sun, and the husks are beaten off with a stick. In the May following, 
the plant dries up, and is cut for fuel. It is only cultivated in the good 
ragi soils, which it rather improves for that grain, although it gets no 
dung. The small kind is reckoned the best, and most productive. 

Haralu is cultivated in the north-east on a particular soil, which is 
reserved for the purpose, and consists of ash-coloured clay mixed with 
sand. There are here in common use three kinds of haralu ; the 
pJiola or field ; and the docMt, and chittu, which are cultivated in 



HARALU 125 

gardens. A red kind is also to be seen in gardens, where it is raised 
as an ornament. The chit haralu produces the best oil. Next to it is 
the phola that is cultivated in the fields. In the course of a few days, 
any time in the three months following the vernal equinox, plough 
three times. With the next rain that happens, plough again, and at 
the same time drop the seeds in one furrow at the distance of one 
cubit and a half, and then cover them with the next furrow. A month 
afterwards hoe with the kiotte, so as to kill the weeds, and to throw the 
earth in ridges toward the roots of the plant. It ripens without farther 
trouble. At the time the haralu is planted, seeds of the jiulses called 
avare and togari are commonly scattered through the field. In four 
months after this, the haralu begins to produce ripe fruit, and for three 
months continues in full crop. For two months more it produces 
small quantities. 

Haralu, of the kind called phola, is cultivated at Sira. For this a 
sandy soil is reckoned best ; and as it is thought to improve the soil, 
the little ragi that is sown on dry field generally follows it. In the first 
month after the vernal equinox, plough twice ; then, with the first rain 
in the next month, at every cubit's distance throughout the field, draw 
furrows intersecting each other at right angles. At every intersection 
drop a seed, and cover them with another furrow. After two months 
weed with the plough ; and with the kunte, or hoe drawn by oxen, 
throw the earth in ridges toward the young plants. In six months it 
begins to give ripe fruit, which for three months is gathered once a 
week. 

Sanabu. — For the cultivation of this plant as pursued in the 
Bangalore District, the soil ought to be red or black, like the best kind 
used for cutlivation of ragi. It is allowed no manure ; and the seed is 
sown broad-cast on the ground, without any previous cultivation, at the 
season when the rains become what the natives call male, that is to say, 
when they become heavy. After being sown, the field is ploughed 
twice, once lengthwise, and once across ; but receives no farther cultiva- 
tion. At other times the sanabu is cultivated on rice-ground in the 
dry season ; but it must then be watered from a canal or reservoir. It 
requires four months to ripen, which is known by the seeds having 
come to full maturity. After being cut down, it is spread out to the 
sun, and dried. The seed is then beaten out by striking the pods 
with a stick. After this, the stems are tied up in large bundles, about 
two fathoms in circumference, and are preserved in stacks or under 
sheds. 

Cotton. — The soil on which it is sown at Sira is a black clay con- 
taining nodules of limestone. In the two months following the vernal 



126 FLORA 

equinox, plougli three times. At any convenient time, in the two next 
months, mix the seed witli dung, and drop it in the furrows after the 
plough, forming Hnes about nine inches apart. A month afterwards 
plough again between the lines ; and in order to destroy the super- 
fluous plants and weeds, use the hoe drawn by oxen three times, cross- 
ing these furrows at right angles. The second and third times that this 
hoe is used, it must follow the same track as at first , otherwise too 
many of the plants would be destroyed. Between each hoeing three 
or four days should intervene. In six months the cotton begins to 
produce ripe capsules, and continues in crop four more. The plants 
are then cut close to the ground ; and after the next rainy season the 
field is ploughed twice in contrary directions. A month afterwards it 
is hoed once or twice with the same implement, and it produces a crop 
twice as great as it did in the first year. In the third year a crop of 
same or navaJje must be taken, and in the fourth year cotton is again 
sown as at first. 

The principal crop in the fine country towards Narsipur and Talkad 
is cotton, which there is never raised in soil that contains calcareous 
nodules. The black soil that is free from lime is divided into three 
qualities. The first gives annually two crops, one of jola and one of 
cotton ; the two inferior qualities produce cotton only. 

Cotton is raised towards Harihar entirely on black soil, and is either 
sown as a crop by itself, or drilled in the rows of a navane field. In 
the former case, two crops of cotton cannot follow each other, but one 
crop of j61a at least must intervene. In the second month after the 
vernal equinox, the field is ploughed once, then manured, then hoed 
with the heg kuiite ; and the grass is kept down by occasional hoeings 
with the /wilt kinife, until the sowing season in the month preceding 
the autumnal equinox. The seed is sown by a drill having only 
two bills, behind each of which is fixed a sharp-pointed bamboo, 
through which a man drops the seed ; so that each drill requires the 
attendance of three men and two oxen. The seed, in order to allow 
it to run through the bamboo, is first dipped in cow-dung and water, 
and then mixed with some earth. Twenty days after sowing, and also 
on the thirty-fifth and fiftieth days, the field is hoed with the edik kunte. 
The crop season is during the month before and that after the vernal 
influence. 

Tobacco is sown in Banavar in the dry field cultivated for ragi and 
other similar grains, of which a crop must intervene between every two 
crops of tobacco. A\'hen the season proves very wet, it cannot be 
cultivated, and it requires a good ragi soil. A few small stones do no 
harm, but it will not grow on the hard soil called dare ; and, in fact. 



TOBACCO 127 

the soil of the first quahty is that usually employed, though sometimes 
the tobacco is planted on the best fields of the second quality. In the 
three months following the vernal equinox, the field ought, if possible, 
to be ploughed ten times ; but some of these ploughings are often 
neglected. After the fourth or fifth time, sheep and cattle must for some 
nights be kept on the field for manure. During the last fifteen days of 
the second month after midsummer, small holes are made throughout 
the field. They are formed with the hand, and disposed in rows distant 
from each other \\ cubit ; and in every hole a young tobacco plant is 
set. This being the rainy season, the tobacco requires no watering, 
unless during the first ten days from its having been transplanted there 
should happen to be two successive fair days. In this case, on the 
second fair day, water must be given with a pot. On the fifteenth day a 
little dung is put into each hole, and the field is hoed with the kunte. 
Every fourth or fifth day, until the tobacco is cut, this is repeated, so as 
to keep the soil open and well pulverized. At the end of a month and 
a half, the top shoots of the plants are pinched off, and every eight or 
ten days this is repeated ; so that si.\ or seven leaves only are permitted 
to remain on each stem. In the month preceding the shortest day, it 
is fit for cutting. 

The stems are cut about four or five inches from the ground, and 
are then split lengthwise ; so that each portion has three or four leaves. 
These half stems are strung upon a line, which is passed through their 
root ends ; and then for twenty days they are spread out to the sun and 
air. Every third day they are turned, and they must be covered with 
mats should there happen to be rain ; but at this season that seldom 
comes. The tobacco is then taken into the house, put into a heap, and 
turned four or five times, with an interval of three days between each 
time. It is then fit for sale, and by the merchants is made up into 
bundles which include the stems. 

In order to prepare the seedlings, a plot of ground must be dug in 
the month which precedes the longest day. It must be then cleared 
from stones, and separated by little banks into squares for watering, in 
the same manner as in this country is done to kitchen gardens. The 
tobacco seed is then mixed with dung, and sown in the squares, which 
are smoothed with the hand, sprinkled with water, and then covered 
with branches of the wild date. Every third day it must be watered. 
On the eighth day the plants come up, and then the palm branches must 
be removed. If the plants be wanted soon, they ought to have more dung, 
and to be kept clear from weeds, ^^'ith this management, they are fit 
for transplanting in from a month to six weeks. If they are not wanted 
for two months, or ten weeks, the second dunging is omitted, and the 



128 FLORA 

growth of tlic plants is checked by giving them no water for eight days 
after they come up. 

Sasive is a mustard which is always sown, in the east, mixed with 
ragi. It ripens sooner than that grain ; and, when dry, the branches 
are broken with the hand, exposed two days to the sun, and then 
beaten out with a stick. In this country, oil is never made from the 
seed, as is usual in Bengal ; it is employed as a seasoning in curries and 
pickles. 

Kadale always requires a black mould ; and is cultivated, in the 
west, partly as a second crop after ragi, and partly on fields that ha^•e 
given no other crop in the year. In this case, the produce is much 
greater, and the manner of cultivation is as follows: — In the two months 
preceding the autumnal equinox, the ragi having been cut, the field 
is ploughed once a month for fourteen or fifteen months. Then in the 
course of four or five days plough twice. After the last ploughing, drop 
the seed in the furrows at six inches distance from each other, and it 
ripens withoi'.t farther trouble. The seed is sown as thick as that of 
ragi. 

It is a considerable crop in the south-east of the Mysore District, but 
so exhausts the soil of even the richest fields that it is seldom taken 
from the same ground oftener than once in seven years. It is generally 
sown after jola in place of cotton, and must be followed by wheat, 
wollellu or ragi. The two former may be followed by cotton, the ragi 
cannot. In the third year, when ragi has been used, the field is sown 
with navane or jola, succeeded as usual by cotton. Immediately after 
the jola has been cut, which is about the autumnal equinox, the field is 
ploughed once, then dunged, and then ploughed three times, all in the 
course of a month. In the beginning of the second month after the 
autumnal equinox, the kadale is sown in drills like the cotton ; but the 
drills are only half a cubit distant. Between the drills, on the fifteenth 
day, the hoe drawn by oxen is used. On the thirtieth the weeds are 
removed by the kale kudagolu. If the soil be rather hard, about the 
thirt3'-third day the hoe drawn by oxen must be again used. In four 
months the kadale ripens. Kadale is sometimes sown after a fallow ; in 
which case the ground is prepared in a similar manner as for cotton in 
the two poorer soils. 

Towards Harihar, a few rich spots are reserved solely for the cultiva- 
tion of kadale, and these are cultivated in the following manner : — In 
the month following the vernal equinox the field is ploughed once, then 
manured, and in the following month is hoed with the keg kunfe. 
Between that period and the month preceding the shortest day, the 
grass is ploughed down twice, and the seed is sown with the sharp 



WHEAT 129 

bamboo following the plough, and covered with the hegkunte. It ripens 
in three months.' 

Wheat. — There are two kinds cultivated, Jave gbdhi {triticum 
mofiococxiii/i) and hotte godhi {triticum spelta). For the former, in Kolar, 
the ground is sometimes ploughed five times ; and sometimes dug with 
the hoe called kol gudali to the depth of one cubit, which is reckoned 
preferable. In Jye'shtha (May — June) the seed is sown broad-cast, and 
covered with the hoe. Channels and squares are then formed, and the 
ground is smoothed with the hand and dunged ; while such of the seed 
as may happen to be above the ground is pushed down with the finger. 
In forty-five days the field must be watered nine times. It is then 
weeded with the instrument called woravari; after which one watering 
in six days suffices. It ripens in three months, is cut, tied up in small 
sheaves, and stacked for four days. It is then dried one day in the sun, 
and thrashed out by beating the sheaves against a log of timber. To 
separate the awns, the grain is then beaten with a stick. In the fields 
of wheat, radishes are planted on the mounds which divide the 
squares. 

In the black clay in Madgiri, wheat of the kind called jave godhi 
is the most common crop. It is but a poor grain, and five-twelfths 
of it consist of husks. Any time in Pushya (Dec. — Jan.) plough once; 
next day, if there be no rain, water the field, and plough again across, 
dropping the seed in the same manner as in sowing jola. The plots 
must be formed in the same manner. It gets no manure nor weeding, 
and requires only three waterings, on the fortieth, sixtieth and eightieth 
days. It is much subject to disease, and not above one crop in four 
is good. After reaping the wheat, the field, in order to expose the soil 
to the rain, must be immediately ploughed. 

In Sira, in place of the Vais'dkha crop, when there is a scarcity of 
water, wheat, both jave and hotte, are sown on rice-lands. These grains 
may be followed by a Kdrtika crop of ragi ; but by this process the 
ground is as much exhausted as if it had been sown with navanc. If 

' Professor Church gives the following analysis of the composition of chick pea, or 

15engal gram : — 

In 100 parts In i lb 

Husked with husk husked 

1 1 '2 ... I oz 367 grs 
19-5 ... 3 „ 207 ,, 
53"8 • •• 9 ,. 192 ,, 
4-6 ... o ,, 294 ,, 
7-8 ... o ,, 70 ,, 
3'i .•■ o ,, 182 ,, 
The ash of husked contains l*l, and of unhiisked O'S of phosphoric acid. The 
nutrient ratio of the unhusked peas is i : 3*3 ; the nutrient value 84. 

K 



Water 


... II-5 


Albuminoids 


... 217 


Starch 


... 59-0 


Oil 


... 4-2 


Fibre 


I 'O 


Ash 


... 2-6 



I30 FLORA 

the Kdrtika crop be altogether left out, the Vais'dkha crop of rice follow- 
ing wheat will be as good as if the ground had been regularly cultivated 
for rice alone ; and in India it is a commonly received opinion, that 
where a supply of water admits of it, ground can never be in such good 
heart as when regularly cultivated by a succession of rice crops. Wheat 
requires a clay soil, and the manner of cultivating both kinds is the 
same. In the two months preceding, and the one following the autumnal 
equinox, plough five times. In the following month, after a rain, or 
after having watered the field, plough again, and drop the seed into the 
furrows. Then divide it into squares, as for j6la, and water it once a 
month. The straw is only used for fire. If given to cattle for fodder, 
it is supposed capable of producing the distemper. 

A very small quantity of the wheat called jave godhl is raised near 
Periyapatna on fields of a very rich soil, from which alternate crops of 
kadale and of it are taken. The manure is given to the kadale ; but 
wheat requires none. From the winter to the summer solstice plough 
once a month. Then in the following month plough twice, sow broad- 
cast, and cover the seed with the plough. It ripens in four months 
without farther trouble. 

The wheat raised near Narsipur in the Mysore District is of the kind 
called hotte gbdhi, and there are two seasons for its cultivation, the hain 
and kdr. It is sown on the best soil only, and always after a crop of 
kadale. The kar season, when the rains set in early, is always pre- 
ferred, not only as the wheat is then more productive, but as in the 
same year it may be followed by a crop of cotton, which is not the case 
with the hain wheat. In the two months following the vernal equinox, 
the field for kar wheat is dunged, ploughed two or three times, and 
then hoed with the hmte, which is drawn by oxen. The seed is then 
sown, in drills one cubit distant, by dropping it in the furrow after a 
plough. On the fifteenth, twenty-eighth and thirty-fifth days the hoe is 
again used, and two or three days afterwards the weeds are removed by 
the kale kudagolii. This wheat ripens in three months and a half, and is 
immediately followed by a crop of cotton. The wheat is liable to be 
spoiled by a disease called arsina mdri ; owing to which, in the course 
of one day, it becomes yellow and dies. 

When the rains are late in coming, the hain crop of wheat is taken 
after kadale. Cotton cannot be taken in the same year. The manner 
of cultivation is the same as for the kar crop, only the season is 
difi"erent. The ploughings are performed in the month which pre- 
cedes the autumnal equinox, or in the beginning of that which follows. 
At the end of this month the seed is sown. The produce is about 
one-half only of that of the kar crop. 



RICE 131 

Rice. — Of the varieties of this grain 108 specimens have been 
collected in the Government Museum, each bearing its appropriate 
vernacular name. There are three modes of sowing the seed, from 
whence arise three kinds of cultivation. In the first mode the seed is 
sown dry on the fields that are to rear it to maturity : this is called the 
hara batta ox puuaji. In the second mode the seed is made to vegetate 
before it is sown ; and the field when fitted to receive it is reduced to a 
puddle : this is called mole batta. In the third kind of cultivation the 
seed is sown very thick in a small plot of ground ; and when it has 
shot up to about a foot high, the young rice is transplanted into the 
fields where it is to ripen : this is called iidti. 

The kinds of rice cultivated at Seringapatam are as follow -.—dodda 
batta., hotte kembatti, arsina kembatti, sukadds, imirarjila, ydlakki raja, 
konavali, bill sauna batta, putta batta, kari kallu. With the exception 
of the first, which takes seven months, all the other kinds ripen in five 
and a half months. 

In the hain crop the following is the management of the dry-seed 
cultivation. During the months Phalguna, Chaitra and Vais'akha, that 
is from February till May, plough twice a month ; having, three days 
previous to the first ploughing in Phdlguna, softened the soil by giving 
the field water. After the fourth ploughing the field must be manured 
with dung, procured either from the city or cow-house. After the fifth 
ploughing the fields must be watered either by rain or from the canal ; 
and three days afterwards the seed must be sown broad-cast and then 
covered by the sixth ploughing. Any rain that happens to fall for the 
first thirty days after sowing the seed must be allowed to run off by a 
breach in the bank which surrounds the fields ; and should much rain 
fall at this season, the crop is considerably injured. Should there have 
been no rain for the first thirty days, the field must be kept constantly 
inundated till the crop be ripe ; but if there have been occasional 
showers the inundation should not commence till the forty-fifth day. 
AWeding and loosening the soil about the roots of the young plants 
with the hand, and placing them at proper distances, where sown too 
close or too far apart, must be performed three times ; first on the 
forty-fifth or fiftieth day ; secondly twenty days afterwards ; and thirdly 
fifteen days after the second weeding. These periods refer to the crops 
that require seven months to ripen. For rice which ripens in five and 
a half months, the field must be inundated on the twentieth day ; and 
the weedings are on the twentieth, thirtieth and fortieth days. 

In the hain crop the following is the manner of conducting the 
sprouted-seed cultivation. The ploughing season occupies the month 
.of Ashadha (June — July). During the whole of this time the field is 

K 2 



132 FLORA 

inundated and is ploughed four times ; while at each ploughing it is 
turned over twice in two different directions, which cross each other at 
right angles. This may be called double ploughing. About the ist 
of Sravana the field is manured, immediately gets a fifth ploughing, and 
the mud is smoothed by the labourers' feet. All the water except one 
inch in depth must then be let off, and the prepared seed must be sown 
broad-cast. As it sinks in the mud it requires no labour to cover it. 
For the first twenty-four days the field must once every other day have 
some water, and must afterwards, until ripe, be kept constantly inun- 
dated. The weedings are on the twenty-fifth, thirty-fifth and fiftieth 
days. In order to prepare the seed it must be put into a pot, and kept 
for three days covered with water. It is then mixed with an equal 
quantity of rotten cow-dung, and laid on a heap in some part of the 
house, entirely sheltered from the wind. The heap is well covered 
with straw and mats ; and at the end of three days the seed, having 
shot out sprouts about an inch in length, is found fit for sowing. This 
manner of cultivation is much more troublesome than that called dry- 
seed : and the produce from the same extent of ground is in both nearly 
equal ; but the sprouted-seed cultivation gives time for a preceding 
crop of pulse on the same field, and saves a quarter of the seed. 

Two distinctions are made in the manner of cultivating transplanted 
rice ; the one called baravdgi or by dry plants : and the other called 
nirdgi or by wet pla?ifs. For both kinds low land is required. 

The manner of raising the dry-seedHngs for the hain crop is as 
follows : — Labour the ground at the same season, and in the same 
manner as for the dry -seed crop. On the ist of Jyeshtha, or in May, 
give the manure, sow the seed very thick and cover it with the plough. 
If no rain fall before the eighth day, then water the field, and again 
on the twenty-second ; but if there are any showers these waterings 
are unnecessary. From the forty-fifth till the sixtieth day the plants 
continue fit to be removed. In order to be able to raise them for 
transplanting, the field must be inundated for five days before they are 
plucked. The ground on which the dry-seedlings are to be ripened is 
ploughed four times in the course of eight weeks, commencing about 
the 15th of Jyeshtha; but must all the while be inundated. The 
manure is given before the fourth ploughing. After this, the mud 
having been smoothed by the feet, the seedlings are transplanted into 
it, and from three to five plants are stuck together into the mud at 
about a span distance from the other little bunches. The water is then 
let off for a day : afterwards the field, till the grain is ripe, is kept 
constantly inundated. The weedings are performed on the twentieth^ 
thirty-fifth and forty-fifth days after transplanting. 



RICE 133 

The manner of raising the wet-seedHngs for the transplanted crop in 
the hain season is as follows : — In the month Phalguna (Feb. — Mar.) 
plough the ground three times, while it is dry. On the ist of 
Jyeshtha inundate the field ; and in the course of fifteen days plough it 
four times. After the fourth ploughing smooth the mud with the feet, 
sow the seed very thick and sprinkle dung over it : then let off the 
water. On the third, sixth and ninth days water again ; but the water 
must be let off and not allowed to stagnate on the field. After the 
twelfth day inundate until the seedlings be fit for transplantation, 
which will be on the thirtieth day from sowing. The cultivation of the 
field into which the seedlings are transplanted is exactly the same as 
that for the dry-seedlings. The plot on which the seedlings are raised 
produces no crop of pulse ; but various kinds of these grains are sown 
on the fields that are to ripen the transplanted crop, and are cut down 
immediately before the ploughing for the rice commences. The pro- 
duce of the transplanted crop is nearly equal to that of the dry-seed 
cultivation ; and on a good soil, properly cultivated, twenty times the 
seed sown is an average crop. 

The kar crops, according to the time of sowing, are divided into three 
kinds. When the farm is properly stocked, the seed is sown at the 
most favourable season, and the crop is then called the Kumba kdr ; 
but if there be a want of hands or cattle, part of the seed is sown 
earlier, and part later than the proper season ; and then it produces 
from thirty to fifty per cent, less than the full crop. When sown too 
early the crop is called Tu/a kdr ; when too late it is called Mesha kdr. 
The produce of the hain and Kuviba kdr crops is nearly the same.^ 

No Tula kar dry seed is ever sown. The ploughing season for the 
Kumba kar dry seed is in Bhddrapada (August), and the seed is sown 
about the end of r^Iargasira (December). In the :SIesha kar dry-seed 
the ploughing commences on the ist of Chaitra (March), and the seed 
is sown at the feast of Chitra Paurnami in April. The Tula kdr 
sprouted seed is sown on the ist Kartika (October), the ploughing 
having commenced wath the feast Navaratri, in September. The 
Kumba kdr sprouted seed is sown in Pushya, about the ist of January. 
The ploughing season occupies a month. The ploughing for the 
Mesha kdr sprouted seed commences about the 15th of Chaitra. The 
seed is sown about the i6th of Vais'akha (May). The Kumba kar 
transplanted rice is cultivated only as watered seedlings. The ground 
for the seedlings begins to be ploughed in the end of Kartika or 
middle of November, and the seed is sown on the 15th Pushya or 
end of December. The fields on which this crop is ripened are begun 
1 Kumba or Kumbha is the sign Aquarius ; Tula is Libra ; and M,!sha is Aries. 



134 FLORA 

to be ploughed in the middle (jf Margasira (ist December). The 
transplanting lakes place about the 15th of Magha or end of 
January. The Tula kar transplanted rice also is sown nirdi^i about the 
30th of Asvi'ja or middle of October, and in a month afterwards is 
transplanted. The Mesha kdr transplanted rice is also sown as watered 
seedlings, about the 15th of Vais'akha (May), and about a month 
afterwards is transplanted. The regular kar crop of the transplanted 
cultivation docs not interfere with a preceding crop of pulse ; but this 
is lost, when from want of stock sufficient to cultivate it at the proper 
time the early or late seasons are adopted. The various modes of 
cultivating the rice give a great advantage to the farmer ; as by 
dividing the labour over great part of the year fewer hands and less 
stock are required to cultivate the same extent of ground than if there 
was only one seed-time, and one harvest. 

The manner of reaping and preserving all the kinds of rice is nearly 
the same. About a week before the corn is fit for reaping, the water is 
let off, that the ground may dry. The corn is cut down about four 
inches from the ground with a reaping-hook called kudagohi or kudagu. 
Without being bound up in sheaves it is put into small stacks, about 
twelve feet high ; in which the stalks are placed outwards and the ears 
inwards. Here the corn remains a week, or if it rains, fourteen days. 
It is then spread out on a threshing-floor made smooth with clay, cow- 
dung and water, and is trodden out by driving bullocks over it. If 
there has been rain, the corn, after having been threshed, must be dried 
in the sun ; but in dry weather this trouble is unnecessary. It is then 
put up in heaps called rds/ii, which contain about 60 kandagas, or 334 
bushels. The heaps are marked with clay and carefully covered with 
straw. A trench is then dug round it to keep off the water. For 
twenty or thirty days (formerly, till the division of the crop between 
the Government and the cultivator took place) the corn is allowed to 
remain in the heap. 

The grain is always preserved in the husk, or, as the English in 
India say, in paddy. There are in use here various ways for keeping 
paddy. Some preserve it in large earthen jars that are kept in the 
house. Some keep it in pits called hagevu. In a hard stony soil they 
dig a narrow shaft, fifteen or sixteen cubits deep. The sides of this 
are then dug away so as to form a cave with a roof about two cubits 
thick. The floor, sides and roof are lined with straw ; and the cave is 
then filled with paddy. These pits contain from fifteen to thirty 
kandagas. "\^'hen the paddy is wanted to be beaten out into rice, the 
whole pit must at once be emptied. Other people again build kaiiajas, 
or store-houses, which are strongly floored with plank to keep out the 



RICE 135 

bandicoots or rats. In these store-houses there is no opening for air ; 
hut they have a row of doors one above another, for taking out the 
grain as it is wanted. Another manner of preserving grain is in small 
cylindrical stores, which the potters make of clay, and which are called 
xvbde. The mouth is covered by an inverted pot ; and the paddy, as 
wanted, is drawn out from a small hole at the bottom. Finally, others 
preserve their paddy in a kind of bags made of straw, and called mi'ide. 
Of these different means the kanaja and wbde are reckoned the best. 
Paddy will keep two years without alteration, and four years without 
being unfit for use. Longer than this does not answer, as the grain 
becomes both unwholesome and unpalatable. No person here 
attempts to preserve rice any length of time ; for it is known by 
experience to be very perishable. All the kinds of paddy are found to 
preserve equally well. That intended for seed must be beaten off from 
the straw as soon as cut down, and dried for three days in the sun, 
after which it is usually kept in straw bags. 

There are two manners of making paddy into rice ; one by boiling it 
previously to beating ; and the other by beating alone. The boiling is 
also done in two ways. By the first is prepared the rice intended for 
the use of rajas, and other luxurious persons. A pot is filled with 
equal parts of water and paddy, which is allowed to soak all night, and 
in the morning is boiled for half an hour. The paddy is then spread 
out in the shade for fifteen days, and afterwards dried in the sun for 
two hours. It is then beaten, to remove the husks. Each grain is 
broken by this operation into four or five pieces, from whence it is 
called aidii ni'igu akki, or five-piece rice. When dressed, this kind of 
rice swells very much. It is always prepared in the families of the 
rajas, and is never made for sale. The operation is very liable to fail ; 
and in that case the rice is totally lost. 

Rice prepared by boiling in the common manner is called kudupal 
akki, and is destined for the use of the Sudras, or such low persons as 
are able to procure it. Five parts of paddy are put into a pot with one 
part of water, and boiled for about two hours, till it is observed that 
one or two of the grains have burst. It is then spread out in the sun 
for two hours ; and this drying is repeated on the next day ; after which 
the paddy is immediately beaten. Ten parts of paddy, l)y this 
operation, give five parts of rice, of which one part goes to the person 
who prepares it, for his trouble. Ten seers of paddy are therefore 
equal in value to only four seers of rice. 

The rice used by the Brahmans, and called hasi akki, is never 
boiled. On the day before it is to be eaten, the paddy must be 
exposed two hours in the sun. If it were beaten immediately after 



136 FLORA 

being dried, the grain would l>reak, and there would be a considerable 
loss. Even with this precaution many of the grains break ; and, when 
these are separated from the entire rice to render it saleable, the hasi 
akki sells dearer than the kiidupal akki, in the proportion of nine to 
eight. 

The beating is performed chiefly by women. They sometimes, for 
this purpose, use the ydta, or a block of timber fastened to a wooden 
lever, which is supported on its centre. The woman raises the block 
by pressing with her foot on the far end of the lever, and by removing 
her foot allows the block to fall down on the grain. The more 
common way, however, of beating paddy, is by means of a wooden 
pestle, which is generally about four feet in length, and three inches in 
diameter, which is made of heavy timber, and shod with iron. The 
grain is put into a hole formed in a rock or stone. The pestle is first 
raised with the one hand, and then with the other ; which is very hard 
labour for the women. 

The kinds of rice cultivated at Mandya are dodda batta, piitta batta, 
hote kembatti, konazvali, and viulu batta. The first four take each 
five months to ripen, and the last, three. Every kind may be 
cultivated, either as hain or kdr. The mulu batta is never sown 
except when there is a deficiency of water. The only cultivation here 
is the mole batta, or sprouted-seed ; the manner of preparing which is as 
follows : Steep the seed in water all night ; next morning mix it with 
cow-dung, and fresh plants of the tianbe soppu {phlomis escuknta), and 
put it in a rfiiide. On the miide place a heavy stone, and on the two 
following days sprinkle it with water. On the third day it is fit for 
sowing. 

For the hain crop, the ploughings, from about the ist of June till 
the middle of July are nine in number. Dung and leaves are then put 
on the field, and trampled into the mud. The water is now let off, 
until no more than a depth of one inch remains ; afterwards, the seed 
is sown and a slight sprinkling of dung laid over it. A watering once 
in three days is then given ; and after the third time, the field is 
inundated till the grain ripens. The weeds are removed on the 
twentieth, fortieth and sixtieth days. The kar cultivation is exactly 
the same, only the ploughings are in November and December. In 
both kinds of cultivation, and in every species of rice, an equal quantity 
of seed is sown on the same extent of ground, and the produce is 
nearly equal. 

Of the different kinds of rice cultivated at JMaddur arisina kembatti, 
putta batta, ydlakki raja, sukadas, kouavali, and imwarjila, are equal 
in produce. The first four ripen in 4I months, the next in five, and 



RICE 137 

the last in six. The produce on first quality of soil is 114 seeds, on 
second quality 100 seeds, and on third, half that quantity. Hote 
kembatti and dodda or bill bai/a, which ripen in five months, produce 
100, 70 or 40 fold, according to quality of soil. All the kinds 
of rice may be raised either as hain or kar crops, or the mole or nati 
modes of cultivation. No punaji is ever attempted. The seedlings for 
transplantation, in the nati cultivation, are always raised as niragi. 
The produce of the same kind of rice in the same soil, whether 
cultivated as hain or kar, or as moje or nati, is nearly the same. 

The seasons for cultivating rice in the Kolar District are two ; and 
the two crops, from the months in which they ripen, are named the 
Kdrtika and Vais'dkha. In this neigbourhood no rice is transplanted. 
When the seed is sown dry, the cultivation is called //^/i?^/ ; when it is 
prepared by being sprouted, it is called mole. 

The only kind of rice cultivated as puiedi, or dry seed, is the dodda 
baira ; and it is only sown in this manner for the Kartika crop. In 
the course of Vais'akha and Jyeshtha plough the ground without water 
four times. About the end of the latter month (June), after a day's 
rain, sow the seed broad-cast, and cover it with the plough. Then 
harrow the field with the implement called halive. The crop has no 
manure, and the field is not inundated till the end of the second 
month ; when it must be harrowed again, and the weeds removed by 
the hand. A good crop of this is reckoned fifteen seeds, a middling 
one ten seeds. 

The mole for the Kartika crop is cultivated as follows : In Ashadha, 
and the first half of Sravana, plough from seven to nine times, the field 
being always inundated. Then manure it, either with leaves or dung ; 
both are rarely given : but, could they be procured, this would greatly 
increase the produce. Then let out all the water, except two inches in 
depth, and sow the prepared seed broad-cast. Next day the field is 
dried, and sprinkled with some dung. \X. the end of three days it is 
covered with water for four hours. On the seventh, water the field for 
a whole day. After the tenth day, it must be kept constantly 
inundated to the depth of two inches. At the end of the month 
harrow it once lengthwise ; on the third day harrow it across ; 
and on the fifth day harrow again lengthwise. Four days afterwards 
weed with the hand, and repeat this after an interval of two weeks. 

All kinds of rice are cultivated in the same manner. The rice for 
seed, after being trodden out, must be dried three or four days in the 
sun ; and may be kept either in a straw inude, or in a store called 
kaiiaja. When it is to be prepared, it must be dried one day in the 
sun ; then soaked a night in water ; the next morning it must be mixed 



138 FLORA 

with ham/ii leaves and dung, and tied u{) in straw. This is dipped in 
water, and placed under a large stone. In two days it must again be 
dipped, and is then fit for sowing. The produce of the dodda baira, 
which is the common coarse grain of the country, is the greatest. A 
good crop of this is said to be fifteen seeds, and middling crop about 
ten seeds. The other kinds, on the same extent of ground, produce 
eight or ten seers less. 

The mo/e cultivation for the Vais'dkha crop is as follows : Having 
inundated the field, plough it five or six days during the course of the 
twenty days preceding the feast Dipavali. In the course of the next 
month plough four times. Then let out all the water, except two 
inches in depth ; manure with leaves ; and, having trodden these well 
into the mud, sow the prepared seed broad-cast. Next day dry the 
field, and manure it with duug. Three days after, water for two hours. 
Then every second day, for three times, water for four or five hours. 
Afterwards keep the field inundated. At the end of the month 
harrow, with the halive, three times in three directions, with a day's 
rest between each harrowing. A week afterwards weed with the hand, 
and in two weeks repeat this operation. This is the most productive 
crop, and gives from one to two seeds more than that which is reaped 
in Kartika. 

The mode of cultivation, or the season of sowing, makes no 
difference here in the quality of the grain, nor in the length of time 
that it will keep good. The grain is always preserved in the husk ; and 
until wanted for immediate consumption, is never beaten. In store- 
houses, or kattajas, if well dried in the sun previous to its having been 
put up, it preserves well for two years. Paddy is sometimes kept in 
pits, or in the straw packages called iiu'ides ; but these are inferior to the 
store-house. 

At Madgiri, when there is plenty of water, the same ground in the 
course of the year gives two crops, the Kartika and Vais'dkha. The 
former, provided two crops are taken, is the most productive ; but, if 
the Kartika be omitted, the Vaisakha gives a greater return than the 
Kartika alone would have given ; not, however, equal to the produce of 
both crops. The quality of the grain in both crops is the same. The 
Vais'akha crop, although raised in the dry season, is the one most 
regularly taken. For this crop all the kinds of rice may be sown ; for 
the Kartika crop the bill sanna batta and kari chatuiaugi are never 
sown ; as with rain they are apt to lodge. The soil used for tripad 
sanna bafta, bill channangi, kari channangi, and put raj, is niaralu or 
sandy. The others require a clay, which in the low grounds is always 
black. The red soil is always confined to the rising grounds, and is 



RICE 139 

therefore never cultivated for rice, except when it can be watered by 
machines; and if the water is more than 31I feet from the surface, 
these are never used. Two men and four oxen can, by means of the 
machine called kapi/e, supply an acre and a half of ground with water 
sufficient to raise a crop of rice. One set works four or five hours in 
the morning, and the other as much in the evening. 

The only manner of cultivating rice that is in use here is the »io/e, or 
sprouted-seed ; the manner of preparing which is as follows : — The ears 
must be cut off, the grain beaten out immediately, and then dried in 
the sun three or four days. It must be preserved in straw or in jars. 
When wanted for sowing, it must be exposed to the sun for a day, and 
soaked in water all the following night. It is then put upon a layer of 
the leaves of the yekka {calotropis gigantea), or of hara/ie, mixed with 
sheep's dung, and is surrounded by stones, so as to keep it together. It 
is then covered with banddri (doJoiuva viscosa) leaves, and pressed down 
with a stone. Next morning the upper leaves are removed, and a pot 
of water is thrown on the seed, which must be turned with the hand, 
and then covered again with the leaves and stone. Daily, for three or 
four times, this operation must be repeated, and then the sprouts from 
the seed will be almost an inch long. 

For the Kdrtika crop plough seven times in the course of thirty 
days, the ground all the while being inundated. In the next place 
manure the ground with leaves, and tread them into the mud. Then 
let off the water, and sow the seed broad-cast, covering it with a little 
dung. On the fourth day cover the ground with water, and immediately 
afterwards let it run off Repeat this daily till the eighth time, after 
which the field must be kept constantly inundated to the depth of 
one inch for ten days, and four inches for the remainder. The weed- 
ings are at the end of the sixth, tenth, and twelfth weeks from sowing. 
The season for ploughing continues all the months of Jyeshtha and 
Ashadha. 

For the Vais'dkha crop the same process is followed; but the plough- 
ing season is from the 15th of Asvfja till the last of Margasira. By 
this time the whole seed must be sown ; and the nearer it is done to it 
the better. 

The large-grained rices, dodda batta, which ripens in 4^ months, 
and kari channangi and bili chatmangi, which ripen in four months, 
produce in a good crop twenty-fold, and in an indifferent crop one-fifth 
less. Kembattl or dodda kembatti, and gartida or sanna kembatti yield 
twenty-three and thirteen-fold respectively in a good crop, or fifteen 
and sevenfold in an inferior one. The first ripens in five months, the 
second in four. Of the small-grained rices, bili sanna ba/ta, kari sanna 



I40 FLORA 

batta, put raj and tripati sauna i>a//a, the first ripens in five months, 
the second in five and a half, the third in fijur, and the fourth in three 
and a half. Their respective yield in a good crop is twenty-four, 
thirty-two, fifteen and seventeen-fold. 

In Periyapatna and the west the principal cultivation is the trans- 
planted or ndti, and by far the greatest quantity of rice cultivated is the 
hain crop or anaputti. The other kinds raised are kenibatti^ konavali, 
satma batta, saniia kembatta, and kdrn ; all ripen in six months, except 
the last, which ripens in five. The following is the manner of 
cultivating the hain ndti or crop of transplanted rice growing in the 
rainy season : — The ground on which the seedlings are to be raised 
gets seven or eight ploughings between the middle of Vais'akha and 
the loth of Jyeshtha, which are the second and third months after the 
vernal equinox. In the intervals between the ploughings the field is 
inundated ; but at each time that operation is performed, the water is 
let off After the last ploughing, manure with the leaves of the chandra 
niallige {/nirabilis) or ununatte {datura strainoniuni) ; but, if these 
cannot be had, with the leaves of the chaudangi {solanuni). Then 
tread the leaves into the mud, sow the seed very thick and cover it 
with dung. The seed is in general prepared for sowing by causing it to 
sprout : and the reason assigned for so doing is, that it is thereby 
secured from the birds. If the seed has been prepared, or inole^ the 
field has water during the third, sixth, and ninth days, the water being 
allowed to remain on the field all day, and being again let off at night. On 
the tenth day the field is filled with water an inch deep and is kept so 
till the eighteenth, when that water is let off. Immediately afterwards 
the field is filled to three inches deep, and is kept thus inundated 
until the seedlings be fit for transplantation. If the seed be sown dry, 
it receives water on the first, second, and third days. On the fourth it 
has the manure which is given to the mole, when that is sown. It 
receives water again on the seventh, which is let off on the ninth. 
Water is again given on the thirteenth, seventeenth, and twenty-first ; 
and the field is then inundated, until the seedlings are fit for trans- 
plantation. They must be transplanted between the thirtieth and 
forty-sixth days. 

The ploughings for the fields into which the seedlings are to be 
transplanted are performed during the time in which these are growing ; 
and are done exactly in the same manner as for the field in which the 
seed has been sown. Stiff ground requires eight ploughings ; in a light 
soil six are sulficient. The manure is given before the last ploughing. 
The seedlings are pulled in the evening, and kept in water all night. 
Next morning the field has the last ploughing, and the mud is smoothed 



RICE 141 

by having a plank drawn over it. The seedlings are then planted, and 
get no water until the eighth day. On the eighth, twelfth, sixteenth and 
twentieth days the water is kept on the field, and is let off at night. 
The yellow colour occasioned by the transplantation is then changed 
into a deep green ; after which, until the crop ripens, the field is 
constantly inundated. In a bad soil, the weeds are removed on the 
thirtieth day, in a good soil, on the forty-fifth. 

The farmers here make their sprouted-seed in the following manner : 
The seed is soaked all night in water, and is then placed in a heap on 
a piece of sackcloth, or on some leaves of the plaintain-tree. There 
it is mixed with some buffalo's dung, and the leaves of the Inirike 
{ocyiuuiu molk), and covered with pack-saddles. In the evening it is 
sprinkled with warm water, and covered again. In the morning and 
evening of the second day it is sprinkled with cold water, and next day 
it is fit for sowing. 

Every kind of rice that is sown in Nagar takes six months to grow ; 
and they are of less variety than usual, namely, hi/i batta or heggai, and 
jolaghcna, which may be cultivated both as dry-seed and as transplanted ; 
and honasejta, or keinpu, which can be sown only as dry-seed. 

The bara-batta cultivation is conducted as follows : — In the course of 
the five months following the winter solstice, the field gets four single 
ploughings. In the second month after the vernal equinox, it is 
manured with leaf dung, and ploughed once. After the next rain, the 
seed is mixed with dry cow-dung, sown broad-cast, and covered by the 
implement called koradu. A month after sowing, when the young rice 
is about four inches high, the field is turned over with a small plough, 
to kill the grass and to destroy part of the young corn, which is always 
sown too thick. After this, the field is again smoothed with the same 
implement, and harrowed with a bunch of thorns. In the second 
month after the summer solstice, all the banks are repaired, to retain 
the water on the fields, which are then ploughed again and smoothed 
with the implement called aligina koradu. A large rake, called //a/(!r/(7^, 
is then drawn by the hand over the field, to remove the weeds. In the 
month preceding the autumnal e(]uinox, the weeds are removed by the 
hand. In the two months preceding the shortest day, the crop is ripe. 
It is cut close by the ground, and for four days is allowed to lie loose 
on the field. It is then stacked in heaps, with the cars inward, but 
without having been bound up in sheaves. In the course of three 
months, it is trampled out by oxen. The grain with the husk is 
preserved in store-houses, or straw bags, and is only made into rice as 
it may be wanted for immediate use. 

The process for transplanted rice, called here ;/////, is as follows : — 



142 FLORA 

In ortlcr to raise the seedlings, in the course of fifteen or twenty days 
during the niontli following the vernal equinox, a [jlot is inundated, 
and ploughed four times. It is then manured with any kind of fresh 
leaves, and with the dung made by cattle that have been littered with 
dried leaves. These are ploughed down, and the mud is smoothed, 
first with the noli, and afterwards by the mara, which is a square log 
of timber yoked in the same manner. The field is then drained so 
that three inches of water only remain. In any of the three months 
between the vernal equinox and the summer solstice, the seed is sown 
broad-cast. As this is the dry season, the seedling plot must be very 
low, so as to receive a supply of water from some rivulet. On the 
fifth day after the seed has been sown, the whole water is allowed to 
drain from the plot ; and for three days this is kept dry, after which it 
is constantly inundated, till the seedlings are fit for transplantation. 
The field into which they are to be removed is inundated during the 
two months following the summer solstice, and in the course of three 
days during that period ploughed four times. It is then manured, in 
the same manner as the plot was ; and afterwards, in the course of two 
or three days, it is ploughed again three times. The mud is then 
smoothed with the noli, above mentioned ; and the water having been 
let off to the depth of three inches, the seedlings are transplanted into 
the field, which must be always kept under water ; and a month after 
it has been planted, the weeds must be removed by the hand. The 
harvest is in the month preceding the winter solstice. 

All the fields are capable of both modes of cultivation. The trans- 
planting is reckoned most troublesome and least productive, and 
requires most seed. A kandaga of land is an extent that in the trans- 
planting cultivation requires one kandaga of seed ; in dry-seed 
cultivation, it requires only fifteen kolagas. The produce of all the 
three kinds of rice is nearly the same, only the heggai gives rather most. 
Of this grain a kandaga of land of the first quality, cultivated by 
transplanting, produces eleven or twelve kandagas ; land of the second 
quality produces eight kandagas ; and land of the third quality pro- 
duces six kandagas. The same ground, cultivated with dry-seed, 
would produce from half a kandaga to one kandaga more. 

The kinds of rice cultivated at Shimoga are sampige ddla, hctta 
kenddl, kenibatti and sanabafti, producing in a good crop ten, twelve 
and nine-fold respectively, the last two being equal. All these require 
six months to grow. They are all large-grained, except the sanabatti, 
which sells five per cent higher than the others. The lowest ground is 
used for the sanabafti, the highest for the kembatti. 

The cultivation of all soils and all kinds of rice here is the same, and 



RICE 143 

the unprepared seed is sown by a drill. Immediately after harvest, the 
ground is once ploughed. ^Vhcn the rains commence during the two 
months following the vernal equinox, it is ploughed again twice, 
smoothed with the implement called koradu, and then hoed twice with the 
heg kunk, which is drawn by two oxen. This removes the grass ; after 
which the clods are broken by drawing the koradu twice over the field, 
which in some measure serves as a rolling-stone. The dung is then 
spread ; and after the first good rain the seed is sown with the drill or 
kurige, and covered with the koradu. At this season the rain comes in 
showers, between which are considerable intervals. On the third day 
after having been sown, the field is hoed with the hcg ki/nfe, which 
here is called also kambutige. On the twentieth day, when the seedlings 
are nine inches high, the koradu is used again ; then the edde kunte ; 
then the koradu^ and finally the harrow, which is made of a bunch of 
thorny bamboos. On the thirtieth day, more grass having sprung, the 
edde kunte is again used, the rows of young corn passing between the 
hoes ; and this must be repeated as often as the grass springs. In the 
third month the water is confined, and then for the last time the edde 
kunte must be used. The mud raised by this is smoothed by the 
koradu \ but in this operation the same implement is called aravasi. 
All these weedings are not sufificient, and the remaining grass must be 
removed by the hand and weeding-iron. The rice is cut with the 
straw, and for two days is allowed to lie loose on the field. It is then 
put in ricks, without having been bound in sheaves, and remains there 
until trodden, which may be done any time in the course of three 
months. It is always preserved in the husk, and when wanted for con- 
sumption is cleaned by a hand-mill of the usual form, but made 
entirely of timber, which removes the outer husk ; but the inner one, 
or bran, must be separated by beating in a mortar. Eight measures of 
clean rice, as usual in India, are equal in value to twenty of that which 
retains the husk. 

South of the Chitaldroog District, all the rice ground is cultivated as 
sprouted-seed. The seed is sown equally thick, yet in Budihal the 
land often produces sixty-fold, and the ordinary crop is forty seeds ; 
while towards Garudagiri, the usual produce is twenty seeds. In the 
course of one year there are frequently from the same field two crops 
of rice. 

The kinds of rice cultivated at Belur are hasi/de, bola niat/ige, bill 
sauna batta, kcrivanna and putta bafta, which ripen in eight months; 
and chipiga, kesari, kumbara kesar'i^ kenipu sauna baita, and modara, 
which ripen in seven months. On nirdvari land, or that which has 
u supply of water from tanks, the rices most commonly cultivated are 



144 FLORA 

kiriva/uia and hasndc. All the three kinds of cultivation arc in use ; 
but in ordinary seasons the dry seed is by far the most prevalent. In 
extraordinary wet seasons a good deal is transplanted, and some is sown 
sprouted. 

The cultivation of the dry-seed is conducted as follows : — In the 
month following the winter solstice, the ploughing commences, and in 
the course of two months the operation is eight times repeated. The 
little banks, inclosing the plots for confining the water, are then repaired, 
and the field is manured. In the month preceding the vernal equinox, 
after a shower of rain, the clods are smoothed with the ada, or gidde 
mara, which is the same implement which at Nagar is called no/i. 
Eight days afterwards, the field is again ploughed and again smoothed 
with the ada. The seed is sown by the drill, according as the rainy 
season commences, during the two months and a half which follow the 
vernal equinox. It is then covered by the ada. On the twenty-third 
day after having been sown, the field is hoed with the edde kuitte, and 
this is repeated twice, with an interval of four days between each time. 
The field is then inundated by confining the water, and the kimte is 
drawn a fourth time in the mud. On the day following, the soil is 
smoothed with the ada. Eight days afterwards, the field is drained 
until the weeds can be removed by the hand. After a month or six 
weeks, this must be repeated. The rice is cut with the straw, and 
trodden out by oxen. 

When the rains are heavy, a good deal of rice is raised by transplanta- 
tion. For every kandaga land, two kandagas of seed must be sown ; 
and the produce of this, on the best land, is only twenty-one or twenty- 
two kandagas. Very little sprouted-seed is sown ; but it seems to be 
the cultivation that would answer best. For a kandaga land fifteen 
kolagas of seed are sufficient, and the produce is little less than in the 
dry-seed. On the viakke land, or that which depends entirely on rain 
for a supply of water, the seed is always sown without preparation, and 
managed exactly in the same manner as on the niravari. The produce 
on the best land is twenty-two kandagas, from thirty kolagas sown on a 
kandaga field. 

Sugar-cane. — A considerable quantity of sugar-cane is cultivated 
near Seringapatam. It is of two kinds, rastdli and pattdpatti.^ Both 
yield bella ox jaggory ; but the natives can extract sugar from the patta- 
patti alone. The jaggory of the latter is also reckoned the best. The 
rastali can be planted only in Chaitra ; the pattapatti may also be planted 
in Sravana or IMagha. The crop of rastali is over in a year : that of 

' Rastali is the original sugar-cane of the country ; pattapatti was introduced, it is 
said, from Arcot, in the time of Haidar, by Mustafa Ali Khan, a paymaster-general. 



SUGAR-CANE 145 

pattapatti requires fourteen months, but may be followed by a second 
crop, or, as is said in the West Indies, by a crop of ratoons, which 
require twelve months only to ripen. The rastali will not survive for a 
second crop. 

When the ground is to be cultivated for sugar-cane, it is watered 
three days, and then for the same length of time it is allowed to dry. 
During the next eight days it must be ploughed five times, and the clods 
must be beaten small with a kind of pick-axe, called kol gudali. The 
field must then be manured, and ploughed a sixth time. The ground 
now rests fifteen days ; after which, in the course of one or two days, 
it must be ploughed twice, and then be allowed eight days more rest. 
It is afterwards ploughed a ninth time. These operations occupy 
forty-four days ; six more are employed in planting the cane, which is 
done by the instrument called yak giidali. With this the field is divided 
into beds of about six cubits wide. These beds are separated by small 
trenches, which are about fourteen inches wide, and eight deep. In 
every alternate trench are dug small wells about two feet deep. The 
water from the canal flows through all the trenches, and, a quantity of 
it lodging in these wells, is taken out with pots for watering the plants 
by the hand. Across every bed, at the distance of a cubit, are dug five 
holes, about six inches in diameter and three in depth. In each of 
these are placed horizontally two cuttings of the cane, each containing 
three joints. These are covered slightly with earth, over which is laid 
some dung. When the cane is planted in Chaitra, the trenches must be 
filled with water from the tank, and every hole must be watered by pots. 
At the other seasons the trenches are full, it being the rainy weather ; 
but, even then, for one month, the holes containing the canes must 
daily be watered by the hand. The earth in the holes is then stirred up 
with a stick, and a little dung is added. Next month the daily watering 
must be continued, and at the end of it the whole field must be dug up 
with the yak gudali; and round every cluster of young canes there 
must be formed by the hand a small cavity, into which a little dung is 
to be put. In the third month the canes must be watered every other 
day. At the end of the third month, if the canes have grown with 
luxuriance, the field must be dug over again with \\\q yak gudali; but, 
if they are rather stunted, the watering must be continued all the fourth 
month, before they get the third weeding. At this time, the earth at 
the roots of the cane is heaped up into ridges, crossing the beds at right 
angles to the trenches. Afterwards, no water is given immediately to 
the plants ; but for three days the trenches must be kept full. It is 
then let out for a week. If there be rain, there is no occasion for more 
watering ; but, if it be dry weather, the trenches, for a month, must be 

L 



146 FLORA 

filled with water one day in the week. Then the weeding with the 
yak gudali must be repeated, and the earth must be smoothed with the 
hand, and placed carefully round the canes. The young shoots from 
each hole will be now ten or twelve in number ; those which are sickly 
must be cut off; and the healthy, which are about a cubit long, must 
be tied up with a leaf of the plant into bundles of two or three, in order 
to prevent them from spreading too much. Should there be no rain, 
the trenches must once in fifteen days be filled with water, till the canes, 
having grown higher, again require to be tied together. In a month 
after the first tying they ought to be two cubits high. When the plants 
are eight months old they will have grown another cubit, and will 
require another tying. The farmer now begins to repair his apparatus 
for making jaggory : the die inane, or boiling-house ; the gdna, or mill ; 
the kopparige, or boiler ; the achchit, or mould ; the kunu, or cooler ; 
the gormane, or ladle ; and the chibalu, or skimmer. In the eleventh 
month he begins to cut the rastali, and the crop must be finished within 
the year. The pattapatti is ripe in twelve months, and two months may 
be allowed for cutting it. 

If it be intended to keep the field of pattapatti for a second year's 
crop, the dry leaves which are cut off at crop season must be burned on 
the spot, and the whole field must be dug with i\ieyale gudali. The 
trenches must then be filled with water, and for six months the watering 
must be continued once in eight or ten days, unless there be rain. The 
weedings during this time ought to be three ; at each of which dung 
ought to be given. At the end of six months, the canes having grown 
one cubit high, the weakly plants must be removed, and the strongest 
tied up, as in the first crop. The manner of conducting the two crops 
after this is quite similar. The canes of the second crop must be all 
cut within the year. 

The kinds of sugar-cane cultivated in Kolar are four, which are 
esteemed in the following order : first rastali, second pattapatti, third 
7nara kahlm, fourth katte kablm. The two last are very small, seldom 
exceeding the thickness of the little finger ; yet the katte kabbu is the 
one most commonly cultivated. This is owing to its requiring little 
water ; for by means of thejv?Va it may have a supply sufficient to bring 
it to maturity. From the end of Phalguna to the end of Chaitra (Mar. 
— April) plough eight or ten times. Manure the field with dung, and 
plough it again. Then spread leaves on it, and cover them with the 
plough. By the small channels that are to convey the water, the field 
is then divided into beds eight cubits broad. Furrows are then drawn 
across the beds at the distance of nine inches from each other. The 
cuttings of cane, each containing four or five eyes, are then placed 



SUGAR-CAXE 147 

lengthwise in the furrows, the end of the one touching that of the 
other. They are covered with a very httle earth, over which is laid 
some dung. They are then watered, the water flowing through every 
channel, and entering every furrow. For one month the watering is 
repeated once in three days ; the earth round the canes must then be 
loosened with the point of a sharp stick. For fifteen days more the 
watering must be continued ; when the whole field should be hoed, 
and levelled with the kbl gudali. Four days afterwards, between every 
second row of sugar-cane a trench is dug, and into this the water flows 
from the channels. Thus in the progress of its cultivation each bed 
assumes two forms. When there is no rain, the field requires to be 
watered once in fifteen days. When four or five months old, the canes 
are tied up in bundles ; and when they are a cubit and a half high this 
is repeated. In eleven months they are ripe, and a month and a half 
are allowed for the crop season. The soil here used for sugar-cane is 
the rich black soil called ere ; and after sugar it requires one or two 
years' rest before it gives a good crop of rice. The sugar-cane is all 
made into jaggory ; seventy-four seers measure, or nearly eighteen ale- 
gallons of juice, are said to produce fifty kachcha seers weight (about 
2 6| lb. avoirdupois) of the jaggory. 

The sugar-cane field at Madgiri is divided into two equal portions, 
which are cultivated alternately, one year with sugar-cane, and the other 
with grain ; the cane, however, thrives better when the field, in place of 
being cultivated for grain, is allowed an intermediate fallow ; but then 
the loss is heavy, as after cane the grain thrives remarkably. The grains 
cultivated are rice, ragi, and jola ; the first injures the cane least, and 
the jola injures it most. The kinds of cane cultivated are the rastali 
and mara kabbu. In Kartika and Margasira (Oct. — Dec.) plough seven 
times, and manure with sheep's dung and leaves. Then with the hoe 
c:i\\cd yaie gi/dali form channels at a cubit's distance. In these also, at 
a cubit's distance, plant single shoots of the cane, each about a cubit in 
length. If the soil be poor, they must be planted rather nearer They 
are laid down in the channels, which are filled with water, and then 
people tread the shoots into the mud, by walking through each channel. 
X /xo/aga oi land requires 18,000 shoots, on which data it ought to 
contain I'S acre. If the soil be of a moist nature, the cane has water 
once in eight days ; but, if it dry cjuickly, it must, until ripe, be watered 
once in six days, except when there is rain. At the end of the first 
month the field must be hoed with the kali kudali. Near each cane, as 
a manure, some leaves of the honge are then placed, and they are 
covered with a little mud ; so that the channels are now between the 
rows of cane, and the canes grow on the ridges. When these are 2^ 

L 2 



148 FJ.ORA 

cubits high, they arc tied u[) in hunches of three or four ; and as they 
grow higher, this is three or four times repeated. Twelve months after 
planting, the crop season begins ; and in six weeks it must be finished : 
250 maunds of jaggory is here reckoned a good crop from a kolaga of 
land, which is very nearly 15 cwt. an acre ; 150 maunds, which is about 
9 cwt. from the acre, is reckoned a bad crop. Black clay gives the 
greatest quantity of jaggory, but it is of a bad quality. A sandy soil 
produces least jaggory, but that of a high value. One kapile can water 
an acre and a half of sugar-cane land. 

The ground for cultivating sugar-cane in Sira is also divided into 
two equal parts, which are alternately cultivated ; one year with cane, 
and the other with rice. It is watered either from the reservoirs, or by 
the kapile. In the last case, a field of two koiagas, or three acres, one- 
half of which is in sugar-cane, and the other in rice, requires the con- 
stant labour of four men and eight oxen. Day-labourers must also be 
hired to rebuild the boiling-house, to tie up the cane, and to weed. 
When the field is watered from a reservoir, one man only is regularly 
employed ; but to plough, to plant, to weed and to tie up the cane, 
both men and cattle must be hired in addition. Three kinds of cane 
are here cultivated. The most valued is the rastdii, which grows best 
on a black soil in which there is much sand or gravel ; a good crop of 
this, on a kolaga land, produces 100 maunds of jaggory ; which is 
about 29} cwt. on an acre. The next in quality is the kari kabbit, or 
black cane. It requires a pure black mould, called ere bhiimi; and, in 
a good crop, produces, from a kolaga land, sixty maunds of jaggory, or 
from an acre nearly 17^ cwt. The poorest cane is the mara kabbu, or 
stick cane. It is cultivated on the same kind of soil with the rastali ; 
but produces only half as much jaggory as the kari kabbu, and that of 
a very bad quality, for it is quite black. 

The cultivation of the rastali, however, is comparatively much more 
troublesome. In the course of the eight months following the summer 
solstice, the field must be ploughed eleven times ; and once a month, 
during the whole of that time, 1,000 sheep must be folded for one night 
on the field. It is then manured with mud from the bottoms of the 
reservoirs, and ploughed again twice. The channels are then formed, 
and in them the cuttings are laid down, two and two being always 
placed parallel. A kolaga of land requires 50,000. The channels are 
then filled with water, and the cuttings are trodden into the mud with 
the feet. The second watering is on the fourth day, the third watering 
on the twelfth ; afterwards the field, if the soil be good, must be 
watered once a fortnight ; or once a week, if it part with its moisture 
quickly. On the twentieth day the field is weeded with the small hoe 



SUGAR-CANE 149 

i:alled molu poiii, which imphes that the operation is done very super- 
ficially. On the thirty-fifth day the whole field is dug with the large 
hoe called yale gudali; and, the earth being thrown up toward the 
canes in ridges, the channels for conveying the water run between the 
rows. About the ninetieth day the canes are tied up with a leaf of the 
plant in parcels of five or six, and once a month this is repeated. 
When the cane is ten months old, the crop begins, and in thirty days it 
must be finished. 

Towards Periyapatna, the cane is watered from reservoirs ; the 
natural moisture of the climate not being sufficient to raise it, and 
machinery being never employed. The kinds cultivated, besides a little 
pattapatti, are rastali and mara kabbu, both of which grow nearly to 
the same length, which is in general about six feet. The rastali ripens 
in twelve months, while eighteen are required to bring forward the 
mara kabbu ; so that as a crop of rice must always intervene between 
two crops of sugar-cane, the rotation of the former occupies two years, 
while in that of the latter three are consumed. 

For the mara kabbu plough twenty times either in Asvija and 
Kartika, the two months immediately following the autumnal equinox ; 
or in Kartika and Margasira, which is of course one month later. The 
canes are planted in the second or third months after the winter solstice. 
In order to plant the cane, longitudinal and transverse furrows are 
drawn throughout the field, distant from each other one cubit and a 
half; at every intersection a hole is made, nine inches wide, and of 
the same depth ; in each hole are laid horizontally two cuttings of 
cane, each containing three joints ; finally under them is put a little 
dung, above them an inch of mould. Then water each hole with a 
pot, from a channel running at the upper end of the field. On the 
two following days this must be repeated. Until the end of the third 
month, water every other day. From the third to the sixth month, 
the field must, once in eight days, be ploughed between the rows of 
holes ; and at the same time, should there be any want of the usual 
rain, it must be watered. At the first ploughing a little dung must be 
given, and at tlie end of six months the field must be copiously 
manured. At this time channels are formed winding through among 
the canes ; so that every row is between two channels. When the 
rainy season is over, these channels must be filled with water, once 
in eight days in hot weather, and once a month when it is cool. 
At the beginning of the eighth month the whole field is hoed, and at 
the end of two months more this is repeated. The cane here is never 
tied up. 

The sugar-cane cultivated in Nagar is the mara kabbu. The ground 



ISO FLORA 

fit for it is that which has a sii[)ply of water in the dry season. Any 
soil will do, but a red earth is reckoned the best. In the month 
preceding the vernal equinox plf)ugh four times ; and then throughout 
the field, at the distance of one cubit and a half, form with the hoe 
trenches one cubit wide, and one span deep. Then cover the field 
with straw, dry grass, and leaves, and burn them to serve as a manure. 
The soil in the bottom of the trenches is afterwards loosened with a 
hoe ; and a man, with his hand, opens up the loose earth, puts in a 
little dung, and upon this places horizontally, and parallel to the sides 
of the trench, cuttings of the cane, each containing four or five joints. 
These he covers with a little dung and earth. The cuttings are placed 
in one row in each bed, the end of the one being close to that of 
another. Once a day, for a month, the canes must be watered with a 
})0t ; the young plants are then about a cubit high ; and, the earth 
round them having been previously loosened with a sharp-pointed stick, 
a little dung should be given to their roots. After this, the ridges are 
thrown down, and the earth is collected toward the rows of young 
cane, which by this means are placed on ridges, with a trench inter- 
vening between every two rows. Until the rains commence, these 
trenches must every other day be filled with water. In the month 
preceding the autumnal equinox, in order to prevent them from being 
eaten by the jackals and bandicoots, the canes are tied up in bundles 
of from five to ten, and each of these is surrounded by a series of 
straw^ rope. In ten months they are fit for cutting, and require no 
farther trouble. The crop season lasts one month. On the second 
year a crop of ratoons is taken, in the third year the roots are dug up, 
and the field is again planted with cane ; so that it is never reinvigor- 
ated by a succession of crops. 

Sugar-cane is at Harihar the most considerable irrigated crop. In 
the intervals between the crops of cane, a crop of rice is taken, should 
there be a sufficient supply of water ; but that is seldom the case, 
and the intermediate crop is commonly some of the dry grains. The 
cane may be planted at any time ; but there are only three seasons 
which are usually employed. One lasts during the month before 
and month after the summer solstice. This is the most productive 
and most usual season ; but the cane requires at this time longer to 
grow, and more labour, than in the others. The other two seasons 
are the second month after the autumnal equinox, and the second 
month after the shortest day. Those crops arrive at maturity within 
the year. 

The kind of cane cultivated is the mara kabbu, and the following 
is the process in the first season : — In the second month after the 



SUGAR-CAXE 151 

vernal equinox, the field must be watered, and eight days afterwards 
it is ploughed once. After another rest of eight days, it must be 
ploughed again with a deeper furrow, four oxen having been put into 
the yoke. After another interval of eight days it is ploughed, first 
lengthwise, and then across, with a team of six oxen. Then, at the 
distance of three, or three and a half cubits, are drawn over the whole 
field, furrows which cross each other at right angles. In order to make 
these furrows wider, a stick is put across the iron of the plough. In 
the planting season, two cuttings of the cane, each containing two 
eyes, are laid down in every infersection of the furrows, and are 
covered slightly with mud. The furrows are then filled with water, 
and this is repeated three times, with an interval of eight days between 
every two waterings. A little dung is then put into the furrows ; and 
when there happens to be no rain, the waterings once in the eight 
days are continued for three months. When the canes have been 
planted forty days, the weeds must be removed with a knife, and the 
intervals are hoed with the hoe drawn by oxen. This operation is 
repeated on the fifty-fifth, seventieth, and eighty-fifth days, and the 
earth is thrown up in ridges toward the canes. In the beginning of 
the fourth month, the field gets a full watering. Fifteen days after- 
wards, the intervals are ploughed lengthwise and across ; and to each 
bunch of plants a basket or two of dung is given and ploughed in. 
The weeds are then destroyed by a hoe drawn by oxen ; after which, 
channels must be formed between the rows ; and until the cane ripens, 
which varies from fourteen to seventeen months, these channels are 
filled with water once in fifteen days. The crop season lasts from one 
month to six weeks. 

Cardamoms — are propagated entirely by cuttings of the root, and 
s{)rcad in clumps exactly like the plantain-tree. In the month follow- 
ing the autumnal equinox, a cluster of from three to five stems, with 
the roots adhering, are separated from a bunch, and i)lanted in the 
same row, one between every two areca-nut palms, in the s[)ot from 
whence a plantain-tree has been removed. The ground around the 
cardamom is manured with iiclli {emblica) leaves. In the third year, 
about the autumnal equinox, it produces fruit. The capsules are 
gathered as they ripen, and are dried four days on a mat, which during 
the day is supported by four sticks, and exposed to the sun, but at 
night is taken into the house. They are then fit for sale. Whenever 
the whole fruit has been removed, the plants are raised, and, all the 
superfluous stems and roots having been separated, they are set again • 
but care is taken never to set a plant in the spot from whence it was 
raised, a change in this respect being considered as necessary. Next 



152 FLORA 

year these plants give no fruit, but in the year following yield capsules 
again, as at first. After transplantation, the old stems die and new- 
ones spring from the roots. Each cluster produces from a quarter to 
one seer weight of cardamoms, or from -^{'i^ to -^^ of a pound. 

Areca-nut. — In the gardens near Channapatna the areca palm 
requires a rich black soil, and is planted in such places only as produce 
water on digging a well two cubits deep. There are here two varieties 
of the areca, the one bearing large and the other small nuts. The 
produce of both kinds is nearly equal in value and quantity. 

The following is the manner of forming an areca-nut garden :• — A 
plot of ground having been selected for a nursery, is dug to the depth 
of one cubit. When the seed is ripe, which happens between the 
middle of January and that of February, trenches must be formed in 
the nursery, a span broad and a cubit deep. The trenches are half 
filled up with sand, on the surface of Avhich is placed a row of the ripe 
nuts. These are again covered with five inches of sand, and two inches 
of rich black mould, and watered once in three days for four months, 
at which time they are fit for being transplanted into the garden. The 
garden having been fenced with a hedge of euphorbium tiriicalli, or 
jatropha curcas, is dug to the depth of a cubit at the same time with 
the nursery and planted with rows of plantain-trees at the distance of 
three cubits. When the young palms are fit for being transplanted the 
garden must be dug again to the former depth, and two young arecas 
must be set in one hole between every two plantain-trees, ^^'hen there 
is no rain they nmst have water every third day. ^^'hen the rainy 
season commences, a trench must be dug between every third row of 
trees ; that is to say, so as between every trench to form beds each of 
which contains two rows of the areca. These trenches serve to carry 
off superfluous water and to bring a supply from the reservoir when 
wanted. The garden must be dug twice a year to keep it clear of 
weeds. At the end of three years the original plantain-trees are 
removed, and a row is set in the middle of each bed and kept up ever 
afterwards in order to preserve a coolness at the roots of the areca. 
When the areca-trees are about five feet high, which requires about five 
years, they receive no more water than what is given to the plantain- 
trees, which in dry weather must be watered twice a month. The tree 
when five years old begins to produce fruit, and lives from thirty to 
forty years. 

Each tree pushes out three or four spadices which from the middle 
of August until that of November become fit for cutting at different 
intervals of twenty or thirty days, one after the other. When the nuts 
have been cut, the skin is removed with an iron knife, and a quantity 



ARECA-NUT. 153 

is put into a pot with some water, in which it must be boiled tiU the 
eyes be separated. The nut is then cut into three or four pieces and 
for three or four days dried on mats exposed to the sun, when it becomes 
fit for sale. The plantations are interspersed with cocoa-nut, lime, jack 
and other trees, which add to the shade and to the freshness of the 
soil. Under the trees are cultivated ginger, and various vegetables. 

The situation that is reckoned most favourable for areca gardens in 
Madgiri is a black soil which contains calcareous nodules. It differs 
from that in which cotton is raised by having the limestone a cubit or 
two deep ; whereas the cotton requires it to be at the surface. The 
gardens at this place are watered from reservoirs, from canals, and from 
wells by means of the kapile. 

To make a new garden, — in Sravana, the fifth month after the vernal 
equinox, plough four times. Then with the hoe axWed ya/e guda/i form 
the garden into beds six cubits wide. Between every two beds is a 
raised channel for bringing a supply of water ; and in the centre of 
each bed is a deep channel to carry off what is superfluous. The beds 
are divided into plots ten or twelve cubits long. Then plant the whole 
with shoots of the betel vine, and for its support sow the seed of the 
M/uvdna, agase and migge. Then surround the whole with a thick 
hedge, and once a day for three months water with a pot. Whenever 
weeds grow they must be removed ; and at each time the betel vines 
must get some dung. Between every two rows of the vines, in the 
fourth month, is put a row of young plantain-trees. Once in four 
days afterwards, the water is given from the reservoir or well. In six 
months the vines must be tied up to the young trees. At the same 
time, for every wokkala land, 3,000 nuts of the areca must be planted near 
the roots of the vines, ^^'hen they are three years old a thousand of them 
will be fit for use, and 800 are required to plant a wokkala land, or 
about an acre and a half. They are planted distant in every direction 
from each other five cubits. Xx. the same time plant on the inside of 
the hedge some rows of cocoa-nut palms and orange, lime, mango, or 
jack trees. The 800 areca palms, at five cubits distance, would only 
occupy about an acre ; but a considerable space is taken up by a walk, 
and by the rows of fruit-trees between them and the hedge. 

In nine years from the first formation of the garden the betel vines 
and most of the trees that supported them are removed. A few of the 
agase and allthe plantains are allowed to remain. In the twelfth year 
the areca palms begin to produce fruit. The remaining agase trees, 
and one-half of the plantains are then removed. After this the garden 
requires water only once in eight days when there is no rain ; and the 
whole is dug over,'and formed like rice-ground into proper squares 



r54 /'/.OR A 

and clinnncls for (lislril)UUn_L,f the water. One year it is manured with 
duni;- ; in tlie second with the leaves of the /longe and /wi^/ii, and in the 
third year with mud from the l)ottom of a reservoir. So long as the 
garden lasts this succession of manures should, if possiljle, be con- 
tinued ; and when the [)alms attain their full growth, which is in the 
fourteenth year of the garden, the plantain-trees are entirely removed. 
For thirty years from its arriving at maturity the palm continues 
vigorous, and for fourteen years more gradually declines; during 
which time a new garden ought to be formed, and then the old trees 
should be cut, and the ground cultivated with grain, till the second 
formed garden again begins to decay. In place of those that die, some 
poor farmers plant new trees, and thus constantly keep up a garden on 
the same spot ; but here this is looked upon as a bad practice. 

The crop season lasts two months before, and one after, the autumnal 
equinox. The nut, after being peeled, is cut into seven or eight pieces, 
and put up in a heap. Then take one seer of the nut, one seer of cut 
terra japonica, and a hundred leaves of the piper betel, beat them 
together repeatedly with some water, and strain the juice thus obtained 
into a pot. Take twenty seers of the bark of the /mri Jd/i :ind. boil it 
during a whole night in a large pot with forty seers of water. With 
this decoction mix the juice expressed from the former materials, and 
boil again. While it is boiling, put in the areca-nut, after it has been 
cut, until the pot be full. Immediately after, take it out with a ladle, 
and put in more, till the whole is boiled. In order to be dried, it must 
be three days exposed on mats to the sun, and is then fit for sale. 
Forty maunds of dried nut is here reckoned the common produce of 
a /io/aga land, which is about 6| cwt. an acre, or for each tree about 
lilb. 

Near Chiknayakanhalli the areca thrives best in the rich black mould 
called ere, or /iris/ina b/iiani. The natives here look upon it as a matter 
of indifference, whether or not, on digging a little depth, water may be 
found in the soil. All that is required is to have a proper supply of 
water either from the reservoir or by means of machinery. 

In the second month after the winter solstice, the nut intended for 
seed is cut ; and, having been put in a heap, is for eight or ten days 
kept in the house. A seed-bed is then dug to the depth of a foot, and 
three inches of the mould is removed from the surface, which is then 
covered with a little dung. On this the nuts are placed with their eyes 
uppermost, and close to each other. They are then covered with an 
inch of mould, and for three months are watered every other day. The 
seedlings are then three or four inches high, and must be transplanted 
into a fresh bed that is prepared in the same manner : but in this they 



ARECA-NUT 155 

arc placed a cubit distant from each other. Here they grow for three 
years, receiving water once every other day ; and once a month they 
are cleaned from weeds and have a little dung. 

One year after planting the seed, the ground that is intended for the 
garden must be dug to the depth of a cubit, and the soil exposed for 
two months. Young plantain-trees are then placed in it at sixteen 
cubits distance from each other, and it is surrounded by a screen of 
cocoa-nut palms, and of jack, lime, and orange-trees, which are defended 
by a hedge of the milk-bush. At the same time seeds of the agase are 
planted throughout the garden, at the distance of four cubits. When 
there is no rain the garden must once in fifteen days be watered by 
channels made for the purpose. In the second month after the summer 
solstice of the third year, the young arecas are fit for transplantation. 
Then throughout the garden, at the distance of sixteen cubits, and in 
the middle between every two plantain-trees, are formed pits, a cubit 
deep and a cubit wide. In each of these pits a young areca is put, and 
it must be carefully raised from the seed-bed with much earth adhering 
to its roots ; and, after it is placed, the pit must be filled with earth, 
and then receive a pot of water. The young arecas are then between 
two and three feet high, and have four or five branches. If there be 
water in the reservoir, an irrigation once a month is sufficient ; but the 
kapilc must be used once in ten days, as the waterings given by it are 
but scanty. For three years afterwards the whole garden must be com- 
pletely hoed twice annually. At the one hoeing, for every four arecas, 
it must have a bullock-load of dung ; and at the other hoeing, every 
tree must be allowed an ox-load of red soil. The mud of reservoirs is 
here thought to be very bad for an areca-nut garden. Ever afterwards 
the garden is hoed completely once a year only, and is then manured 
with dung and red earth. At the intermediate period of six months, it 
is hoed near the trees, and has a little dung. At the end of the first 
three years the agase trees are cut. The plantains are always reserved ; 
but, as the old stems are cut, which is always done in from twelve to 
eighteen months, the young shoots are conducted to a distance from 
where tlie parent was originally placed ; and when the garden is twenty 
years old, in these spots are planted other young arecas, to supply the 
places of the old ones when they decay. This second set are again 
supplanted by a third, growing where the first set did, and thus a con- 
stant succession is preserved. In a new garden the areca begins to 
bear fruit in nine years ; but fourteen or fifteen years are required to 
bring forward those which are [)lanted among old trees. They con- 
tinue to bear for sixty or .seventy years ; but after having been twenty- 
five or thirty years in perfection they begin to decay. 



156 FLORA 

There are annually two crops of areca-nut : one in the second month 
after the summer solstice, the other in the two months which precede 
the shortest day. The last crop is superior both in quantity and 
quality. The nut, on being cut, is skinned in the course of two days, 
and [)ut into a large pot with as much water as will cover it two inches. 
It is then boiled for about three-quarters of an hour until a white scum 
rises. The largest are then cut into eight pieces, and the smallest into 
two, with the others in proportion to their size. During the four 
following days they are .spread out in the sun to dry, and every night 
they are gathered in a heap. When the fruit has been allowed to 
approach too near to maturity, the nut loses its colour ; and a deceit is 
attempted by adding a little reddle to the w-ater in which it is boiled. 
This frequently deceives the consumer, but never the experienced 
dealer ; and seems to be done purposely to enable him to defraud the 
unwary. 

A garden of i,ooo trees, allowing eight cubits square for each tree, 
ought to contain rather more than 3 J acres ; but a young garden, 
containing trees at sixteen cubits, will require 8| acres. The produce 
is reckoned from forty to sixty maunds. The areca-tree is never cut 
till its leaves have turned brown. Its stem has then acquired great 
hardness, and in building is very useful. 

The following process is adopted in Periyapatna to make a new 
plantation of areca : — Take a piece of ground consisting of black mould 
or a substratum of limestone, with water at no greater depth than 
three cubits, and surround it with a hedge of the eiiphorbiiiin tirucalli, 
and some rows of young cocoa-nut palms. Then, at the distance of 
twelve cubits, dig rows of pits, two cubits deep and one and a half in 
diameter. These pits are six cubits distant from the nearest in the 
same row. In the second month after the vernal equinox, set in these 
pits young plantain-trees, and give them water once ; after which, 
unless the weather be uncommonly dry, they require no more. Two 
months afterwards hoe the whole garden and form a channel in the 
middle between every two rows of plantain-trees. The channels are 
intended to carry off superfluous water, and are a cubit wide and two 
feet deep. In the month immediately following the winter solstice, 
hoe the whole garden a second time. In the following month, between 
every two rows of plantain-trees make two rows of holes, at six cubits 
distance and one cubit wide and deep. Fill each hole half up with 
fine mould ; and in this place two ripe nuts of the areca, six inches 
asunder. Once in two days for three months water each hole with a 
pot. The shoots come up in Vais'akha, after which they get water 
once only in five days. The holes must be kept clear of the mud that 



ARECA-NUT 157 

is brought in by the rain ; and for three years must, on this account, 
be daily inspected. In the month following the autumnal equinox 
give a little dung. Ever afterwards the whole garden must be hoed 
three times a year. 

After they are three years old the areca palms must be watered every 
other day in hot weather; when it is cool, once in every four or five 
days, and not at all in the rainy season. The waterings are performed 
by pouring a pot-full of water to the root of each plant. In the begin- 
ning of the seventh year the w^eakest plant is removed from each hole ; 
and at each digging, for three years more, every tree must receive 
manure. After this, for three years, the young palms have neither 
dung nor water. In the fourteenth year they begin to bear, and in the 
fifteenth come to perfection, and continue in vigour until their forty- 
fifth year, when they are cut down. The crop season lasts over Asvija, 
Kartika, and Margasira. A good tree gives 857, and an ordinary one 
600, nuts. Sixty thousand nuts, when prepared for sale, make a load 
of between seven and eight maunds. One thousand ordinary trees at 
this rate should procure seventy-five maunds. 

In Nagar the nursery is managed as follows : — ^In the month preceding 
the vernal equinox the seed is ripe. After having been cut, it is kept 
eight days in the house. In the meantime a bed of ground in a shady 
place is dug, and in this the nuts are placed nine inches from each 
other, and with their eyes uppermost. They must be covered with a 
finger-breadth of earth. The bed is then covered with dry plantain 
leaves, and once in eight days is sprinkled with water. In the month 
preceding the summer solstice, the plantain leaves are removed, and 
young shoots are found to have come from the nuts. In the second 
month afterwards, leaves of the nclli are spread between the young 
plants. In the month preceding the vernal equinox, they get a little 
dung. In the dry season they are watered once in from four to eight 
days, according to the nature of the soil. 

In the month preceding the autumnal equinox of the second year, the 
young plants are removed into another nursery, where they are planted 
a cubit distant and manured with nelli leaves and dung. This nursery 
must be kept clear of weeds, manured twice a year, and in the dry 
season should receive water once in eight days. The seedlings remain 
in it two years, when they are fit for transplantation. A\'hen the arecas 
are three years old, they are removed into the garden, planted close to 
the drains for letting off the water, and remain there two years, when 
they are finally placed in the spots where they are to grow. Once in 
twenty or thirty years only the watering channels are filled up with 
fresh earth, and then are not allowed water. During that year the 



158 FLORA 

garden is kept moist by occasionally llUing the drains. 'Die water in 
these is, however, reckoned very prejudicial, and is never thrown upon 
the beds. Once in two years the garden is dug near the trees and 
manured. The manure is dung, above which are placed the leafy 
twigs of all kinds of trees. \\'hen an areca dies, a new one is j^lanted 
in its stead ; so that in an old garden there are trees of all ages. When 
the trees are sixteen years old they are employed to support pepper 
vines. The extent of a garden of a thousand rated trees is about 
185 acres. Its produce of areca-nut weighs 920^ lb., and of pepper 
117 lb. 

Cocoa-nut. — There are four varieties of the cocoa-nut : ist, red ; 
2nd, red mixed with green ; 3rd, light green ; and 4th, dark green. 
These varieties are permanent ; but, although the red is reckoned 
somewhat better than the others, they are commonly sold promiscu- 
ously. Their produce is nearly the same. 

The soil does not answer in the Bangalore District unless water can 
be had on digging into it to the depth of three or four cubits ; and in 
such situations a light sandy soil is the best. The black clay called ere 
is the next best soil. The worst is the red clay called kebbe ; but with 
proper cultivation all the three soils answer tolerably well. 

The manner of forming a new cocoa-nut garden is as follows : — The 
nuts intended for seed must be allowed to ripen until they fall from 
the tree ; and must then be dried in the open air for a month without 
having the husk removed. A plot for a nursery is then dug to the 
depth of two feet, and the soil is allowed to dry three days. On the 
Ugddi feast (in March) remove one foot of earth from the nursery, and 
cover the surface of the plot with eight inches of sand. On this place 
the nuts close to each other, with the end containing the eye upper- 
most. Cover them with three inches of sand and two of earth. If the 
supply of water be from a well, the plot must once a day be watered ; 
but, if a more copious supply can be had from a reservoir, one watering 
in the three days is sufficient. In three months the seedlings are fit 
for being transplanted. By this time the garden must have been 
enclosed and hoed to the depth of two feet. Holes are then dug for 
the reception of the seedlings, at twenty feet distance from each other 
in all directions ; for when planted nearer they do not thrive. The 
holes are two feet deep and a cubit wide. At the bottom is put sand 
seven inches deep, and on this is placed the nut with the young tree 
adhering to it. Sand is now put in until it rises two inches above the 
nut, and then the hole is filled with earth and a little dung. Every 
day for three years, except when it rains, the young trees must have 
water. 



COCOA-NUT 159 

The cocoa-nut palm begins to produce when seven or eight years 
old, and lives so long that its period of duration cannot readily be 
ascertained. Young trees, however, produce more fruit, which comes 
forward at all seasons of the year. A good tree gives annually a 
hundred nuts. A few are cut green on account of the juice, which is 
used as drink ; but by far the greater part are allowed to arrive at some 
degree of maturity, although not to full ripeness ; for then the kernel 
would become useless. 

Cocoa-nut palms are planted in Chiknayakanhalli in rows round the 
areca-nut gardens, and also separately in spots that would not answer 
for the cultivation of this article. The situation for these gardens 
must be rather low, but it is not necessary that it should be under a 
reservoir ; any place will answer in which water can be had by digging 
to the depth of two men's stature. The soil which is here reckoned 
most favourable for the cocoa-nut is a red clay mixed with sand. It 
must be free of lime and saline substances. Other soils, however, are 
employed, but black mould is reckoned very bad. The cocoa-nuts 
intended for seed are cut in the second month after the winter solstice. 
X square pit is then dug, which is sufficiently large to hold them, and 
is about a cubit in depth. In this, fifteen days after being cut, are 
placed the seed-nuts, with the eyes uppermo-st, and contiguous to each 
other ; and then earth is thrown in so as just to cover them, upon 
which is spread a little dung. In this bed, every second day for six 
months, the seed must be watered with a pot, and then the young 
palms are fit for being trans[)lanted. Whenever, during the two 
months following the vernal equinox, an occasional shower gives an 
opportunity by softening the soil, the garden must be ploughed five 
times. All the next month it is allowed to rest. In the month follow- 
ing the summer solstice, the ground must again be ploughed twice ; 
and next month, at the distance of forty-eight cubits in every direction, 
there must be dug pits a cubit wide and as much deep. In the bottom 
of each a little dung is put ; and the young plants, having been 
previously well watered to loosen the soil, are taken up, and one is 
placed in each pit. The shell slill adheres to the young palm, and 
the pit must be filled with earth so far as to cover the nut. Over this 
is put a little dung. For three months the young plants must be 
watered every other day ; afterwards every fourth day, until they are 
four years old, except when there is rain. Afterwards they require 
no water. 

Every year the garden is cultivated for rngi, uddu, he-saru, or what- 
ever other grain the soil is fitted for, and is well dunged ; and at the 
same time four ox-loads of red mud are laid on the garden for every 



i6o FLORA 

tree that it contains, while a little fresh earth is gathered up toward 
the roots of the palms. The crop of grain is but poor, and injures 
the palms ; it is always taken, however ; as, in order to keep down 
the weeds, the ground must at any rate be ploughed ; as the 
manure must be given ; and as no rent is paid for the grain. On this 
kind of ground the cocoa-nut palm begins to bear in twelve or thirteen 
years, and continues in perfection about sixty years. It dies altogether 
after bearing for about a hundred years. They are always allowed to 
die ; and when they begin to decay a young one is planted near the old 
one to supply its place. 

In this country, wine is never extracted from this palm, for that 
operation destroys the fruit ; and these, when ripe, are considered as 
the valuable part of the produce. A few green nuts are cut in the hot 
season, on account of the refreshing juice which they then contain, 
and to make coir rope : but this also is thought to injure the crop. 
The coir made from the ripe nuts is very bad, and their husks are 
commonly burned for fuel. 

The crop begins in the second month after the summer solstice, and 
continues four months. A bunch is known to be ripe when a nut falls 
down, and it is then cut Each palm produces from three to six 
bunches, which ripen successively. A middling palm produces from 
sixty to seventy nuts. As the nuts are gathered, they are collected in 
small huts, raised from the ground on posts. When a merchant offers, 
the rind is removed, at his expense, by a man who fixes an iron rod in 
the ground and forces its upper end, which is sharp, through the fibres ; 
by which means the whole husk is speedily removed. He then, by a 
single blow with a crooked knife, breaks the shell without hurting the 
kernel, which is then fit for sale, and is called kobbari. A man can 
daily clean 1,300 nuts. From twenty to thirty per cent of them are 
found rotten. 

Betel Vine.— The betel vine thrives best in low ground, where it can 
have a supply of water from a reservoir. If that cannot be had, a place 
is selected where water can be procured by digging to a small depth. 
A black soil is required. A betel-leaf garden is thus managed in the 
east : — In Chaitra or Vais'akha, trench over the whole ground one cubit 
deep, and surround it with a mud wall ; immediately within which plant 
a hedge of the eupJiorbium tirucalli, and of the ariindo tibialis. ^Vhen 
there is not plenty of rain, this must for six months be regularly watered. 
Then dig the garden, and form it into proper beds, leaving a space of 
about twenty feet between them and the hedge. From the main 
channel for conducting the water to the garden, draw others at right 
angles, and distant twenty-two cubits. Between every two of these, to 



BETEL VINE i6i 

drain off the superfluous water, draw others about a cubit wide, and 
deeper than the former. The garden is thus divided into rows ten 
cubits in width, having on one side an elevated channel for supplying it 
with water, and on the other side a deep canal, to carry off what is 
superfluous. These rows are divided into beds, each also having on 
one side a channel to supply it with water, and on the other a 
canal to carry off what is superfluous ; and it is surrounded by a narrow 
bank, about six inches high, which excludes the water that flows 
through the channels : within these little banks the divisions of the 
beds are carefully levelled. 

In the centre of each division is then formed a row of small holes, 
distant from each other one cubit ; and in Pushya (Dec. — Jan.) in 
every hole are put two cuttings of the betel-leaf vine, each two cubits 
long. The middle of each cutting is pushed down, and slightly 
covered with earth ; while the four ends project and form an equal 
number of young plants, which for the first eighteen months are allowed 
to climb upon dry sticks that are put in for the purpose. For the first 
week after being planted, the shoots must be watered twice a day with 
pots ; for another week once a day, and until the end of the second 
month once in three days. A small drill is then made across each 
division of the beds, and between every two holes in each ; and in 
these drills are planted rows of the seeds of the agase, nugge and 
varjepu. The young betel plants must then have some dung, and for 
four months more must be watered with the pot once in three days. 
Afterwards, so long as the garden lasts, all the channels must once in 
four days be filled with water. This keeps the ground sufficiently 
moist, and water applied immediately to the plants is injurious. The 
garden ought to be kept clean from weeds by the hand, and once a year, 
in December, must have dung. 

When the plants are a year and a half old they are removed from 
the sticks ; two cubits of each, next the root, is buried in the earth ; 
and the remainder, conducted close to the root of one of the young 
trees, is allowed to support itself on the stem. At the end of two 
years two cubits more of each plant are buried in the ground ; and ever 
afterwards this is once a year repeated. At the beginning of the fourth 
year the cultivator begins to gather the leaves for sale, and for six or 
seven years continues to obtain a constant supply. Afterwards the 
plants die, and a new garden must be formed in some other place. In 
order to give additional coolness to the garden, at its first formation a 
plantain-tree is put at each corner of every bed, and by means of 
suckers soon forms a cluster. So long as the garden lasts these 
clusters are preserved. At all times the gardens are very cool and 

M 



i62 FLORA 

pleasant ; but they are not neatly kept ; and in the space between the 
hedge and the beds, a great variety of bushes and weeds are allowed to 
grow. 

In the west, the betel vine is grown with the areca palm in the follow- 
ing manner : — When the areca plantation is fifteen years old, in the 
month immediately following the vernal equinox, a hole is dug near 
every tree, one cubit deep and one and a half in width. After having 
exposed the earth to the air for a month, return it into holes and allow 
it to remain for another month. Then take out a little of the earth, 
smooth the surface of the pit, and bury in it the ends of five cuttings 
of the betel-leaf vine, which are placed with their upper extremities 
sloping toward the palm. Once every two days, for a month, water the 
cuttings, and shade them with leaves. Then remove the leaves and 
with the point of a sharp stick loosen the earth in the holes. In the 
first year the waterings must be repeated every day, and the whole must 
once a month be hoed ; while at the same time dung is given to every 
plant. In the second year, the vines are tied up to the palms ; once 
in two months the garden is hoed and manured ; and it is in the hot 
season only that the plants are watered. At the end of the second 
year the vines begin to produce saleable leaves. In the third year and 
every other year afterwards, so much of the vines next the root as has 
no leaves, must be buried. Once in six months the garden must be 
hoed and manured ; and in the hot season the vines must be watered 
every other day. 

The owners of these plantations are annoyed by elephants, monkeys 
and squirrels ; and, besides, both palms and vine are subject to diseases ; 
one of which, the anibe, in the course of two or three years kills the 
whole. Except when these causes of destruction occur, the vine con- 
tinues always to flourish ; but the palm begins to decay at forty-five 
years of age, and is then removed, care being taken not to injure the 
vine. Near this is made a fresh hole, in which some persons place two nuts 
for seed, and others plant a young seedling. In order to support the 
vine during the fifteen years which are required to bring forward the 
new palm, a large branch of the hdruvdna, or erythrlna, is stuck in the 
ground, and watered for two or three days ; when it strikes root and 
supplies the place of an areca. 

Coffee.^ — The variety of coffee cultivated in Mysore appears to be 
the true coffea araln'ca, which Rhind informs us was originally intro- 
duced into Arabia from Abyssinia. It was introduced into this 
Province some two centuries ago by a person named Baba Budan, who, 

' Adapted from a memorandum by Mr. Graham Anderson, C.I.E., Bargua Estate, 
Manjarabad. 



COFFEE 163 

on his return from a pilgrimage to Mecca, brought a few seeds, which 
he planted on the range of mountains still bearing his name." 

In the selection of land for coffee cultivation, care must be taken to 
obtain a tract well sheltered by nature from undue exposure either to 
the south-west or the east wind, and situated, with a northern, north- 
eastern, or north-western aspect, within the zone that is favoured with 
as large as possible a share of the March and April showers and yet 
not visited by too large a share of rain in the south-west monsoon. 
There is in fact a line or coffee zone in every coffee-producing country, 
and more especially in Mysore, even a mile beyond which the coffee-tree 
will not exist. The plant rejoices in a damp, warm temperature, such as 
is procurable in the west of Mysore at elevations from 2,500 to 3,500 
feet above sea-level, although the tree will grow under certain circum- 
stances at elevations both below and above these. A good rich loamy 
soil, of any colour, with a good deposit of vegetable matter on the 
surface, and not much sheet rock underlying it, is required. 

There are five descriptions of land in Mysore in which coffee has 
been planted^ : — the forest termed kdtis ; heavy ghat forest, termed 
Ma/e ; village jungles, termed uduve ; kumri, or land the original timber 
on which having been cut has been followed by a secondary growth of 
trees of a smaller type ; and kanave, or lands covered with hard-wood 
trees and bamboos. Some of the finest estates have been formed on 
lands of the first and third classes, which have the decided advantage 
over all other descriptions, of possessing a rich deposit of decayed 
vegetable mould that has not been exposed to atmospheric influences, 
and hence contains an almost inexhaustible store of organic and in- 
organic constituents available as food for the coffee plant. 

The kdns are generally situated in mountainous country, intersected 
by streams of clear water, with rocky or sandy beds. The peculiarity 
of the ravines through which these streamlets flow is, that the under- 
growth is entirely different from that found under similar circumstances 
in the ghat forests, consisting as it does of a gigantic species of 

' Further particulars of the history of coffee cultivation will be found under Kadur 
and Hassan Districts in Vol. II. 

- This description applies to the Malnad, where alone extensive coffee plantations 
have hitherto been formed. But forty years ago there were coffee gardens in Banga- 
lore, and a few plants were grown in private gardens under wells by European 
residents since then, yielding sufficient for domestic wants. The same practice seems 
to have been common in Cochin so far back as 1743, according to Cantervisscher's 
" Letters from Malabar." Of late years an experiment on a larger scale has been 
made at Bangalore, l)y Mr. Minakshaiya, and coffee grown with great success on 
irrigated land. The consequence has been a demand by European planters for land 
suitable for the purpose near Bangalore and Mysore, and in other Maidan parts. 

.M 2 



1 64 FLORA 

triangular coffcc-wced (called in Canarcsc hnnal or licb-gi'irkal), and 
other succulent plants, whereas in the latter case basket reeds (termed 
warti) and canes {Jietta) of every description are generally found in a 
tangled mass. Uduve is strictly village jungle or forest, sometimes 
almost entirely surrounded by rice-fields. The trees are frequently 
large and of good descriptions, and the undergrowth is principally 
small coffee-weed, bamboos and thorns. There are fewer ravines in 
this kind of land and they are generally smaller and less precipitous, 
but frequently old excavations, termed ivanigalu, are met with, which 
evidently were dug out as approaches to villages formerly situated in the 
very heart of the forest. Male tracts are situated close to the crest of the 
ghats and generally contain gigantic timber, but can seldom boast of 
good soil, except in protected situations, the generality of the land 
having suffered from wash caused by the almost incessant rainfall in 
the monsoon. The great height of the trees also proves prejudicial to 
coffee, which is cut to pieces by the drip. The situation being bleak, 
windy, and exposed to terrific rainfall, is seldom profitable for coffee 
cultivation. Kumri lands frequently contain magnificent-Z^^/^/Xf soil, 
but a certain amount of virtue has gone out of it by former exposure, 
and although coffee has been planted and fine estates made on such 
land, still the operation is always accompanied by a considerable 
amount of risk, and always by heavy extra expenditure. In kanave 
lands ravines containing fair average soil and trees are to be met with, 
and these places are the only portions suitable for coffee. This 
description of land has the disadvantage of showing a maximum area 
of holding with a minimum of space available for cultivation. 

Clearing for a plantation consists of removing with the axe and 
cutting all undergrowth and obstructions, and such trees as are not 
required. Large trees that have a thick foliage in the hot weather and 
little or none in the monsoon, are left as shade at regular distances, 
attention being paid to leave fewer trees on portions with a northern 
aspect than on those facing the south, all quarters exposed to the wind 
especially requiring protection. This accomplished, the ground is either 
cleared by lopping and laying in line to await the process of rotting in 
the monsoon, or fire is used to facilitate matters. Lines of pegs, 
generally at 6 x 6 feet, are then laid down, and the land is holed, each 
hole being generally one foot wide by two feet deep. This is done to 
remove all obstacles to the roots of the young plants, and to make a 
nice loose bed for their reception. Roads are traced to and from 
convenient points in the property, and these are again intersected by 
paths to facilitate the general working of the estate. 

For 7iurseries, convenient situations, with facilities for irrigation or 



COFFEE 165 

with river or tank frontage, are selected and entirely cleared of trees, 
the soil being dug to the depth of two feet or more, and every root and 
stone removed. This is then laid out into beds, generally about four 
feet wide, separated by paths, and the whole well drained and put in 
order with the same care as a flower garden. Manure is applied and 
the beds are then cut up into furrows, at six inches apart, into which 
the seeds are placed, about one inch apart. The whole bed is then 
covered up with dry leaves and watered by hand, care being taken to 
maintain a uniform state of moisture, which must not be excessive. 
The seed germinates in six weeks, and from the bean, which is raised 
on a slender green stem of about eight inches in height, burst forth two 
small oval leaves. These two-leafed seedlings are pricked out into 
beds at either 4 x 4 or 6 x 6 inches, and require from ten to 
fourteen months, with constant attention and watering, to form into 
good plants, which should have three or four pairs of small primary 
branches and be from one foot to one and a half in height. 

Planting is performed in the months of June, July and August. The 
plants being carefully removed from the beds and the roots trimmed, 
they are planted either with a mamoti or planting staff by a regular 
gang of experienced men. Great attention is paid to this operation to 
see that the holes are properly filled in and that the roots are not bent 
or injured, and lastly that the plants are firmly set in the ground and 
not hung. 

Under favourable circumstances, the plants are ready for topping in 
the second year. A topping staff, duly marked to the proper height, 
is placed alongside of the young tree, and the top or head and one 
primary branch are removed. Trees are topped at heights varying 
from two feet to four and a half feet, but the medium of three feet is 
generally preferred. This operation has the effect of directing the sap 
into the primary branches and making them throw out secondary 
shoots, which come from each eye along the branch. An abundance of 
vigour has the effect of forcing out a number of shoots under the junc- 
tion of the upper primaries with the stem, and also from the stem at 
various places. These are termed suckers, and are all removed by 
gangs of women and boys. The first crop generally appears in the 
third year, and consists merely of a few berries on the primary branches, 
aggregating about one maund per acre. In the fourth year a return of 
about one cwt. per acre may be expected, and it is not until the seventh 
or eighth year that the planter is rewarded by a full crop, which, even 
under the most fi^vourable circumstances, rarely exceeds five or six 
cwts. per acre. 

The crop commences to ripen in October and November. As soon 



1 66 FLORA 

as the cherries are of a fine red colour, they are picked into baskets, 
and brought to the pulper to be either measured or weighed, and 
deposited in a vat made for their reception. They are passed through 
the pulper with a stream of water either the same day or early next 
morning, and the pulp or outer skin being thus removed, the beans are 
allowed to ferment for twenty or twenty-four hours, without water, to 
facilitate the removal of the saccharine matter which surrounds them. 
After the mass has been washed and well stamped out in three waters, 
all light beans and skins being carefully separated, the beans are re- 
moved to the draining mats, where^ they are constantly turned over and 
allowed to remain for a day or more, or until all water has drained off. 
They are then spread out thickly on the drying ground in order to dry 
slowly. This is an operation requiring constant attention for six or 
eight days, the whole having to be covered up every evening to protect 
it from dews. The beans should not be dried too thinly spread, or too 
suddenly exposed to the full rays of the sun, as they are apt to become 
bleached and bent. A drying ground protected by large trees is the 
best, as in that case portions in shade and sun are both available. 
When the beans are sufficiently dried, they are bagged and despatched 
to the coast or Bangalore for preparation and shipment. 

The yield of an estate that has been well maintained in cultivation 
may be put down at from three and a half to four cwts. per acre. As 
much as six cwts. per acre have been produced off portions, but of 
course only under the most favourable circumstances, and such is 
an exception to the general rule. An accurately calculated estimate 
shows that, in a series of years, the crop is more frequently below 
three and a half cwts. than above. But the result varies in different 
places. 

The earliest official notice^ of coffee in Mysore is said to have been 
in 1822. But though the plant has been known for so long, it is only 
of recent years that coffee has come into use among natives, and chiefly 
in the towns. When INIr. Elliot first settled in ]\Iysore, in 1856, he 
was repeatedly asked by the farmers of the country whether Europeans 
ate the berry, or of what use it could possibly be. The variety of 
coffee originally cultivated here came to be known as Chick, probably 
from Chickmagalur, the principal town at the foot of the Baba Budan 
hills, the Mysore home of the plant. This variety had thriven well and 
promised to do so for an indefinite period of time, but in 1866 and the 
three succeeding years there were dry hot seasons, which caused a 
wide-spread attack of the Borer insect. About the same time a general 

' The information in the following paragraphs is taken chiefly from Gold, Sport and 
Coffee-planting in Mysore, by Mr. R. li. Elliot, of Bartchinhulla Estate, Manjarabad. 



COFFEE 167 

decline in the constitution of the trees became manifest. So serious 
was the result that coffee-planting seemed liktly to come to an end in 
Mysore, except in the case of a few elevated tracts in the Baba Budan 
hills. At this juncture, in 1870, Mr, Stanley Jupp, having obser\'ed 
advantages in the coffee grown in Coorg, recommended his brother 
planters to introduce seed from that province. The young plants raised 
from the imported seed throve with extraordinary vigour, and it was 
soon found that the new variety would grow and crop well, and even 
on land on which all attempts to reproduce the Chick variety had 
utterly failed. " Then this sinking industry rose almost as suddenly as 
it had fallen ; old and abandoned estates, and every available acre of 
forest and even scrub, were planted up ; and land which used to change 
hands at from Rs. 5 to 10 an acre was eagerly bought in at twelve times 
these rates." Another cause for anxiety, however, now arose, for when 
the produce of the new variety came into the market, brokers objected 
to pay Mysore prices for Coorg coffee. But, as the trees from Coorg 
seed aged, the produce each year assimilated more and more in appear- 
ance and quality to that of the old Mysore plant. Consequently the 
Coorg variety, the stock of which is kept up by continual importations 
of fresh seed, has been permanently adopted as a plant which crops 
more regularly and heavily than the Chick, and the produce of which 
has so improved under the influence of the soil and climate of Mysore, 
that, with the exception of the long-established brand of " Cannon's 
Mysore," and the produce of a few other estates that still grow Chick, 
in the Baba Budan hills, there is little difference in value. 

The high reputation of Mysore coffee, the best quality of which is 
commonly quoted at los. to 15s. a cwt. above that of any other kind 
that reaches the London market, is attributed partly to the soil and 
climate, and pardy to the coffee being slowly ripened under shade. 
The pioneers of the industry, following the practice in Ceylon, had 
cleared away all the forest and planted their coffee in the open. That 
this was a fatal mistake was not at first decisively apparent. But the 
devastations of the Borer and leaf disease, the great enemies of coffee, 
eventually put the question beyond all doubt. And so clearly is the 
vital necessity of shade now recognized, that, in Mr. Elliot's opinion, 
formed after ample experience, "if good shade of the best kind is 
grown, it is absolutely impossible to destroy a plantation in Mysore, 
even with the worst conceivable management or neglect." The easiest 
of the methods that have been adopted for providing shade is to clear 
down and burn the entire forest and then plant shade trees along with 
the coffee. Another plan is to clear and burn the underwood and a 
certain portion of the forest trees, leaving the remainder for shade. 



1 68 FLORA 

Experience shows ihat ihe retention of as much as possible of the 
original forest is desirable, and that land which has not been burnt will 
last far longer. To this may be attributed the continued existence of 
the most ancient estates in Mysore. 

Five trees are specially recommended as the most suitable to grow 
Cor shade, namely, kap basari (ficus tjakela, Burm.)', gbni (ficus 
mysorensis, Heyne), kari basari (ficus infectoria, Roxb.), /// basari (a 
variety of the same), and mitli (? streblus asper, Lour.), of which there 
are two kinds, heb initli and haralu initli, the second being " a bad 
tree." The trees should be planted in lines running east and west, in 
order to provide shade from the southerly sun, and so close in each 
row that in five or six years the tops will touch. \\'hen they begin to 
crowd, every other one should be removed, and this process can be 
repeated if found necessary. 

Of the diseases to which the coffee plant is subject in Mysore, leaf 
disease is the growth of a fungoid named hemileia vastatrix, which dis- 
tributes its spores in the form of yellow powder. The effect is to strip 
the tree more or less of its foliage. The disease called borer is due to 
a beetle {xylotrechus quadrupes\ red or yellow with black lines, and 
about as large as a horsefly. It lays its eggs in some crevice in the 
bark. The larvae, when hatched, bore into the stem and live on the 
heartwood for from three to five months, when they eat their way out 
as winged beetles. Coffee-trees attacked by borer wither away through- 
out the part the insect has injured. The best remedy for and preventive 
of both diseases is said to be properly shading the coffee with suitable 
trees. Another disease of coffee is called rot, also the growth of 
a fungoid, named pelliadaria kokroga, which covers the leaves and 
berries with a black slime, causing them to rot away. The free circu- 
lation of air seems to be required when this appears. 

With the view of ascertaining whether coffee grown from seed im- 
ported from other countries would be less susceptible to leaf disease, 
Messrs. Matheson and Co. went to great expense in Coorg in intro- 
ducing coffee seed from Brazil, Venezuela, Costa Rica, and Jamaica. 
But it was found that in that respect they were neither better nor worse 
than the Coorg variety. A further experiment has been made with 
Blue Mountain seed, but the plants do not seem to be in any way 
different. 

Liberian coffee {coffea liberica), a taller and stronger plant, with a 
larger leaf and berry, was introduced by Colonel Benson, Assistant 

* Mr. Elliot gives this as Cub Busru (Ficus tuberculata), and no botanical name 
for the last two. My names are taken from Mr. Cameron's catalogue on the assump- 
tion that they represent the trees intended. 






> 



\ 



CINCHONA 169 

Commissary-General, about the time when leaf disease was causing such 
destruction. It was thought that this hardier plant, native of a hotter 
climate and lower region, might be found proof against the disease. 
But, notwithstanding various experiments, whether the flavour of the 
berry is inferior, or from whatever cause, it has not supplanted the 
old variety.' A hybrid, a cross between the two, is said to be more 
promising.- 

Km.o\-\<g plants of ecoiioviic value introduced into the country in recent 
years, the following are deserving of mention : — 

Casuarina.' — None has been more successful or more extensively 
cultivated, principally as a fuel tree, than Casuarina equisetifolia, called 
by the natives kcsarike. It is an Australian tree, the swamp oak of 
Queensland, but better known as the Tinian pine or beefwood tree. 
The numerous and extensive plantations formed of it, especially in the 
Bangalore District, have visibly altered the landscape in some parts. 
As fuel it develops more heat in a given quantity than any other kind 
of local wood ; in fact, for locomotive and domestic purposes it is found 
necessary to use inferior fuel with it, in order to moderate the intense 
heat, which would otherwise prove destructive to engines and utensils. 
In experiments on the Mysore State Railway it was reckoned that 
casuarina logs ran a train over a distance thirteen per cent, in excess of 
that attained by the next best kind of fuel available in the Mysore 
forests. 

Cinchona. — Two plantations were originally formed; one in 1866 
at Kalhatti on the Baba Budan hills (Kadur District), with 5,000 plants, 
and the other in 1867 on the Biligiri Rangan hills in Yelandur (Mysore 
District), with 2,000 plants. The only kind permanently cultivated 
was C. succirubra ; the more valuable but less hardy species of 
C. calisaya and C. officinalis were also tried, but without success. The 
number of trees in the first plantation had increased to 24,000, and a 
numl)er had been distributed to favourable localities in the western 
Districts, when in 1871 the bark of trees from both plantations was 
submitted to analysis by Mr. Broughton, Quinologist to the Madras 

' Mr. Cameron says: — "When first inlroducod, the Liherian species had the 
reputation of l)eing tropical in its requirements, and that its cultivation would extend 
to the plains of India. Experience has not proved this capacity, although, no doubt, 
when under shade, the plant can endure a considerably higher degree of temperature 
than the Arabian shrub. But under full exposure to the sun the former died outright, 
while the established species grew vigorously and produced good crops of coflee." 

* The following grafts have been established at the Lai Bagh for experiment : — 
Liberian on Arabian stock, Arabian on Liberian stock, Maragogipe on Arabian 
stock, Liberian on itself, Arabian on itself 



170 



FLORA 



Government. The results obtained by him were reported as fol- 
lows : — 





Yield in percentages of dry bark. 


Site of 
Plantation. 


Total 
Alkaloids. 


Quinine. 


Chinchoni- 

dine and 

chinchonine. 


Pure sulphate 
of quinine 
obtained 

crystallized. 


Other 

sulphates of 

quinine. 


BabaBudans (['""'V- 
\_ branch.. 

Biligiri Rangans 


4-50 
1-48 

7-50 


•86 

•42 

2-OI 


3-64 
I '06 

5 '49 


•67 
•30 

1-09 


2-35 
•60 

4-84 



The above analyses showed that, while as a source of alkaloids the 
bark of the Baba Budan plantation was of satisfactory quality, it was 
inferior in yield of total alkaloids to the bark from trees of the same 
age on the Nilgiris, namely, branch bark 2*28 per cent., trunk bark 
6'49 per cent. " But though the amount of alkaloids is thus less," 
Mr. Broughton observed, " than is usual with good India grown bark, 
it fully equals the yield of ordinary red bark from South America." 
The bark from the Biligiri Rangan plantation was pronounced of high 
quality for C. succirubra and quite equal to that grown on the Nilgiris. 

In consequence of this report the intention of extending the Baba 
Budan plantation was abandoned, but private planters, occupying more 
suitable sites, were encouraged to grow cinchona. Meanwhile the 
febrifuges obtained from the plantations were distributed to the local 
hospitals, and in 1875 ^^^ gardener in charge was sent to Ootacamund 
for instruction in collecting bark by the coppicing and the barking and 
mossing processes. Eventually, in 1877, the Biligiri Rangan plantation 
was made over to the Jagirdar of Yelandur, in whose estate it was 
situated, on his paying to Government half the produce of bark yielded 
for five years ; and in 1881 the Baba Budan plantation was sold to Mr. 
Sylk, a private planter, for Rs. 5,000. 

The existing depression of the quinine trade holds out at present, it 
is understood, little prospect of profit on the cultivation ; but the im- 
portance and medicinal value of the products of cinchona are never 
likely to diminish, and prices may again rise, though probably not to 
former rates. Special arrangements are being made, in common with 
other Indian Governments, for the manufacture and cheap distribution 
of quinine to all classes (for the latter purpose using the agency of the 
village post offices), a boon which should be highly appreciated in 
the malarious and fever-stricken parts of the country. 



VANILLA 



171 



Cinchona cultivation has since 1881 been entirely in private hands, 
and the following are the statistics for 1893-4, the plants being mostly 
scattered, in the midst of coffee or cardamom estates : — 



Species. 


District. 


No. of 
acres. 


No. of plants. 


Mature. 


Immature. 


C. succirubra (red bark) \ 


Mysore 
Kadur 


24 
224 


8,860 
124,255 


12,873 
43.450 




Total ... 


248 133,115 


56,323 


C. officinalis, var. condaminea (Loxa 
or crown bark ; pale bark) ... ] 


Mysore 
Hassan 
Kadur 


I 
36 
34 


75 

8,000 

14,464 


1,141 
. 5.003 




Total ... 


71 22,539 6,144 



Yanilla/ — In a climate like that of Bangalore there is no difficulty 
whatever in cultivating the vanilla aroniatica, as it grows luxuriantly 
without artificial assistance, provided that a suitable position is selected 
for the plantation. The least expensive and perhaps the most 
favourable site which can be selected for the purpose is an old mango 
tope, because the mango-trees in that stage are not too dense in foliage, 
and are better adapted to produce the checkered shade so essential to 
the healthy development of the vanilla plants. Like all succulents, 
this plant detests excessive moisture ; swampy situations should there- 
fore be avoided. A light vegetable soil intermixed with sand is an 
agreeable compost, and cocoa-nut fibre is perhaps the best manure that 
can be applied. Ordinary-sized cuttings generally produce flowers 
three years after they are rooted, but large cuttings consisting of four 
or more nodes will produce flowers two years after they are rooted. 
The vanilla should be planted round the base of the mango-trees, 
small beds of the soil recommended having been previously prepared, 
and as the plants grow they should be trained round the stem and along 
the principal limbs of the trees for their future support. 

In South America an indigenous insect fertilizes the vanilla flowers 

' rVom notes by Mr. Cameron, Superintendent of the Lai Bagh. 



172 



FLORA 



accidentally, and thus secures the fruit, but in this country no such 
insect has yet made its appearance. We must therefore adopt our 
own means to fecundate the flowers. The process is simple when 
once acquired. The organs of reproduction (unlike the ordinary state 
of things) are disposed in a peculiar form, as if to prevent natural 
fecundation, and until this takes place by artifice, or chance as 
explained, the beans which comprise the economic product of vanilla 
will not be obtained. 

Cocoa. — The chocolate-nut tree, theobroma cocoa, is indigenous to 
South America and the W. Indies, where it has been cultivated for 
various uses for many generations. The tree is an evergreen, which 
grows from sixteen to twenty-five feet high. The leaves are entire, 
smooth, and very glossy in appearance ; the flowers, which are diminu- 
tive, are borne on the stem and principal limbs of the tree ; hence the 
rare and curious appearance which the capsules present suspended from 
the bare stem. The trees in the Government Gardens have produced 
fruit freely. The peculiarities of the cultivation consist in the applica- 
tion of dense shade, moderate moisture, and decomposed vegetable 
soil, chiefly. Salt is also an indispensable ingredient in a compost for 
chocolate trees. 

Rhea. — The Rhea plant or China grass of commerce is the boehmeria 
nivea. The fibre produced from the bark of this plant is very strong 
and delicate, but the difficulty of preparing it by machinery continues 
to obstruct its utility on an extensive scale. There are three species 
of boehmeria in the Lai Bagh, and the climate of Mysore seems to 
facilitate their growth. The young shoots which produce the fibre 
grow more regular and free under half shade than when fully exposed 
to the sun's rays. The species nivea is quite established here, but 
never produces seed. It possesses the great advantage, however, that 
it can be helped by man ; so that its naturalization in most parts of 
India is almost certain. 

The following are other plants whose experimental cultivation has been 
more or less successful, some of them being permanently established: — 



Acrocarpus fraxini- Shingle-tree 

folius 
Agave rigida 
Artiplex nummularia 
Artocarpus cannoni 



Artocarpus incisa ... 
Bambusa vulgaris . . . 
Barringtonia speci- 
osa 



Sisal hemp 
Salt bush 
Copper-coloured 

foliage 
Seedless breadfruit 
Golden bamboo 
Ornamental tree 



Brassica chinensis... 
Broussonettia papy- 

rifera 
Bursaria spinosa ... 
Ccesalpinia coriaria 
Carissa edulis 
Castonospermum 

australe 
Castilloa elastica ... 



Shantung cabbage 
Paper mulberry 

tree 
Ornamental tree 
Divi-divi tree 
(Edible berry) 
ISIoreton - bay 

chestnut 
Central American 

rubber 



EXOTICS 



173 



Ceratonia siliqua . . 
Clausena wampi .. 
Cola acuminata' .. 
Colvillea racemosa 



Carob-bean tree 
Wampi (fruit) 
Kola nut 
Ornamental tree 



Couroupita guianensis Cannon-ball tree 
Crescentia alata . . . Calabash tree 
Cyphomandra be- Tree tomato 

tacea 
Dipsacus fullonum Fullers' teazel 
Erythroxylon coca Yields cocoaine 
Euchlaena luxurians Buffalo grass 
Fagopyrum esculen- Buckwheat 

turn 
Grevillea robusta . . . 
Gynocardia odorata 



lugra 



Hyoscyamus niger 
Lagunaria patersonii 
Landolphia kirkii... 
Landolphia watsoni 
Malachea capitata 



Silver oak 
Yields chauhr 

oil 
Henbane 
Foliage tree 
Yields caoutchouc 
Yields caoutchouc 
Yields fibre 



Manihot glaziovii ... Ceara-rubber tree 
Mentha viridis ... Spearmint 
Millingtonia portensis Indian cork tree 



Monstera deliciosa 
Opuntia ficus indica 
Panicum sarmento- 

sum 
Paritium elatum ... 
Parmentiera cerifera 
Phcenix dactylifera 
Pithecolobium saman Rain tree 



Climbing aroid 
Malta prickly-pear 
Mauritius grass 

Cuba bast 
Candle tree 
Date-palm 



Poinciana regia 
Rubia tinctorum* . . . 
Rubus idceus 
Smilax sarsaparilla 
Stillingia sebifera . . , 
Trapa bispinosa ... 

Tristania conferta... 
Vangueria edulus ... 
Vitis martini 



Gold-mohur tree 
Madder plant 
Raspberry 
Yields sarsaparilla 
Chinese tallow tree 
Zinghara nut, 

water chestnut 
Timber tree 
Fruit tree 
Cochin-China vine 



Experiments have also been made with several varieties of cotton and 
potatoes. Varieties of cocoa-nut have been imported from Colombo 
in Ceylon ; also trial has been made of various kinds of grape vines, 
loquat and bhere fruit (zizyphus jujuba). 

It may be useful here to give the following list of plants whose 
cultivation has been attempted without any permanent success at 
Bangalore : — 



Acacia decurrens . . . 


Black wattle 


Durio zibethinus ... 


Durian 


Arracacia eseulenta 


Arracacha 


Eucalyptus globu- 


Blue gum 


Avena elatior 


Common pat 


lus--' 




Camellia theifera ... 


Tea plant 


Garcinia mangos- 


Mangosteen 


Caryophyllus aro- 


Clove tree 


tana* 




maticus 




Glycine hispida ... 


Soy bean 


Cassia obovata 


Tinnevelly .senna 


Helianthus annuus 


Russian sunflower 


Castania vulgaris . . . 


Spanish chestnut 


Humulus lupulus ... 


I lop vine 


Catalpa speciosa ... 


Californian timber 


Myristica fragrans 


Nutmeg tree 




tree 


Platanus orientalis 


Oriental plane 


Cephojlis ipecacu- 


Ipecacuanha 


Symphytum asperri- 


Prickly comfrey 


anha 




mum 




Cyperus esculentus 


Ground almond. 


Ullucus tuberosus 


Tuber 




rush-nut 


1 Withavia (Puneeria) 


Cheese-maker 


Cyperus pangorei... 


Sedge 


1 coagulans 





' Botanically not far removed from the indigenous kendalc mara (sterculia urens). 

- The plant which yields Indian madder has been found wild in Kankanhalli and 
other parts. 

■■' Eucalyptus saligna, rostrata, marginata and citriodora are established in the 
gardens and furnish seed. 

* Grafting it on the gamboge tree (Garcinia morella) seems to have been successful 
in Jamaica. 



'74 



FAUNA 
FERyE NATURE 



Nothing less than a separate treatise, and that a voluminous one, 
could do justice to the marvellous wealth of the animal kingdom in a 
province under the tropics marked by so many varied natural features 
as Mysore. An attempt has been made to present a list of the main 
representatives, with the Kannada names, where they could be ascer- 
tained. A few notes on the localities frequented by particular animals 
will be found in Vol. II. 

Mammals — Mammalia.' 

Primates. 

CercopithecidLC — Monkeys — Koti. 

Macacus silenus ... Singalika, karkodaga ... The lion-tailed monkey 

Macacus sinicus ... Koti, manga, kodaga ... The common monkey of the 

country 
Semnopithecus entellus Musu, musuva, musuku*... The langur, or Hanuman 

monkey 
Semnopithecus priamus Koncla-musuku, konda- The Madras langur 
mosava 



Semnopithecus johni. . . 
Leimiridic — Lemurs. 
Loris gracilis ... Nala, adavi manushya 

Carnivora. 

Felidcc—Q.2X tribe— i9,fM«. 

Felis tigris ... ... Huli, heb-huli ... 



Felis pardus ... 

Felis bengalensis 
Felis chaus 
Cyntelurus jubata 



Kiraba, ibbandi, dod-ibba 

Hulibekku,bottinabekku 

Kadu bekku 

Chirite, sivangi, chircha . . . 



The Nilgiri langur 



The slender loris 



The tiger^ 

The leopard or panther,* com- 
monly called cheeta 
The leopard cat 
The wild or jungle cat 
The hunting leopard, the 
proper cheeta 

Blanford's work on \\\& Fauna 



' The classification and names are taken from W. T 
of Briiish India, and the vernacular names have been revised. 

■■' It seems doubtful if this monkey is found in the South, and the names may 
belong to S. priamus. 

3 There are said to be two varieties, — the heb-hiili, or large royal tiger, found in 
the large jungle ; and the Imli, which is much smaller and is more destructive to 
human life, frequenting inhabited parts of the country. It has the black stripes 
closer together over the hind quarters. 

■* The black variety is occasionally met with. 



MAMMALIA 



175 



Viven-idiE — Civets. 
Viverricula malaccensis 

Paradoxurus niger 
Herpestes mungo 
Herpestes smithi 

Hyccnidce — Hyenas — Ki> 
Hysena striata 

Canidie — Dog tril)e — Nay 
Canis pallipes... 
Canis aureus ... 
Cyon deccanensis 
Vulpes l)engalensis ... 

Mus/e/idu-— Weasels. 
Mellivora indica 
Lutra vulgaris 

Ursidcv — Bears — Karadi. 
Mclursus ursinus 



Punagina bekku, javadi 

bekku 
Kira bekku, kaljbu bekku 
Munguli, mungasi, kira . 

aim. 
Kirabu, katte kiraba 

'i. 

Tola 

Nari, ballu, gulla nari ... 
Sil nayi ... 

Kempu nari, channangi 
nari 



Nir-nayi ... 
Karadi . . . 



Insectivora. 

Soricid(C — Shrews — Sitiui Hi. ' 

Crocidura crerulea ... Sund ili, sond ili 
Crocidura perroteti ... Mug-ili ... 

Chiroptera. 

Pteropodidie — -Frugivorous bats — Bdval. 

Pteropis edwardsi ... Togal bavali, toval or 

tole hakki 
Cynopterus marginatus 

Kh iiioloph idic — Insectivorous bats — Kan-kappate. 

Rhinolophus luctus ... ... 

Rhinolophus affinis ... 

Hipposiderus speoris... 

Ilipposiderus bicolor... 
Nycterida:. 

Megaderma lyra 
/ \spertilionid(C. 

Vesperugo mordax 

Vesperugo circumdatus 

Vesperugo aliranuis ... 

Vesperugo kuhli 

Nyctecegus dormeri ... 

Nyctecegus kuhli 
Eiiihallonuridic. 

Taphozous melanopogon 

Taphozous longimanus 

Taphozous saccokisncus ...■'... 

' Properly siiudil ili. 



gabl)ildyi 



The civet cat 

The tree cat or toddy cat 

The mungoose 

The ruddy mungoose 

The striped hya-na 

The Indian wolf 
The jackal 
The Indian wild dog 
The Indian fox 



The Indian ratel 
The common otter 

The Indian bear 



The musk rat or shrew 
Pigmy rat or shrew 



Tlie Indian fruit bat or flying 

fox 
The short-nosed fruit bat 

The great horse-shoe bat 
The allied horse-shoe bat 
Schneider's leaf-nosed bat 
The bicoloured leaf-nosed bat 

The Indian vampire bat 

The grizzled bat 

The black bat 

The Indian pipistrelle 

The white-bordered liat 

Dormer's bat 

The common yellow bat 

The black-bearded sheath- 
tailed bat 

The long-armed shealh-tailed 
bat 

The pouch - bearing sheath - 
tailed bat 



176 



FAUNA 



Rodentia. 

Sciurtdiv — Squirrels — Uiliite. 

Pteromys oral... ... Haruva bekku ... 

Sciurus indiciis ... Kes-alilu, kcmp - alilu, 

kend-alilu 

Sciurus macrurus 

Sciurus palmarum ... Alilu, anilu, udule 

Sciurus tristriatus ... Kad-a]ilu... 
Muridcz — Rats and mice — Hi. 

Gerbillus indicus ... Bila ili ... 



Mus rattus 


. Ili 


Mus decumanus 


Kemp ili 


Mus musculus... 


. Chitt ili 


Mus buduga ... 


. Bail ili 


Mus platythrix 


. Kal ili 


Mus mettada ... 


. Toda 


Nesocia bengalensis .. 


. Bail ili 


Nesocia bandicota 


Heggana 


Golunda cUiotti 


. Golandi 



Hystricidcc — Porcupines — JMiil-handi. 

Hystrix leucura ... Mul-handi, edu, eyya 

Leporidct — Hares — Mola. 

Lepus nigrocollis ... Mola 

Ungulata. 

Elephantidii: — Elephants — A'ne. 
Elephas maximus ... A'ne 

BovidiE — Ox tribe — Yettzt, hasava. 

Bos gaurus ... ... Kad kona, kate 

Hemitragus hylocrius* Kad adu 
Boselaphus tragocame- Kad kudure 
lus 

A ntelopida — An telopes — Ch igari. 
Tetraceros quadricornis Konda-guri 
Antilope cervicupra ... Chigari, hulle ... 



Gazella bennelti 



S'ank hulle 



Cei-z'idic — Deer ix'ihe^/inke. 
Cervulus muntjac ... Kad-kuri 



Cervus unicolor 
Cervus axis 
Tragulus meminna 
Siiidcc — Hogs — Handi. 
Sus cristatus ... 



Kadave, kada 
Saraga, duppi 
Kur-pandi 

Kad handi 



The ijrown flying squirrel 
The large Indian squirrel 

The grizzled Indian .squirrel 
The common striped squirrel 
The jungle striped squirrel 

The Indian gerl)ille, or ante- 
lope rat 

The common Indian rat 

The brown rat 

The common house-mouse 

The Indian field-mouse 

The brown spiny mouse 

The soft-furred field-rat 

The Indian mole-rat 

The bandicoot rat 

The Indian bush - rat (the 
coffee-rat) 

The porcupine 

The black-naped hare 



The Indian elephant 

The bison, or gaur 

The Nilgiri wild goat (ibex) 

The nilgai, or blue bull 



The four-horned antelope 
The Indian antelope, or black 

buck 
The Indian gazelle, or ravine 

deer 

The barking deer, or jungle 

sheep 
The sambar deer 
The spotted deer 
The Indian mouse-deer 

The Indian wild boar 



Edentata. 

Alanidii; — Ant-eaters. 

Manis pentadactyla ... Chip handi ... ... The Indian pangolin. 

' There is some doubt whether ibex and nilgai are actually found in Mysore, but 
they are met with on the borders. 



GAME LAW 177 

The most destructive to life are tigers, and panthers or cheetas. 
The following figures for the years 1890 to 1892 show the extent of 
loss, and what has been done to counteract the ravages of the larger 
animals, so far as the matter has come under official notice. 

In 1889-90, there were four persons killed by tigers, two by panthers, 
and six by other animals ; while of cattle, 1,150 were killed by tigers, 
2,246 by panthers, 7 by bears, 2,695 by wolves, 362 by hyaenas, and 
225 by other animals. 

In 1 890- 1, there were one person killed by an elephant, two by 
tigers, one by a bear, and four by other animals ; of cattle, tigers killed 
1,263, panthers 2,554, bears 49, wolves 1,823, hyrenas 109, and other 
animals 289. 

In 1 89 1-2, there were one person killed by an elephant, one by a 
panther, three by hyajnas, and nine by other animals ; of cattle, 2,055 
were killed by tigers, 3.621 by panthers, 2,439 by wolves, 242 by 
hy?enas, and 375 by other animals. 

The regular rewards offered for the destruction of wild beasts are 
Rs. 40 for a tiger or panther, and up to Rs. 10 for a hyaena. Elephants 
are too valuable to be destroyed, but a special reward is sometimes 
offered for the destruction of a rogue elephant that has become 
dangerous to life. 

The amounts paid in rewards in the above years were as follows : — 

Rs. 3,728 in 1889-90, namely, Rs. 1,416 for 40 tigers, Rs. 2,164 fo'" 
124 panthers, Rs. 12 for 4 hyaenas, and Rs. 136 for 587 other animals. 

Rs. 3,573 in 1890-1, namely, Rs. 1,453 for 39 tigers, Rs. 1,946 for 
115 panthers, Rs. 18 for 4 hyoenas, and Rs. 156 for 700 other animals. 

Rs. 4,194 in 1891-2, namely, Rs. 100 for i elephant, Rs. 1,528 for 
48 tigers, Rs. 2,303 for 148 panthers, Rs. 15 for 3 hyaenas, and Rs. 24S 
for 1,389 other animals, including wild pig, rabid dogs, etc. 

A comparison of these statistics with those for 1874 and 1875, given 
in the first edition, indicates a decrease on the whole in the deaths of 
human beings from wild beasts, but an increase in those of cattle. The 
former may be due either to an actual diminution in the number of 
wild beasts or to better means being now available for the treatment of 
wounded persons : the latter may be due to more complete returns. 
The figures relating to animals for whose destruction rewards were 
given, point to a decrease in the number of larger animals destroyed 
and an increase in that of smaller and commoner ones. 

The necessity for a Ciame Law has been pressed upon the (Govern- 
ment by both planters and sportsmen, principally to prevent the 
indiscriminate destruction of useful species. A draft Regulation has 
accordingly been framed and is under consideration, but it is not 

N 



178 FAUNA 

intended to create n. nionoijoly in animals in a state of nature fur the 
benefit whether of Government or of sportsmen. In the term "Game" 
it includes antelope, ibex, jungle-sheep, sambhar and all other descrip- 
tions of deer, bison, hares, jungle-fowl, spur-fowl, pea-fowl, partridge, 
quail, snipe, woodcock, bustard, florican, duck and teal, with such 
other animals or birds as may be added. The pursuit or killing may 
be prohibited of any other animals or birds whose destruction may be 
considered unsportsmanlike. The killing, capture, and pursuit in large 
numbers of any particular kinds of wild animals or birds for the sake 
of their skins or plumage for commercial purposes will be restricted by 
a system of licenses, or prohibited altogether either for a certain time 
or within a certain area. Fishing in any stream or lake will in like 
manner be controlled, together with the poisoning of the water, the 
use of explosive or deleterious substances therein, and the capture of 
fish by fixed engines and nets of a mesh below a certain size. A 
season in the year may be fixed in any local area for the killing or 
capture of game or fish ; or it may be prohibited altogether in any local 
area for five years ; or absolutely as regards mature females or young of 
either sex of any descriptions of game. An exception is made in the 
case of an owner or occupier of land, who may kill, capture or pursue, 
within the limits of his land, game doing damage to any growing 
crop. 

Elephants are too valuable to be destroyed, and a special license is 
required to kill one, which is only permitted when an animal endangers 
human life or proves destructive to the crops. At the same time the 
Keddah department was (1873) formed for the capture of elephants. 
Previous to this the animals were sometimes caught in pits. The pits were 
about twenty feet deep, and covered with a light network of bamboos, 
over which was spread a covering of leaves and earth. The earth dug 
out was carried to some distance. These pits never succeeded during the 
first year, but in the second year, when they had become overgrown 
with grass, the elephants were often deceived by them. When an 
elephant was caught, rubbish v^^as thrown into the pit, which he trod 
down and gradually formed a path to the top. He was then seized by 
the tame elephants, without whose aid it would be impossible to secure 
a full-grown wild elephant, and at the same time ropes were thrown 
over him by the Kurubas. An elephant who was less than eight 
months old, when thus snared, could seldom be reared in captivity, and 
a tusker of any size had never been entrapped. In a graphic descrip- 
tion of the rude manner in which the pitfall system was managed, Mr. 
G. P. Sanderson says : — " The atrocious cruelties to which elephants 
were subjected by it are too horrible to think of."' 



ELEPHANT KEDDAHS 179 

The Keddah department, established by him, was highly successful 
in its first operations, which resulted in the capture of fifty-five elephants 
in June 1874. Only nine died, and a profit of. Rs. 22,000 was made 
on the affair. The site of the keddahs was near the Biligirirangan hills 
in Chamrajnagar taluq, and Mr. Sanderson's account of what was at 
that time a novel adventure was given in the first edition.' Shortly 
afterwards he was transferred to Dacca in Bengal for elephant-catching 
in the Chittagong and (iaro hills, where he was equally successful. On 
his return to Mysore, in June 1876, the great famine was setting in, 
and instead of catching elephants he was engaged in forming grazing 
blocks in the border forests for the starving cattle that flocked thither 
for pasture. Meanwhile the keddahs in Mysore remained in abeyance, 
and Mr. Sanderson, after a furlough, was again employed in Bengal. 
But capture by pitfalls was resorted to in 1886, under proper direction, 
in the Kakank6te and Begur forests, and the District Forest Officer got 
fifty-two elephants there in this manner in the next five years, when the 
system was absolutely stopped on the extension of keddahs to that 
part. Of those caught thirty-five survived, and a profit of Rs. 1 5,000 
was made on the whole. Still, during the periods that the keddahs had 
been unused, elephants multiplied and became so daring as to ravage 
crops even close to towns. Mr. Sanderson's services were therefore 
again applied for, and in 1889 he was placed at the disposal of Mysore 
for five and a half years. To facilitate operations, twelve trained 
Kumki elephants were purchased from the Pheelkhana at Dacca, and 
seventeen more were imported from Burma in 1890. These twenty- 
nine cost over a lakh. With the exception of a few that died, they 
have become acclimatized to Mysore, and are in a healthy and service- 
able condition. 

In a fortnight from Mr. Sanderson's arrival, in July 1889, he 
captured a herd of fifty-one in the old keddahs constructed by him in 
1877. Intimation was then received of the proposed visit of H.R.H. 
l^rince Albert A'ictor, and it was desired to make a second catch, if 
possible, for his entertainment in November. The interesting account 
of how the capture of thirty-seven elephants was effected on that occa- 
sion has been contributed by Mr. Sanderson to Mr. Rees' book.- 
Keddahs were next formed near Kakankote in 1890, and an extensive 
use of the telephone was introduced by Mr. Sanderson, for rapid com- 
munication from his base camp with the watch-houses at the keddah 
gates and various points in the jungles, the whole being connected with 

1 A full description of this and other operations will be found in his book called 
*' Thirteen \'ears among the Wild Heasts of India." • 

- "The Duke of Clarence and Avondale in Southern India,"' chap. iv. 

N 2 



i8o FAUNA 

the telegraph station :il llunsur, whence messages could Ije sent all 
over India. Altogether, in two drives in 1889-90, and three drives in 
1890-1, there were 159 elephants caught, and the greater number were 
sold at Nanjangud, Palghat, and Tellicherry. Excluding the large 
initial outlay for Kumki elephants and trained hands from the north, 
with special charges connected with the Royal visit, the expenditure 
was fairly covered by the receipts, while the stockades, with live and 
dead stock, remained for future use at a moderate cost for up-keep. In 
1 89 1 -2 there were two drives, resulting in the capture of seventy-five 
elephants. Sales were effected at Paschimavahini and at Haidarabad in 
addition to the places before mentioned. That the expenditure was 
much in excess of the receipts was greatly owing to cost of additional 
telephone materials and instruments. In May, 1892, Mr. Sanderson 
died. Since then Mr. K. Shamiengar, for a short time his assistant, 
has been in charge of the keddahs. In two drives in 1892-3^ and two 
drives in 1893-4 he was successful in capturing 120 elephants, of which 
twenty-one died. The disposal of the remainder still left a deficit on 
the department of about Rs. 22,000. But the network of telephones 
has been so skilfully laid, both in the Kdkankote and Chamrajnagar 
forests, as practically to ensure the ultimate capture of every elephant 
that passes within certain limits, and the expenses will be recouped. 

Elephants have of late years become troublesome in the Shimoga 
and Kadur Districts, destroying sugar-cane and paddy crops, and 
injuring the areca-nut gardens. Attempts to stop them by shooting 
some were made, but proved ineffectual. The Keddah department are 
therefore endeavouring to capture some of the herds, which are small 
and scattered, in temporary stockades.- The effect of the inroads of 
elephants has been to drive the field-\vatchers to the trees, and this has 
left an opening for wild pig to do more mischief to the crops than 
before, when the watchers were on the spot to scare them away. 

Crops are also liable to considerable damage at times from rats. In 
the latter months of 1878 something like a plague of rats appeared, 
especially in the Chitaldroog District, and committed great havoc in 
the cotton and rice crops of individual villages. Certain kinds of field 
rat regularly store up a good deal of grain in their burrows near the 
embankments of fields, which ^\^oddars and various wandering tribes 
dig up when the ground is out of cultivation and help themselves to 
the grain. 

' At the end of 1S92 the \'iceroy, the Marquess of Lansdowne, witnessed the 
drive. 

, - A cajiture of sixty elephants near Sakrebail has now (November, 1894) been 
announced. 



BIRDS i8i 

No one who has travelled much over the Province, especially in the 
wilder and more secluded tracts of country, but must have noted the 
immense variety and beauty of the feathered tribes. The naturalist 
and the sportsman alike will, it is hoped, find every familiar acquaint- 
ance included in the following list' It may perhaps be noted that the 
ostrich has laid eggs and hatched young in the Maharaja's menagerie 
at Mysore, but they did not live long. 

Aves — Hakki. 



Passeres. 



Co>-vidic — Crow s — Kciki, KAgi. 
Corvusmacrorhyn- Jungle crow 

chus 
Corvus splendens Indian house-crow 
Dendrocetta rufa Indian tree-pie 
Parus atriceps ... Indian grey tit 
Parus nuchali.s ... White-winged l)lack 

lit 
Machlolophushap- Southern yellow tit 
lonotus 

Crateropopidic. 
Arg)-a caudata ... Common l^al^bler 
Argya malcolmi... Large grey babbler 

bab- 



Arg)a subrufa ... 
Crateropus cano- 



Large rufous 

liler 
Jungle babbler 



Crateropus griseus White-headed balj- 

bler 
Pomalorhinushors- Southern scimitar 

fieldi bab])ler 

Dunietia albigula- Small white-throated 

ris babbler 

Pyctorhis sinensis Yellow-eyed babbler 
I'ellorneum ruficeps Spotted Ijabbler 
Rhopocichla atri- Black-headed bab- 

ceps bier 

Myophoreus hors- Malabar 



whistling 

thrush 
Indian blue chat 
Rufous - bellied 

.short-wing 
Indian white-eye 



fieldi 
Larvivora l)runnea 
Brachypteryx ru- 

fiventris 
Zosterops palpe- 

brosa 
/Kgithina tiphia... Common iora 
Chloropsis jerdoni Jerdon's chloropsis 

' Taken from the volumes on Birds by E. W. (lales, in the Fauna of British 
India. 



Irena puella ... Fairy blue-l)ird 

Hypsipetes gan- South- Indian l)lack 

eesa bulbul 

Molpastes hremor- Madras red-vented 

rhous bulbul 

Otocompsa fusci- Southern red-whis- 

caudata kered bulbul 

Pycnonotusgularis Ruby - throated 

bulbul 

Pycnonotus luteo- White - browed 

lus bulbul 

Micropus phivoce- (key-headed bulbul 

phalus 

Sittidie — Nuthatches. 
Sitta castaneiven- Chestnut - bellied 

tris nuthatch 

Sitta frontalis ... Violet-fronted l)lue 
nuthatch 

Dicruridtc — Drongos. 
Dicrurusater ... Black drongo (king- 
crow) 
Uicruruslongicau- Indian ashy drongo 

datus 
Dicrurus ca;rules- Wliite - bellied 

cens drongo 

Chaptia lenea . . . Bronzed drongo 
Chibia holtentotla Hair-crested drongo 
Dissemurus para- Larger rocket-tailed 

diseus drongo 

Sylviidtc — Warblers. 
Acrocephalus sten- Indian great reed- 

loreus warbler 

Acrocephalus du- Blylh's reed-warbler 

metorum 



i8. 



FA UNA 



Acroccphalus aj^ri- 

cola 
Cislicolii crytliio- 

cephala 
Cisticola cursilans 

I'lanklinia gracilis 

I'ranklinia hiicha- 

nani 
Schrenicola platy- 

ura 
Chajtornis locus- 

telloides 
Arundinax aifdon 
Hypolais rania ... 
Sylvia jerdoni 

Sylvia affinis 

Phy 1 lo.scopus affin is 

Acanthopneu.ste 

nitidus 
Acanthopneuste 

viridanus 
Acanthopneuste 

magnirostris 
Prinia socialis 
Prinia inornata ... 
Prinia jerdoni 



Paddy -ficlil rced- 
warljler 

Red-headed fanlail- 
warhler 

Rufous fanlail -war- 
l)ler 

Franklin's wren- 
\varl)ler 

Rufous - fronted 
%vren-vvarl)ler 

Broad-tailed grass- 
warbler 

Bristled grass - 

warbler 

Thick-billed warbler 

Sykes's tree-warbler 

I-'astern orphean 
warbler 

Indian lesser white- 
throated warbler 

TickelFs willow- 
warljler 

Green willow-war- 
bler 

Oreenish willow - 
warbler 

Large-billed v\illow- 
warbler 

Ashy wren-warbler 

Indian wren-warbler 

Southern wren- 
warbler 



Lajiiida — Shrikes — Kiikkati. 
Lanius vittatus ... Bay-backed shrike 
Lanius erythronotus Rufous-ljacked shrike 
Lanius cristatus ... Brown shrike 



Hemipus picatus 

Te]5hrodornis syl- 

vicola 
Tephrodornis pon- 

dicerianus 
Pericrocotus flam- 

nieus 
Pericrocotus pere- 

grinus 
Pericrocotus ery- 

thropygius 



Black-backed 

shrike 
Malabar 

shrike 
C o ni m o n 

shrike 
Oranw minivet 



pied 
wood - 
wood- 



Small minivet 

White-bellied mini- 
vet 



Campophagasykesi Black - headed 

cuckoo-shrike 
Graucalus niacii... Large cuckoo-shrike 
Artamus fuscus ... Ashy swallow-shrike 



Oriolidic — Orioles. 
Driolus kundoo ... Indian oriole 
Oriolus nielano- Indian black-headed 
cephalus oriole 

EiilahetidiC — Crackles or talking-mynas. 
Eulabus religiosa Southern grackle 



Stitrnidtc- 
Pastor roseus 



Sturnia blythii ... 
Temenuchus pago- 

darum 
Acridotheres tristis 
/Ethiopsar fuscus 



Starlings and mynas. 

Rose-coloured star- 
ling 
Blylh's myna 
Black-headed myna 



Common myna 
Jungle myna 



Micscicapidte — Flycatchers. 
Siphia parva ... European 



red- 
fly- 



Cyornis pallidipes 

Cyornis rubecu- 

loides 
Cyornis tickelli ... 

Stoparola mela- 

nops 
Alseonax latirostris 
Alseonax ruficau- 

dus 
Ochromela nigri- 

rufa 
Culicicopa ceylon- 

ensis 
Terpsiphone para- 

disi 
Hypothymisazurea 



Rhipidura 
frontata 



albi- 



breasted 
catcher 

White-bellied blue 
flycatcher 

Blue - throated fly- 
catcher 

Tickell's blue fly- 
catcher 

Verditer flycatcher 

Brown fljcatcher 

Rufous-tailed fly- 
catcher 

Black - and - orange 
flycatcher 

Grey - headed fly- 
catcher 

Indian paradise fly- 
catcher 

Indian black-naped 
flycatcher 

White-browed fan- 
tail flycatcher 



Tiirdidi€—Ch2Lis, Robins, Thrushes, &c. 
Pratincola caprata Common pied bush- 
chat 
Pratincola maura Indian bush-chat 
Ruticillarufiventris Indian redstart 
Thamnobiafulicata Black-backed In- 
dian robin 
Copsychus saularis Magpie robin 
Merula nigripileus Black-cappedblack- 

bird 
Geocichla wardi... Pied ground-thrush 



BIRDS 



i8- 



Geocichla cyanotus 

IVtruphila cinclo- 

rhyncha 
I'etrophila cyanus 



Ploceidic 
I'loceus bay a 
Ploceus manyar ... 
Munia malacca ... 
Uroloncha striata 
Uroloncha mala- 

barica 
Uroloncha piinctu- 

lata 
S p o r a' g n i t h u s 

amandava 



White - throated 
ground-thrush 

BUie-headed rock- 
thrush 

Western bkie rock- 
thrush 

Weaver-birds. 
Baya 

Striated weaver-bird 
Black-headed munia 
White-backed munia 
W^hite - throated 

munia 
Spotted munia 

Indian red munia 



Fringillidie — Finches. 
Carpcdacus ery- Common rose-finch 

thrinus 
Gymnorhis flavi- 

collis 
Passer domesticus 
Emberiza luteola. . . 



HirundinidcE — S wal lows. 

Chelidon urbica ... Martin 

Ptyonoprogne ru- Crag-martin 
pestris 

Ptyonoprogne con- 
color 

Hirundo rustica ... 

Hirundo smithii... 

Hirundo fluvicola 



Dusky crag-martin 



Swallow 

Wire-tailed swallow 
Indian cliff-swallow 



Hirundo nepalen- Hodgson's striated 

sis swallow 

Hirundo erythro- Sykes's striated 

jjygia swallow 



Motacillidic — Wagtails and Pipits. 



Yellow - throated 

sparrow 
I louse-sparrow 
Red-headed bunting 



Motacilla maderas- 

patensis 
Motacilla melanope 
Motacilla borealis 
Limonidromus in- 

dicus 
Anthus maculatus 
Anthus striolatus 
Anthus rufulus ... 

Alaitdidi 
Alauda gulgula ... 
Mirafra cantillans 
Mirafra afifinis ... 
Galerita deva 
Ammomanes phoe- 

nicura 
Pyrrhulauda grisea 



Large pied wagtail 

Grey wagtail 
Grey-headed wagtail 
Forest wagtail 

Indian tree-pipit 
Blyth's pipit 
Indian pipit 

J — Larks. 
Indian sky-lark 
Singing bush-lark 
Madras bush-lark 
Sykes's crested lark 
Rufous-tailed finch- 
lark 
Ashy - crowned 
finch- lark 



N'ectariniidi.z — Sun-birds. 
Arachnechthra lo- Loten's sun-bird 

tenia 
Arachnechthra asi- Purple sun-bird 

atica 
Arachnechthra Small sun-bird 

minima 
Arachnechthra Purple-rumped sun- 

zeylonica bird 

Arachnothera Little spider-hunter 

longirostris 

Diatidic — Flower-peckers. 
Dicaeum erythro- Tickell's flower- 

rhynchus pecker 

Piprisoma squali- Thick-billed flower- 

dum pecker 

PittidiC—V\\X7^. 
Pitta brachyura ... Indian pitta 



As Mr. Oates' work stops here, the remainder is taken from J. A. Murray's Indian 
Birds or the Avifauna of British India. But, from the two works not being 
arranged on the .same system, I have endeavoured to give the information from the 
latter in the order in which it is presumed it will appear in the former when 
completed. 

Macrochires. 
Cypselidic — Swifts. 



Cypselus melba ... Alpine swift 
Cypselus affinis ... Common Indian swift 
Cypselusbatassiensis Palm swift 
Hirundinapus in- Indian giant spine- 
dicus tail 



Hirundinapus syi- 

vatica 
CoHocalia unicolor 

Dendrochelidon 
coronatus 



White - rumped 
spine-tail 

Indian edible-nest 
swiftlet 

Indian crested tree- 
swift 



1 84 



FAUNA 



Capriniiili^idiC—ViCTiX-'McViix'f.. 
Capriimilfjus mah- Sykcs's ni},'lu-jar 

rattensis 
Caprimiiljjus iiion- I'ranklin's ni{,'lil-jar 

licolus 



Caprimulgus atri- (jhaul nij^ht-jar 

pennis 
Caprimulgus indicus Jungle nighl-jar 
Caprimulgus kela- Nilgiri nighl-jar 

arti 



Pici. 



riiitlic — Woodpeckers — Mara-kutaka. 


(jecinus striolatus 


Blylh's striated 


Vunx torquiila ... 


Common wryneck 




green wood- 


Tiga jaranensis ... 


Common large three- 




pecker 




toed woodpecker 


Thriponax hodg- 


Creat black wood- 


Brachyjiternus au- 


(iolden - backed 


soni 


pecker 


rantias 


woodpecker 


Chrysocolaptes fes- 


Black-backed wood- 


Brachypternus chry- 


Lesser golden- 


tivus 


pecker 


sonolus 


backed wood- 


I'icus mahrattensis 


\'ellow-fronted jjied 




pecker 




woodpecker 


MicroiHernus gula- 


South-Indian rufous 


lyngificus hard- 


Southern pigmy 


ris 


pecker 


wickii 


woodpecker 




Cocc 


yges. 




0/a///f/i<"— Cuckoos — Kogila. 


UpJipidte- 


—Hoopoes. 


Cuculus striatus . . . 


Asiatic cuckoo 


Upupa epops 


Hoopoe 


Cuculus sonneratii 


Banded cuckoo 


Meropidit- 


—Bee-eaters. 


Hierococcyxvarius 


Common hawk 


!Merops viridis ... 


Common Indian 




cuckoo 




green bee-eater 


Cacomantis nigra 


Indian plaintive 


Merops phillipinus 


Blue-tailed bee-eater 




cuckoo 


Merops leschen- 


Chestnut - headed 


Coccystesjacobinus 


Pied-crested cuckoo 


aulti 


bee-eater 


Coccystes coro- 


Red-winged crested 


Nyctiornis ather- 


Blue - necked bee- 


mandus 


cuckoo 


toni 


eater 



Eudynamys honorata Indian koel 
Rhopodytes viridi- Small green-billed 



malkoha 

Common crow phea- 
sant 

Lesser coucal 



Southern sirkeer 



rostris 
Centrococcyx rufi- 

pennis 
Centrococcyx ben 

galensis 
Taccocua leschen 

aulli 

Capitonidce — Barbets. 

MegaUvma cani- Common 

ceps 
Megaleema viridis 
Xantholxmahrema 

cephala 
Xantholrema mala- 

barica 



green 

barbet 
Small green barbet 
Crimson - breasted 

barbet 
Crimson - throated 

barbet 



Coraciadic — Rollers. 
Coracias indica ... Indian roller 

Akediiiidiv — Kingfishers. 
Alcedobengalensis Little Indian king- 
fisher 
Ceryle rudis ... Pied kingfisher 
Halcyon smyrnen- White - breasted 

sis kingfisher 

Ceyx tridactyla ... Three-toed kingfisher 
Pelargopsis gurial Indian stork-billed 
kingfisher 
Biicerotidit — Hornbills. 
Dichocerosbicornis Great pied hornbill 
Anthracoceros Malabar pied horn- 

coronatus bill 

Ocyceros birostris Common grey hornbill 



Psittaci. 

Psittacida — Parrots — Gini. Palteornis rosa 

Loriculus vernalis Indian loriquet 
Palceornis torquatus Rose-ringed paroquet 



Western rose- 
headed paroquet 



BIRDS 



1 85 



Striges. 



Bttbojiidce — Eagle and Scops Owls. 



Bubo bengalensis 
liuho nipalensis ... 
Scops pennatus ... 
Scops malaliaricus 
Carine brama 
Ninox scutulata ... 
("ilaucidium radia- 



VulturidiC — \ 

Gyps indicus 

Pseudogyjis ben- 
galensis — rana 
haddu 

Ologyps calvus ... 

FakoiiidiC — 
Circus pygargus ... 
Circus macrurus... 
Circus a-ruginosus 
Asturtrivirgatus... 
Aslur badius 
Accipiter nisus — 

Ijannada dege 
Accipiter virgatus 

— ur-chitlu 
Huteo ferox 

^\.<juila heliaca ... 
.Vquila vindhiana 
Aquila clanga 
NisiEtus fasciatus 
NisiX'tus pennatus 

Neopus malayensis 
SpizKtusnipalensis 



Rock horned owl 
P'orest eagle owl 
Indian scops owl 
Malabar scops owl 
Spotted owlet 
Brown hawk owl 
Jungle owlet 



Glaucidium mala- Malabar (jwlel 

baricum 

Asioaccipitrinus... Stout-eared owl 

Syrniumocellatum Mottled wood-owl 

Syrnium indrance Southern wood-owl 

StrigidcE — Owls — Giibe, giige. 

Strix flammea ... Indian screech-owl 

Strix Candida ... (irass-owl 



Accipitres. 



u 1 1 u res — Haddu . 
Long-billed vulture 
Common Inown 
vulture 



Black vulture 

Falcons — '/<4't'. 
Montagues harrier 
I'ale harrier 
Marsh harrier 
Crested goshawk 
Brown hawk 
European sparrow- 
hawk 
Besra sparrow-hawk 

Long - legged buz- 
zard 

Imperial eagle 

Tawny eagle 

Spotted eagle 

Crestless hawk-eagle 

Dwarf or Ijooted 
eagle 

Black eagle 

Spotted hawk-eagle 



Spizittus cirrhaius 

— ^juttu bhairi 
Circretus gallicus 

Spilornis melanolis 

Butastur teesa 
Haliastur Indus — 

garuda 
Milvus govinda ... 

Milvus melanotis 
Pernisptilonorhyn- 

chus 
Baza lopholes 
Microhierax ca.'ru- 

lescens 
Falco communis — 

bhaira 
Falco peregrinalor 

— (lege 
Falco juggur — 

giclaga 
Falco chiquera ... 
Hierofalcosaker... 
Polioaetui ichthy- 

aetus 



Crested hawk -eagle 

Common serpent- 
eagle 

Southern harrier- 
eagle 

White-eyed buzzard 

Maroon-])acked kite 
(Brahmini kite) 

Common Indian 
kite 

Large Indian kite 

Honey buzzard 

Black-crested kite 
White-naped pigmy 

falcon 
Peregrine falcon 

Shaheen falcon 

Lugger falcon 

Red-headed merlin 
Cherrug falcon 
Eastern white-tailed 
eagle 



Pelecanid(€ — Pelicans. 



Steganopodes. 

Plialacrocoraxpyg- Little cormorant 



Pelecanusroseus... Eastern while peli- 
can 



moeus 
Plotus melanogaster Indian snake-bird 



Herodiones. 



Ciion id<c — S I or]< s — Baka. 



Lcptopilus javanicus Lesser adjutant 
Xcnorhynchus asi- Black-necked stork 

aticus 
Ciconia leucoce- White-necked stork 

phala 



Ardcidic — Herons — Kokkare. 
Ardea cinerea . . . Common heron 
Ardea purpurea . . . Blue heron 
Herodias allxi ... Large while heron 
Ilerodias garzetta Little black-billed 

while heron 
Bubulcuscoromandus Cattle egret 



i86 

Ar(l(ji)I;i j^rayi 



FA UNA 



I'ond licron, i);i<!ily 

bird 
lUitoiidcs j;i\;inicii Little yrccn bittern 
Ardutta tlavicoliis Bine jjiltern 
Ardetta cinnamomea Chestnut Ijittern 
Ardelta sinensis... Little yellow bittern 
Botaurus stellaris Common European 

bittern 



Nyctoraxgriseus... Night heron 

'J'anlalid(C. 

Tantalus leucoce- I'elican il)i.-; 

phalus 

I'latalea leucorodia Spoonbill 

Threskiornis me- White ibis 

lanocephalus 



Anatichr — Ducks —Bdtti. 

Sarkidiornis mela- Comb duck 

nonotus 

Nettapuscoroman- Cotton leal 

delianus 

Dendrocygna ja- Lesser whistlini 

vanica teal 

Columbse 



Anseres. 

Casarca rutila 
Spatula clypeata. 
Dafila acuta 



Brahmini duck 

Shoveller 

I'intail 



Querquedulacrecca Common teal 
Fuligula cristata... Tufted pochard 

Podicipidiz — Grebes. 
Podiceps minor ... Dab-chick 



TreronidcE — Fruit Pigeons. 
Crocopus chlori- Southern green 



gaster 
Osmotreron mala- 

barica 
Carpophaga ■x.x\q&. 



pigeon 
M a 1 a b a r 



Colitmbidie — Pigeons and Doves — 

PArivdla. 

Columba interme- Indian blue rock- 



green 
pigeon 

Imperial green 
pigeon 

Bronze - back im- 
perial pigeon 

Gallinae 

Pierociidcc — Sand grouse. 
Pterocles fasciatus Painted sand grouse 



Turtur meena ... 
Turtur senegalen- 



pigeon 
Rufous turtle-dove 
Little brown dove 



Carpophaga insig 
nis 



Turtur risorius ... Indian ring-dove 



Phasianidic — Peafowl— iVaz^^/w. 
Pave cristatus ... Common peacock 

Megapodida. 
(Jallus ferrugineus Common jungle- 
fowl 
Gallus sonnerati .. 
Galloperdix spa- 

diceus 
Galloperdix lunu- 
latus 



Grey jungle-fowl 
Red spur-fowl 

Painted spur-fowl 



Tetraonidcc. 
Francolinus pictus Painted partridge 



Common grey par- 
tridge 
Jungle bush quail 
Rock bush quail 

Red-billed bush 
quail 



Otitidte — Bustards and floricans. 
Sypheotides auritus Lesser florikin 

CiirsoridiT — Courier plovers. 
Cursorius coro- Indian courier 

mandelicus plover 

Charadrius fulvus Eastern golden 

plover 



Ortygornis ponti- 

ceriana 
Perdicula asiatica 
Perdicula argoon- 

dah 
Microperdix ery- 

throrhyncha 
Coturnix communis Large grey quail 

Tinamida. 
Turnix plumbipes Indo- Malayan bus- 
tard quail 

Geranomorphae. 

Lobivanellus indicus Red-wattled lapwing 
Sarciophorus bilo- Yellow-wattled lap- 
bus wing 
CEdicnemus crepi- Stone plover 
tans 

GniidiC — Cranes — Kahva. 

CJrus cinerea ... Common crane 
Anthropoidesvirgo Demoiselle crane 



REPTILES 187 

Limicolae. 

Scolopactdir. I Himanlopus candidus Stilt 



Scolopax rusticola... Woodcock 

Gallinago nemoricola Wood snipe 

Gallinago scolopacina Common snipe 

Gallinago gallinula... Jack snipe 



Rallida: — Rail s. 



Machetes pugnax ... Ruff 

Actitis ochropus ... Green sand-piper 

Totanus glareola ... Wood sand-piper 

Totanus calidris ... Redshank 



Porphyrio poliocephalus Purple coot 

P'ulica atra . ... Bald coot 

Porzana bailloni ... Pigmy rail 

Porzana maruetta ... Spotted crake 

Gallinula chloropus ... Moorhen 

Gallinula phoenicura ... White-breasted 

Recurvirostra avocelta Avocet water-hen 

Gavise. 
Laruiic. 1 Rhynchops albi- Indian skimmer 

Sterna melanogastra Black-bellied tern | collis 

The remaining orders — Tubinares and Pygopodes — I have not succeeded in 
identifying. Perhaps some of the entries under Coccyges should come here. 

Rkptile.s. 

" The few crocodiles that are found in the Mysore rivers very rarely 
attack people (says Mr. Sanderson') ; and fishermen, who pay no heed 
to them, have told me that if they come upon a crocodile whilst 
following their employment, it will .skulk at the bottom and not move 
though handled, apparently believing it escapes observation." 

The loss of life from snake-bite may be gathered from the following 
particulars: — In 1889-90 there were 97 human beings and 32 cattle 
killed by snakes; in 1890-1 the numbers were 77 and 8 ; in 1891-2 they 
were 109 and 31. The amounts paid in these three years as rewards 
for the destruction of venomous snakes were Rs. 678 for 2,579, Rs. 690 
for 2,589, and Rs. 664 for 2,873 respectively. So far as the figures go, 
the loss of life, as compared with what was reported in the first edition 
fifteen years ago, is certainly diminished, and this may possibly be the 
result of the improved sanitary arrangements in towns and villages, 
whereby much of the rubbish around dwelling-houses which formerly 
gave cover to snakes is now regularly cleared away. 

Reptilia.- 

Emydosauria — Crocodiles. 
Crocodilidce — Crocodiles — ]\Iosah . 

Gavialus gangeticus ... ... ... ... Crocodilus paluslris 

Chelonia — Tortoises and Turtles. 
Iriotiyc/iidic — Tortoises — A'/iii. 

Trionyx leithii 
Testt(di)iid(C. 

Testudo elegans ... Halame... ... Nicoria trijuga ... Muriki amc 

' "Thirteen Years among the Wild Beasts of India," p. 14. 

- Compiled from the volume liy G. A. Boulenger in the Fauna of British India. 



1 88 



FAUNA 



Squamata -Lizanls and Snakes, 
Gechoiiidw — Geckos — Oli, 6ti-kAta. 
{lymnodaclylus nchulosus ... 
(lyiiuiodactyliisdeccancnsi.s... 
(lonatodcs niysoriensis 
(lonatodcs gracilis ... 
llcniidactylus reticulalus ... 

Eiiblepharidic. 

Enhlcphari.s hardwickii 

Agantidic. 

Sitana ponticeriana ... 
Calotes versicolor ... (J'ti 

Varanidcc — Lizards — Halli. 
Varanus liengalensis . . . U'.saravalli 

Lacertidtc. 

Cabrita leschenaultii... 

ScincidiC — S kink s — Hdva ran i. 
Mabina carinata 
Mabina macularia 

ChamaleontidtE — Chameleons — Gosiinibe. 
Chama;Ieon calcaratus 



I leniidaclylus frenatus 
I leniidactylus gleadovii I lalli 
I leniidactylus maculatus 
Ilemidactylus triedrus 
Hemidactylus costcei Halli 



Calotes ellioti 
Charasia dorsal is 



Ophiops jerdonii 

Lygosoma alljopunctatum 
Lygosoma punctatum 



(Ophidia) 



Typhlopidii: — Worm-like snakes. 
Typhlops braminus ... 

Boidce — Pythons or boas. 

Python molurus ... Dasara havu 
Gongylophis conicus... 

Uropeltidic — Earth snakes. 
Rhinophis sanguineus 
Silybura ellioti 

Colubridit — Snakes — Hdvii. 

Xylophis perroteti 

Lycodon striatus 
Lycodon aulicus 
Hydropholjus nympha 
Ablabes calamaria ... 
Simotes arnensis 
Oligodon venustus 
Oligodon subgriseus... 
Zamenis mucosus- ... Kere 
Zamenis fasciolalus ... 
Coluber helena 
Dendrophis pictus 
Tropidonotus stolatus 

Viperidit — \"ipers. 
Vipera russellii 



Typhlops aculus 



p]ryx johnii' 

Silybura phipsonii 
Pseudoplectrurus canaricus 

Tropidonotus piscator . Nir havu 
Tropidonotus plumbicolor Hasur havu 
Helicops schistosus 
Dipsas trigonata 
Dryophis perroteti 
Dryophis mycterizans 



Hypsirhina enhydris , 
Callophis nigrescens 
Bungarus fasciatus 
Bungarus creruleus^ 
Xaia tripudians* 
Naia bunrarus 



Kolaku-mandala Echis carinata. 



Hasur nulige 
Nir havu 



(jodi nagara 
Xagara havu 



Kallu ha\-u 



' The so-called cwo-headed snake. - Rat snake or whip snake {dhainin in Hindi). 
•' Known as the krait. * The cobra or cobra de capello. 



FISHES 189 

Batrachia. 



Rait td(e — Frogs — Kappe. 

Rana hexadactyla ... ... ... ... Rana limnocharis 

Rana cyanophlyctis'... .. ... ... Rana brevicep.s 

Rana tigrina ... ... ... ... ... Rana beddomii 

Engystontatidic. 

Microhyla ornata ... ... ... ... Callula variegata 

Callula pulchra ... ... ... ... Cacopus systema 

Bitfo)iid(C — Toads. 



Bufo melanosticUis 



Fishes. 



" The rivers and artificial lakes in Mysore abound with excellent fish, 
but I have never succeeded in getting much sport with the fly (writes 
Mr. Sanderson).- They may be taken by spinning or ground fishing — 
the latter chiefly at night. There is now in the Museum at Bangalore 
the head and skin of a fish — a species of carp or vmhseer, and called 
bili ox silver-fish in Canarese — caught by me in 187 1 in the Lakshman- 
tirtha, which measured sixty inches in length and thirty-eight in girth. 
The circumference inside the mouth when caught was twenty-four 
inches. I was unfortunately unable to weigh this fish, but I 
estimated it by rough tests at not less than 100 lbs. I have seen much 
larger fish, without doubt upwards of 150 lbs., caught by natives, chiefly 
by netting during the months when the rivers are low. At such times 
two or three villages of professional fishermen will combine to net a 
single large fish known to be a prisoner in a pool during the hot 
weather. The pool may be a hundred yards long and broad, and the 
water fifteen feet deep, with cavernous rocks capable of sheltering fish ; 
but by joining their nets, and diving and working for two or three days, 
they seldom fail to secure the prize." 

The following list has been compiled from Dr. Day's book.'' A 
number of native names of fish, not identified, will l)e found under 
each District in Vol. II. 

Pisces— il//««. 

Teleostei. 

Siliiridic — Cat-fishes. Callichrous binia- Ciodalc 

Clarias magiir ... Maiave— Black cat- , culalus' 

fish Pseudentropius Bale .. Ladyfi.sh 

Saccobranchus fos- Chelii niinu — Vel- ] atherinoides 

silis low catfish, scor- Macrones vittatus^ (leralu 

pion fish Macrones keletius 

Wallago auu . . \'alc, ole Rita hastata 

' (?) The chunam or flying frog. "^ Op. cit. ' In the " Fauna of British India.'" 

' Piiffta in Hindustani : called the " butter-fish" l)y Europeans in Bengal. 

* Dr. Day has the following note: — "This fi.sh is termed 'the fiddler' in Mysore; 



190 



FA UNA 



Lcpicloccphalichthys thermalis 

Ncmachilus ^'ucnlheri 

Nemachilus semiarniatus 

Neniachihis dcnisonii 

Nemacliilus hcavani 

Discotiiialhiislamta l'an(li]«kke (korafi 

kan]i, Hind.) 
Labeo fimbrialiis 
Labeo calbassu ... Kari minii 
Lalieo Uontius 
Cirrhina cirrhosa 
Cirrhina relia 
Matsya argentea 
Barbus chagunio 
Baibus .sarana ... Gid pakke 
Barbu.s chrysopoma 
Barbus micropogon 
Barlnis carnaticu.s (lid pakke (Giddi 

kaoli, Hind.) 
l^arbus tor' 
Barbus carmuca 
Barl)us melanampyx 
Barl)us parrah ... (Kacha korava, 

Hind.) 
Barbus dorsalis ... I\Iar pakke 
Barbus kolus 
Barbus melanostigma 
Barbus puckelli 
Barbus arulius ... aruli 
Barbus ticto ... (Kaoli, Hind.) 



Barbus vittatus 

Chela argcnlea White carp 

Chela boopis 
Chela clu|)eoides 

Percidcc — Perches. 
Ambassis nama 
Ambassis ranga 

Nandid(C. 
Badis buchanani 
Badis dario 
Nandus marmoratus 
Pristolepis marginata 
Pristolepis nialabarica 

Gobiidcc. 
Gobius giurus ... Abbroni 

KhyncJiobdellidij:. 
Mastacenibalus ar- Thorny-backed 
matus 

OphioccpJialida. 

Ophi ocephalus Hurvina maral 

marulius 
Ophiocephalusleu- Bili korava 

copunctatus 
O ph i ocephalus Kuchina maral 

striatus 
O ph iocephalus Mar korava 

guchua 
O phio cephalus Balu, beli korava 

punctatus 



Insects. 

Of the countless hosts and varieties of the insect world, no pre- 
tension can be made to give anything like a detailed list. The leading 
families alone are indicated. Of spiders, beetles, and the singular 
mantis tribe, there is a great profusion ; as also of the gayest butter- 
flies and richest moths. The bee (except in parts of the Malnad) is 
never domesticated, but large quantities of honey are obtained by 
jungle tribes from the woods and caves of various parts. White ants 
swarm in every soil, and their ravages are relentless. On one or two 
evenings following on the first heavy showers of the monsoon, which 

I touched one which was on the wet ground, at which it appeared to become very 
irate, erecting its dorsal fin and making a noise resembling the buzzing of a bee, 
evidently a sign of anger. When I put some small carp into an aquarium containing 
one of these fishes it rushed at a small example, seized it by the middle of its back, 
and shook it like a dog killing a rat ; at this time the barbels of the Macrones were 
stiffened out laterally like a cat's whiskers." 
' The mahseer of sportsmen. 



INSECTS 



191 



have softened the parched and dried-up ground, their winged nymphs 
issue in gauzy clouds to enjoy a brief flight ; and then, losing their 
wings, which strew the whole surface of the ground, crawl about in the 
form of maggots, a prey to every bird of the air and every creeping 
lizard. They are also gathered and cooked for food by the lower 
orders. The tiny mango-flies or eye-flies, which swarm during the 
hours of sunlight, especially in the mango season, are a well-known 
source of annoyance. To them is attributed a kind of ophthalmia, 
termed "sore eyes," to which children especially are subject; but 
whether the flies originate the affection or merely convey the contagious 
matter from eye to eye is doubtful. Among insect pests the coffee- 
borer has already been mentioned (p. 168). At the beginning of 1878 
a new danger appeared in vast flights of locusts, which threatened to 
destroy the first early crops that succeeded the great famine. But, 
fortunately, the damage they did was far less than the most sanguine 
could have expected.^ 

Annelida — Suctoria. 
HirucHnidLV .. jigani ... Leeches ... Al)ound at the Gersoppa Falls and in 

all forests during the wet season. 



Arachnida. 



Araneida; "^ 
Lycosidie r... 
Mygalidre J 
ScorpionidiT.' 



jada 
chehi 



Spiders 
Scorpions 



Acaridse 




Mites 


Sarcoptes 


kajji hula 


Itch acarus 


scabiei 







Very numerous and of great variety. 

There are three species ; the large black 
rock - scorpion (inaiKfragahbc), the 
large red field scorpion, and the little 
red house scorpion. The sting is 
very rarely fatal, but often causes 
great pain for a time. 

This loathsome affection is very com- 
mon, even among the upper classes 
of natives. 



Ixodidre 



Ticks 



* A flight of locusts which passed over Mandya on the evening of the i6th of 
May, 1800, is thus described liy Buchanan : — " It extended in length probal)ly about 
three miles ; its width was about a hundred yards, and its height fifty feet. The 
insects passed from west to east in the direction of the wind, at the rate of six or 
seven miles an hour. The whole ground, and every tree and bush, was covered with 
them, but each individual hailed for a very short time on any one sjiot. In an hour 
after the flock had passed few were to l)e discovered in the neighl)ourhood of the 
town. The noise of this immense number of insects somewhat resembled the 
sound of a cataract. At a distance they appeared like a long, narrow, red cloud 
near the horizon, which was continually varying its shape. The locusts were as large 
as a man's finger, and of a reddish colour." A flight the previous year had eaten up 
all the young Jola : the present flight settled at a village to the eastward of Mandya, 
and did the same. 



192 



FA UNA 



lulichv. 

lulus Indus 
Sc<)lo|K'n(Iri(I,v 



Myriapoda. 

haiidi l«sava 

jari ... Centiiiedes 



I'olydesmida* 



Anoplnta. 

Pediculus .. 



henu 



Insecta. 



Louse- 



Very common. 

There are several species, differ- 
ing in size and colour ; the 
largest is of a greyish colour 
with crimson legs ; of the 
smaller kinds, one is black 
and another of a .sandy or 
ashy colour. 



Every one must be familiar with 
the sight of native women re- 
moving this unpleasant occu- 
pant from one another's hair. 
The same operation may be 
constantly witnessed among 
the common monkeys. 



HcDiiptcra. 










Scutellera 










Phlcea 










Cimex 


. tigani 


Bug 






Neides 










Cicada 










P'ulgora ... 


. minchu hula 


Firefly 






Ajihis 






These are 
beauty 
trees. 


of great variety and 
on different kinds of 


Coccus 




Cochineal insect 




C. lacca 


. aruga 


Lac insect 






Kermes 




Gall insect 






Orthoptera. 










Mantis religiosa .. 




Praying 


There are 


numerous species, of 






mantis 


various 


sizes and colours ; 



Phasma 
Phvlliuni 



(■ryllus 



jilk- 



some appear to have the 
power of changing colour 
like a chameleon. 

Animated straw 

Leaf-like Several of these are of great 

insects beauty and curiosity. One 

is an exact counterpart of the 
mango leaf. 

Crickets ... \'ery numerous and various. The 
stridulation of the tree cricket 
and the mole cricket are at 
times, in certain localities, 
almost deafening. 



Locusla . . . patang; 
Acriiliuni ... niidite. 



a, midile 
toppu 



Rlalta 



jirle 



C>rasshop]iers 
Locusts ... 

Cockroaches 



These insects are here compara- 
tively harmless. 



lA^SECTS 



193 



Nettropicra. 
Libellula ... 
Ephemera 
Myrmeleon 
Termes 



U'mi lnil;i 



Ccddalu 



Aphaniplera. 




Pulex irritans 


chikata 


Diptera. 




Culex 


gungaru 


Tipula 




Culex 


s.ilje 


Musca 


nona 



Lepidoptera. 
Rhopalocera 



Heterocera 
Bombyx 
mori 



chilte, kapate,' pa- 
tragitte,- silade- 
vi hula 

nusi 
reshmi hula 



Dragon fly 

Ant lion ... 
White ants 



Common flea 



C.nal 



\'ery common. 

Universal : their nest or ant- 
hill is called hiitta : the 
winged nj-mphs, which 
issue in swarms in the 
rains, are called Uhalit 
hiila. 



... Daddy longlegs. 

Mo.squito... ... A well-known pest. 

Fly ... ... All varieties. 

Mango fly or eye fly Very numerous at Banga- 
lore in the mango season. 
It is no bigger than a flea. 



Butterflies 



Moths 

The caterpillar is 
the silkworm. 



A very great variety : — 
Nymphalidre, 34 species : 
Lycttnidce, 28 species; ' 
Paiiilionidx, 16 species.^ 



Hymoioptera. 
Ichneumon 
Formica ... iruve 

\'espa ... kanajada hula 

Apis ... jcnu hula 

Xylocarpa jirangi 

Bombus 



.. Ants 

Wasj) and hornet 
Honey bee 
.. Carpenter bee 
Bumble bee 



Abound in every part in 
great variety. 



Coleoplcra. 

Scarabivus dumbo ... ... Beetles 



Buprestis ... hasar dumbe ... dreen beetles 

Carabus 

Copris ... ... ... ... Dung beetle 



Beetles abound in great pro- 
fusion, and of much beauty 
of form and colouring. 

The wings are used for the 
decoration of slippers, &c. 

\'ery common on every 
road. 



1 The plain or sober-coloured ones. - Those with gay and \ariegated colours. 

•' iM-om Marshall and de Niceville's work The Butterflies of India (no more pub- 
lished). ■" From Donovan. 



1 04 FA UNA 

Oi insects useful to man the most impcjrtant arc the silk-pioducing 
worms, the lac and cochineal insects, and bees. 

Silkworm. — The fatality which attended the rearing of silkworms 
for some years, and checked an industry that was a source of livelihood 
to large numbers of Muhammadans, is noticed in Vol. II. ; together 
with the efforts that were made at the time, though ineffectually, to 
re-establish a healthy race of insects, more especially by Signor de 
Vecchj, in connection with a Silk l-'ilature Company at Kengeri, Ban- 
galore District. The industry has now revived and is again flourishing, 
owing to the comparative immunity of the worms from disease. Silk 
is produced in all the taUuis of the Bangalore District, as well as in 
Chik Ballapur and Tirumakudal Narsipur taluqs. 

Tasar Silkworm. — The domestication of the tasar silkworm was 
advocated some years ago, as the cocoons have been found in the 
jungles around Nandidroog and Devaraydroog. The following notes 
on the subject are taken from Captain Coussmaker's reports at the 
time : 

There are four ways in which the tasar silk cocoons may be procured, 
all of which I myself have successfully tried. Firstly :— During the hot 
weather, when the leaf is off; then the cocoons are easily discernible 
hanging like berries from the twigs ; men might then go into the jungles 
and collect them. Secondly : — From June to October the caterpillars are 
large and commit much ravage on the trees. Their presence then is easily 
detected by the denuded appearance of the twigs, and by their droppings 
under the tree (the large caterpillars do not wander at all, but eat steadiiv 
along one twig, devouring leaf after leaf ) ; men might then go and collect 
them all on to one tree, beneath which they themselves might build a hut 
and live, scaring away birds, squirrels, &c. Both of these methods are 
practised in the Bengal Presidency. Thirdly : — The moths can be paired 
when they issue from the cocoons, and the caterpillars reared from the eggs. 
Fourthly : — When the moths issue from the cocoons, the females can be 
tied up to certain trees and the males liberated there, when, if any of these 
latter be not in full vigour, wild males may come and pair with the females, ' 
which can then be removed. 

In hatching out and rearing the caterpillars there is no difficulty : twigs | 
of whatever tree is most convenient to use should be put into earthen pots j 
full of earth and water, the mouths of which should, as recommended by [ 
Captain Hutton, be closed with cotton rammed in, to keep the twigs steady | 
and to prevent the caterpillars crawling down into the water and drowning 
themselves. For the first fifteen days, during which the caterpillars wander 
about much, the pots should be kept each in a small wooden frame, the 
opposite sides of which should be covered with mosquito net or fine bamboo 
chicks, so that the light and air may penetrate freely and the worms not 
escape. After that time the pots should be put upon shelves or tables with 



SILKWORMS 195 

tlie twigs interlacing so as to form a long hedge, and left uncovered. The 
caterpillars should be kept there until they change their skins for the last 
time, when they may be put on to twigs suspended over bamboos hung from 
the ceiling ; and here they will spin their cocoons, which may be gathered 
every day when the twigs are renewed. In all cases the twigs should be 
changed every day — those that are old and stripped, thrown away ; those 
that the caterpillars are on, should be put near the fresh twigs, and they will 
crawl off of their own accord. It is advisable to water them two or three 
times a day from a watering-pot with a very fine rose ; give them a gentle 
shower as it were : this is refreshing both to caterpillars and twigs. 1 have 
noticed that in changing their skins, it sometimes happens that the old skin 
does not come off freely. I think that a moderate amount of moisture is 
essential to their well-doing. In this way, with the least possible trouble 
and expense, any amount of these caterpillars can be reared ; ordinary 
precautions being taken to protect them from their numerous enemies, by 
stopping rat-holes, sweeping away cobwebs, nailing wire netting or bamboo 
chicks over the windows, which should be kept open by night and day. 

I am glad to see that Mr. Massa reports so favourably upon the specimens 
of tasar silk cloth. I myself am greatly indebted to Mr. R. S. De Souza, 
the jailor at Dharwar, at whose suggestion the twilled variety was wove, 
and .it was through his ready assistance and careful supervision that the 
specimens were obtained. 

Experiments have also been made with the Eri silkworm from Assam, 
which feeds on the leaves of the castor-oil plant ; and with a variety of 
goldlace cocoons found in the jimgles of Hassan. 

Cochineal. — The introduction of the cochineal insect was proposed 
as a partial remedy for the failure of the silk industry. Regarding it the 
following extract is taken from a memorandum by Colonel Boddam : — 

One hundred years ago the Hon'ble Court of Directors attempted to intro- 
duce cochineal culture into India, and offered a reward of ^2,000 to any one 
successfully importing it. In 1795 '^ naval officer secretly imported some 
cochineal insects from Brazil, which were distributed over India, and 
cultivation fostered by the Court of Directors. After expending two lakhs 
of rupees it was discovered that the wrong insect had been got. There are 
two sorts of cochineal insect— the sih'estrc or wild one, and the grana-Jiiia 
or domesticated one ; the latter only producing the cochineal of commerce. 
It unfortunately was the siivcsirc that had been imported, and was not worth 
the trouble of cultivating. The ji^rana-Jina has never been successfully 
imported. Besides getting the true insect, the proper cactus for its support 
is necessary ; the common opitntia ficus indica, or prickly-pear, will not suit 
the domesticated kind. It must be opuniia cochinellifcra or opmttia (uita. 
Referring to Kew as to the correct cactus, authorities differed. After much 
correspondence this point was settled, and I got the true cactus cochincllifi:ra, 
compared the plants so named growingat the Botanical Gardens in Calcutta, 

O 2 



,,/, FAUNA 

Madras and Han^jalorc, and found them identical, correspondin;,^ with the 
dcscriptifin of cactus at Tcneriffc. 

After reviewing all that has been done, the writer in Watt's Dictionary 
says: — "The first and most natural step towards the introduction into 
India of a commercial industry in cochineal should be the thorough 
investigation of the races of cocoons already existing in the country and 
the plants on which they feed." 

Lac Insect. — The lac insect is found in several parts, as near the 
Nandi hills. The tree on which it feeds is the Jdldri {shorea talura, 
Roxb) All the trees, says Buchanan, are small, not exceeding eight 
or ten feet in height ; and their growth is kept down by the insect and 
its managers ; for this size answers best. The tree, left to itself, grows 
to a large size and is good timber. For feeding the insect, it thrives 
very well in a dry barren soil ; and is not planted, but allowed to spring 
up spontaneously as nature directs. In Kdrtika, or from about the 
middle of October to the middle of November, the lac is ripe. At that 
time it surrounds almost every small branch of the tree, and destroys 
almost every leaf. The branches intended for sale are then cut off, 
spread out on mats, and dried in the shade. A tree or two that are 
fullest of the insects are preserved to propagate the breed ; and of 
those a small branch is tied to every tree in the month Chaitra, or 
from about the middle of March to the middle of April ; at which time 
the trees again shoot out young branches and leaves. The lac dried 
on the sticks is sold to the merchants. This is what is called 
stick-lac, which, after the dye has been extracted, is formed into seed 
and shell-lac. 

Bees. — The bees are described by Buchanan as of four kinds. That 
from which most of the honey and wax is procured is called hej-jcnu- 
hi/la. This is a large bee, which builds under projections of the rocks 
or in caverns. A large nest gives eight seers of honey = 4"85 lb., and 
three seers of wax= i"82 lb. A small hive gives about one-third of this 
quantity. The honey is gathered twice a year, in A'shadhaand INIdgha, 
or in the month following the summer solstice and the second after that 
of winter. Some people of the Bedar caste make the collecting of 
honey and wax a profession, and it is one attended with much danger. 
Having discovered a hive, some of them kindle a fire under the rock, 
and throw on it the leaves of the cassia fistula and of the puleseri, 
which emit a smoke so acrid that nothing living can endure it. The 
bees are forced to retire ; and some others of the Bedar, so soon as the 
smoke subsides, lower down by a rope one of their companions, who 
with a pole knocks off the nest and is immediately drawn up again ; 



BEES 197 

for if he made any delay the Ijees would return, and their stinging is so 
violent that it endangers life. In order to fortify him against the sharp 
points of rocks, and against injury from the rope which passes round 
his chest, the adventurous Bcda is secured before and behind by 
several folds of leather. 

The bee that produces the next greatest quantity of honey is called 
the kaddl or cJiittujcnu-hiila ; that is, stick or small honey. This bee 
is very small, and builds around the branch of a tree a comb of an 
oblong shape and sharpened at both ends. It is found at all seasons, 
but is in the greatest perfection at the same time with the other. The 
honey is of the finest quality ; but the whole comb seldom weighs 
more than two seers, or i'2lb. This bee does not sting, and is readily 
driven away by a twig switched round the comb. 

The tnduve is a bee of which the honey is of an excellent quality, 
but rarely procured ; for it generally builds deep in the crevices of 
rocks, where it is totally inaccessible. Sometimes, however, it is found 
in hollow trees, and one hive will give from twenty to twenty-five seers 
of honey, or about twelve or fifteen pounds ; but the quantity of 
wax is in proportion small. This is a large bee ; but it very seldom 
stings those who plunder its hive. 

The toriga is a very small bee, that seldom stings. It takes 
possession of the deserted nests of the white ants, which in this coun- 
try are very numerous in the wastes of red soil such as is usually 
cultivated for ragi. Of this stiff earth the white ants raise hills re- 
sembling the stump of a tree, which are from four to six feet high, very 
hard, and able long to resist the heaviest rain. These, when deserted, 
most commonly become the lurking-places of snakes ; but sometimes 
give shelter to the toriga bee. Its nest is therefore easily accessible ; 
but it is very small, and contains only about a seer of honey and half a 
seer of wax. 



198 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Horses. — The only native breed of horses is, as in most parts of 
India, an ill-shaped, vicious iaijji ; as a rule not exceeding twelve 
hands in height.^ In spite of the pains which Haidar and Tipu took 
to improve the Mysore breed by importation, even their far-famed 
cavalry were as a rule badly mounted. The former Silahdar horses, 
sprung generally from Arab sires and Mahratta dams, were probably 
fair specimens of the class of animal which supplied the Muhammadan 
armies. These were extremely weedy and deficient in barrel, but 
would stand a great deal of work. A few stallions have always been 
maintained by Government ; but the Silahdars generally used to pur- 
chase their horses from private breeders, and their demand was the 
sole incentive to breeding. Of late years a hardy race of ponies has 
come into use for drawing the small two-wheeled conveyance called a 
Jiifka, which does duty for a native cab. The ponies are doubtless of 
Mahratta breed, and capable of great endurance. To improve the 
general breed of horses six superior stallions were obtained in 1889 
from the Military Department and stationed at headquarters of Dis- 
tricts. The following year four fresh stallions and a pony mare were 
procured and the remaining Districts supplied. But so far the demand 
for their services has been rather limited. 

A horse-breeding establishment is kept up by Government at 
Kunigal (removed there many years ago from Closepet) for supplying 
the Silahdars with suitable mounts. In 1886 there were seven Arab 
stallions and one Australian; in 1891 the Arab stallions had risen to 
eight in number, and the Australian to three. During the intervening 
five years 271 foals were bred at the Stud, and, including stock of 
previous years, 246 were passed into the ranks. In addition to these, 
seventy were cast and sold as unfit or undersized, sixty-two died, and 
three were destroyed. The number remaining on hand in the Stud 
Farm in 1891 was 154. 

Mules. — It is said that Tipu Sultan introduced some fine asses from 
Arabia for the purpose of breeding mules ; but the prejudices of his 
subjects were so strong that nothing could be done. A private scheme 

* Writing in 1803, Colonel Welsh says: — " Colar is so famous for a breed of 
vicious horses that all over the peninsula, whenever a horse turns out ill, he is called 
Colarie." 



HORNED CATTLE 199 

for a regular system of breeding these useful animals, so invaluable for 
transport, has been lately put before the Mysore Government for assist- 
ance, but nothing definite has so far been decided on. 

Asses. — Every washerman keeps three or four females and a 
male. The superfluous males are sold to various kinds of petty traders, 
and people who transport salt and grain. The breed is very small, no 
pains being taken to improve it ; nor indeed to keep it from growing 
worse. Some are of the usual ash-colour, whilst others are almost black, 
in which case the cross on their shoulder disappears. These are not 
varieties as to species ; for black individuals have sometimes ash- 
coloured colts, and, on the contrary, black colts are sometimes pro- 
duced by ash-coloured dams. The asses get nothing to eat except 
what in the intervals of labour they can pick up about the village. 
When the crop is on the ground they are tied up at night ; but at 
other seasons they are allowed to roam about, and in order to prevent 
them from wandering too far their fore-feet are tied together. The 
males are never castrated, and the best are always sold off by the 
washermen, which are the principal causes of the degeneracy of the 
breed. At three years of age the females begin to breed, and some 
have every year a colt, while others breed once only in three years. An 
ass's burthen is reckoned about 76 lbs ; with which they will daily 
travel about seven miles. 

Horned Cattle.- -The principal breeds of horned cattle in Mysore 
are the Amrit Mahal, Madesvaran Betta, the Kankanhalli, and the 
village cattle. Almost all other cattle seen in the country are im- 
portations or crosses between the above-mentioned breeds. 

The Amrit Mahdl^ literally Milk Department, is an establishment for 
the breeding of a race of cattle peculiar to the country of Mysore and 
famous for its utility for military purposes. The establishment was founded 
at some time during the Hindu government, with special privileges as 
regards grazing ; but its maintenance for the special purpose of supplying 
draught cattle for artillery is due to Haidar Ali. He is reported to have in- 
troduced a breed of cattle from the Trichinopoly country, by a cross 
between which and the indigenous breed of Mysore was produced the 
Hallikar breed, which is considered the best in the whole establishment, 
(ireat doubt exists as to what the breed imported was, but general tradition 
points to the small Brahmani bulls, which to this day are noted for their 
endurance and fast trotting powers. 

"It was this establishment," wrote Sir Mark Cubbon, " which enabled 

' The particulars are taken from a pamphlet coiitainint; the hisUjry of liic Amril 
Mahal, compiled from the Records of the Department by Captain M. A. Kowlandson, 
and one on Ilunsur, by Dr. CJilchrist ; with corrections by Majtir Mclnroy, the officer 
formerly in charge, to whom I was indebted for them. 



200 FAUNA 

Ilaidar Ali to march loo miles in two days and a half to the relief of 
Chidambram, and after every defeat to draw off his guns in the face of his 
enemies ; which enabled Tipii Sultan to cross the peninsula in one month 
for the recovery of Bednur, and to march sixty-three miles in two days 
before (General Mcdows ; which, in later times, enabled General Pritzler 
to march 346 miles in 25 days in pursuit of the Peshwa : and which enabled 
(icncral Campbell, after the failure of his Bengal equipments, to advance 
upon Ava and bring the war to a favourable termination. It was also this 
establishment which enabled the Duke of Wellington to execute those 
movements of unexampled rapidity which are the admiration of every mili- 
tary man, and in consideration of whose services he recommended it to pro- 
tection in a letter addressed at the close of the war to the Commander-in- 
Chief." Allusions in the Wellington Despatches show that the Great Duke 
often, during the Peninsular War in Spain, regretted that he had not the 
assistance of the Amrit IMahdl cattle. 

After the capture of Seringapatam, the Breeding establishment was 
intrusted to the native government, and the Public Cattle department to an 
agent ; but the inducements which had led Haidar and Tipu to keep up 
its efficiency were wanting, and by the end of 1813 the cattle had degener- 
ated to such a degree that the management was taken over by the British, 
and 10,914 head of breeding cattle, the exact number made over to the 
Raja's government in 1800, received back. A Commissariat officer (Captain 
Harvey) was placed in charge, with a suitable establishment, and up to the 
31st July, 1816, the number of cattle had increased to 14,399, exclusive of 900 
calves transferred as fit for service. By 1823 the original number had nearly 
doubled itself, besides supplying for the public service young bullocks equal 
to one-fourth part of the increased establishment. In i860, from motives of 
economy, Sir Charles Trevelyan ordered the establishment to be broken up, 
and the herds to be sold ; but the results were to the detriment of the public 
service. The Amrit Mahal was therefore, with the cordial approval and 
assistance of the then Maharaja, re-established in December 1867, with 
5,935 head of cattle. In 1871 there were 9,800 head of all sizes, exclusive 
of 1,000 young male cattle in the Training Depot. It was arranged that a 
certain number of bulls should be handed over to the Mysore Government 
annually, to be stationed at various points in the country for the purpose of 
improving the breed of cattle used by the ryots. 

The Cc.ttle were divided into 30 herds, containing from 200 to 700 head of 
cattle each ; for the grazing of which, 208 kdvals or pasture grounds were 
allotted in various parts of the country.' They are divided into hot weather, 
wet weather and cold weather kdvals, according to the seasons of the year 
during which they are of most use. The hot weather kdvals are generally 
the beds of tanks in which grass springs up during the hot months, and near 
which there are trees for the purpose of affording shade to the cattle during 

' Though a herd consists of both males and females of various ages, they are not 
allowed to graze in immediate company, each being divided into seven lots, called 
pals, to prevent their injuring one another. The average number of attendants or 
graziers is one to every fifty head of cattle. 



AMRIT MAHAL 201 

the heat of the clay. These are very vakiable kavals, and are reserved as 
far as possible for the sole use of the Government cattle. The cold and wet 
weather kdvals are those which during those seasons have plenty of grass 
and water, but which during the hot weather dry up and are of little use to 
the department ; in both the latter descriptions of kdvals the ryots' cattle 
are permitted to graze certain fi.xed portions, and after the Government 
cattle have left for their annual visit to the jungles, the shervci^drs are 
permitted to sell some part of the grazing, and from the funds thus obtained 
the kdvalgdrs or guards are paid and other expenses met. This privilege 
ceases at the end of July each year. 

The Amrit Mahal cattle comprise three varieties, called the Hallikar,^ 
Hagalvadi and Chitaldroog, from the districts which originally produced 
them, and may be readily distinguished from every other breed in India 
by the peculiar shape and beauty of their heads and the symmetry of 
their form. They seldom attain an extraordinary height, but in pro- 
portion to their size are remarkably deep and wide in the chest, long 
and broad in the back, round in the barrel, well ribbed up and strong 
in the shoulder and limb." They are active, fiery, and walk faster than 
troops ; in a word, they seem to constitute a distinct species, and 
possess the same superiority over other bullocks, in every valuable 
quality, that thoroughbreds do over other horses. The cows of this 
breed are white, but the males have generally an admixture of blue over 
the fore and hind quarters. There is a fourth variety of coloured 
cattle, which are considered inferior to the white in energy and per- 
severance, though they rather surpass them in size. As the former 
breed is the most perfect that is known, it would only tend to its 
deterioration to cross it with any other, and the bulls are accordingly 
bred in the best herds, and individuals, selected from the best specimens, 
distributed to improve the breeds in the other herds. 

A cow of this breed is supposed to give about one pucka seer of 
milk a day, and the calf could not be deprived of any part of it without 

* An absurd legend is current among the herdsmen of the department regarding 
the origin of the Hallikdr. They state that Haidar Ali, after one of his trips to the 
south, l)rought Ijack to the Mysore country a number of cows of the small Brahmani 
caste. These cows were turned loose into a kaval (in the Tumki'ir District) in which 
there were great numbers of antelope, and a cross between the l)ig black bucks and 
the small Brahmani cows gave the present Hallikar breed. In support of the story 
they point to the small spot below the eye, common to antelope and to Hallikar cattle. 

* The general characters of a good bullock are a round liarrel, stout strong legs, 
and l)road forehead. The average height is 48 inches, and 50 inches was about the 
highest standard. But the average height has very much increased since the re- 
cstablishment of the department in 1 866. Some of the bullocks now run up to 
53i inches. Of course weight is also a material consideration. The average is 
idxHit 12 maunds or 43 stone, l)ut no means have been adopted to determine this 
exactly. 



20 2 FAUMA 

I)ciii^ inalcrially injured in its growth. The calves remain wilii their 
mothers during the day, but are separated from them at night, and are 
kept in a fold under charge of the herdsmen until they are three months 
old, when they begin to graze and get strength. In the cold season, 
when the herbage is abundant, they are generally weaned at the age of 
five months ; but such as are brought forth later in the year cannot be 
sei)arated from their mothers till after the hot weather. After 
separation, care is taken to conduct them to the richest pastures in 
the neighbourhood, and they are never supplied with any other food. 

Heifers begin to breed between three and a half and four years old, 
and bring forth six or seven times. Twenty cows are allowed to one 
bull. The bulls begin to propagate at five years of age and retain their 
vigour till ten, when they are discarded from the herds. The average 
annual amount of births is fifty per cent on the number of cows, and 
the proportion of male and female calves is nearly equal. 

The whole of the cattle, bulls, cows and calves subsist entirely on 
what the pastures afford, and on the stalks of the castor, bailer, kulti, 
and other nourishing plants, which are left on the ground for their use 
after the harvest in the months of January, February and March. This 
brings them into excellent condition at the most favourable season for 
the cows taking the bull. In the dry weather, when a want of forage 
and water prevails in the open country, the herds are conducted to the 
south-western jungles, where the natural moisture of the soil, the early 
showers, and the shelter afforded by the trees are favourable to vegeta- 
tion. They arrive there in May and return to their pastures in 
September, when the grass is in great abundance all over Mysore. 

The calves are castrated in November, the cold weather being found 
peculiarly favourable to the success of the operation, and invariably 
between the age of five and twelve months, as their growth is supposed 
to be promoted by early castration ; and it is attended with this impor- 
tant advantage, that it prevents the cows being impregnated by inferior 
bulls and consequently prevents the breed from degenerating. They 
are separated from the herds after four years of age and transferred to 
the Public Cattle Department when turned of five, perfectly trained and 
fit for work. They arrive at their full strength at seven and are past 
their vigour at twelve ; they work till fourteen or fifteen, after which 
they decline rapidly and generally die at eighteen years of age. The 
cattle of these herds are kept in their wild state, without shelter of any 
description ; they are very fiery and cannot be approached by 
strangers without the protection of the herdsmen. It requires several 
months to break them in, and the employment is extremely difficult 
and daneerous. 



AMRIT MAHAL 203 

At the age of three years the catching of bullocks takes place, previous 
to which they are nearly as wild as the inhabitants of the jungle. The 
bullocks are first driven into a large oval enclosure, which they are made 
to enter with much difficulty. This conmiunicates with a square yard, 
surrounding an inner enclosure about twenty feet square, which is 
surrounded with a strong fence made of wooden posts placed close together 
and about twelve feet high. When they are collected in this, the opening 
is closed. The trainers then ascend on the top of the fence, and throw a 
noose round each of the bullock's horns. This done, the end of the rope is 
passed between posts near the ground, and the animal is drawn close up 
and secured by people on the outside. The passage is then opened and old 
trained bullocks admitted. One of the latter is bound by the neck to one 
of the wild animals, which being done, the rope is loosened, when he 
immediately endeavours to escape. His trained comrade, however, to 
whom he is coupled, restrains him, though but partially ; accordingly the 
two leave the enclosure at tolerable speed. The rope by which the 
untrained bullock was originally noosed is allowed to remain attached to 
his horns, and when they approach one of the strong posts placed in the 
immediate vicinity of the enclosure the rope is quickly turned round it, by 
whicli the animals are again brought up. The untrained bullock is then 
well secured by the neck, with as little latitude of motion as possible. 
There he is kept alone for about two days, until he becomes considerably 
tamed and worn out with unceasing efforts to escape. The next operation 
consists in attaching to the animal a couple of blocks of wood so heavy as 
to be moved with some difficulty, and giving him as much liberty as this 
admits of. He is then admitted to the company of old trained cattle, and 
from the twofold effects of example and partial restraint he gradually 
becomes submissive. The bullocks arc now grazed in the vicinity of Hunsur 
for a further period of three years, being tied up regularly each evening in 
lines. Tiiey are then transferred to the Public Cattle Department to undergo 
final breaking for the public service. 

Since the Rendition the following changes have taken place: — On the 
i-st January, 1882, the Mysore Government purchased the Amrit Mahal 
cattle from the Madras Government, there being at that time 30 herds, 
with ] 2,502 head, of which 4,618 were cows and 177 breeding bulls. It 
was stipulated that the Department should supply the Madras Govern- 
ment for ten years with three-year-old bullocks at Rs. 50 per head, to a 
number not exceeding 400 annually. In 1886 this limit was reduced 
to 200 of four years old at the same price. The herds were therefore 
broken up in 1887 and their number reduced to sixteen. In 1889 
steps were taken to form special herds of big and fine cattle. There 
are thus 23 herds now (1894) under six darogas. The steers are not 
caught near Hunsur, but in different kavals, and are accustomed to 
being tied up before being handed over to Madras. Others are sold at 
reduced rates or distributed to raiyats at suitable places. Kach of the 



204 /'.UW.I 

darogas has also a shcc[) farm, wlicrc the country ewes are crossed by 
cross-bred Kashmir rams. 

At the Hissar ('attle Farm in the Punjab, artillery cattle are bred 
from the Mysore cross to serve as " leaders." At the Bhadgaon Farm 
of the Bombay (lovernnient cattle-breeding has l^een established for 
over eleven years, the herd having taken its origin from the Mysore 
Amrit Mahal. The main object has been to breed Mysore bulls for 
crossing and improving the cattle of the country around. "As I 
passed through the district, I saw evidence," writes Dr. Voelcker, " of 
the impress which the Mysore cattle reared at the Farm had made 
upon some of the other cattle, and how superior to the ordinary cattle 
were those which had the Mysore ' touch ' in them." ^ 

Mddcsvaran Betta — This breed comes from the jungles and hills 
near Biligirirangan Betta, on the south-eastern frontier of Mysore. 
They are larger than the Amrit Mahal cattle, but are loosely made and 
not well ribbed up. They have heavy loose-hanging dewlaps, sloping 
broad foreheads, and large muzzles. They are very heavy slow 
animals, but crossed with a Hallikar bull they form excellent cattle 
for draught and ploughing. Of this cross-breed are the cattle mostly 
used by the large cart owners who carry on trade from towns in the 
Mysore territory to the Western Coast, Bellary and other places. 

KdnkdnJialli. — This breed comes from Kankanhalli, in the south- 
east of Mysore ; they are very like the Madesvaran Betta breed, but are 
generally smaller, though larger than the Amrit Mahal breed. They 
have thick horns, broad sloping foreheads, and white, very thick skins. 
In all other respects the remarks regarding the Madesvaran Betta breed 
are applicable to the Kankanhalli. 

The village cattle vary very much in size, colour and characteristics ; 
in some parts very fair cattle may be seen, but as a general rule the 
village cattle are a stunted inferior race. The cows generally give 
from half to one seer of milk per diem, though occasionally some may 
be met which give three seers, but it will be generally found that 
these have been fed on nutritious food, such as oil-cake, cotton-seed 
and such like. The bullocks are small, but for their size do a sur- 
prising amount of work. 

Buffalo.' — Of the buffalo there are three varieties, the Hullu, the 
Gaiijri or Gujarat, and the Chokatu, which comes from the country 
bordering on the river Krishna. 

The Hullu is by far the most common, and is the native breed of the 
country. The female has a calf every year, and gives milk for seven 

^ Report on the Improz'eineut of Indian Agriculture, 204. 

- Much of the information in the following paragraphs is from Buchanan. 



SHEEP 



205 



months. Besides what the calf draws from her, she gives twice a day 
about a quart of milk. She generally bears from ten to twelve calves, 
and is very unruly when the keeper attempts to milk her without the 
calf being present. They will convey a greater weight, either in a cart 
or on their back, than a common ox ; but walk very slowly, do not 
endure heat, and cannot easily travel more than seven miles a day. 

The two stranger breeds are greatly superior in size to the Hullu ; 
but in this country they very soon degenerate. The females breed 
once in two or three years only, and produce in all about si.x calves. 
For two years after each parturition they continue to give a large 
(quantity of milk ; but in the third year their milk begins to dimini.sh ; 
and it entirely ceases about two months before the time of calving. In 
this country, besides what the calf is allowed, they give daily from six 
to eight quarts of milk and require no more food than the common 
breed, neither do they refuse their milk should the calf be removed or 
die. The males are entirely reserved for breeding or for carrying 
loads ; one of them will carry as much as six oxen, and will walk 
faster. 

Sheep. — These are of three varieties, the Kiiruba)- or ordinary breed, 
so called from the caste which rears it; the Gol/ar, which is less 
common and which owes its name to the same cause ; and the Ye/aga, 
which is the rarest of the three. \Miite, brown and l)lack colours are 
found in all three breeds. The Kurubar is a small sheep, with horns 
curling backwards. Both its flesh and wool are superior to those of the 
other two varieties. The dollar is distinguished from the Kurubar bv 
its large size, coarser wool, longer neck and different formation as to 
the head and jaws. The Yejaga, which is rare, is longer in the leg. and 
stands higher than the other breeds, but is less bulky and more 
resembles a goat in structure of the body and limbs. The sheep of this 
variety are never shorn of their wool, being too coarse for manufacture, 
and they shed their coats once a year. This is the breed which 
is used for draught and carriage of children. The Gollar sheep are 
left out at night at all seasons and in all weathers, and do not appear 
to suffer from the exposure, while the Kurubars and Yelagas are 
invariably housed at night. The different breeds are never mixed, 
chiefly owing to antagonism between the Kurubar and Gollar castes; 
but even in the absence of enmity between the shepherds it is doubtful 
whether the two varieties could ever be brought to mix, and it is pretty 
well established that the Yejaga will not amalgamate with the other 
two. They are solely dependent on jjasturage, being never fed on grain. 

Sheep, with the exception of the Yelagas, are shorn twice a year, and 
fifty fleeces amount to about a maund weight. The wool is all coarse, 



2o6 FA UNA 

and is made into rougli kanitjlis. The shepherds usually hand over 
loo fleeces to the weaver, who gives them in return a kambli. There 
was formerly a (iovernment manufactory at Hunsilr, which turned out 
good blankets made from the wool of the white sheep in the Govern- 
ment farm. This has been abolished. 

" The woolly breed of sheep, which exists throughout Mysore, is 
fairly esteemed," says Dr. Shortt, "both for its mutton-forming and 
wool-producing qualities. The rams have large heavy horns, wrinkled 
and encircled outwards, and their points inwards and forwards. The 
head is large and heavy-looking, with a prominent Roman nose. The 
ears are of moderate size and pointed, and the tail short, never exceed- 
ing 3 to 4 inches. The ewes are mostly hornless. They are occasion- 
ally met with small light horns, seldom exceeding 3 to 4 inches in 
length. The prevailing colour is from a light to a very dark grey or 
black. The ram stands 25 inches, and the ewe 23 inches in height. 
The ordinary live weight is from 40 to 60 lbs., but gram-fed wethers 
attain from 60 to 80 lbs. They have fairly compact carcases, with 
good width, prominence and depth of chest ; the body is well wooled 
and rectangularly formed ; in picked specimens the counter is full and 
the shoulder is fairly filled w^hen in condition. The fleece never 
exceeds 3 to 4 lbs., and the staple averages 3 to 4 inches in length. 
An ordinary sheep fetches from 2 to 3 rupees in the market, fat wethers 
7 to 10 rupees each. 

" This breed furnishes the chief fighting rams of Southern India, for 
which purpose good picked male rams are sought after by native Rajas, 
Zamindars and others. They are much petted and pampered, till they 
grow quite savage ; they will butt and also strike with their fore-feet ; 
and I have also seen in one or two instances a propensity to bite. They 
are pitted against each other, and large sums of money staked on 
the result. In fighting, they run a tilt by first moving backwards some 
short distance to add force to the impulse of their weight ; and fre- 
quently in the fight they have their heads or horns broken. These 
rams, from special selection and good feed, often attain 30 inches in 
height and over 80 lbs. in weight. Size does not necessarily ensure 
success in the battle, as I have seen the largest ram of the kind I 
remember ever having met with, run away after a few tilts from one 
that was very much smaller. All the breeds of sheep in Southern 
India are pugnacious and reared to fight, the preference alwaj-s being 
given to the black woolly breeds of ?^Iysore or to those of Coimbatore. 
This breed extends from Mysore to Bellary, where after a time the 
Avool frequently changes into long lank hair." 

For many years Sir Mark Cubbon had an experimental sheep farm at 



GOATS 207 

Heraganhalli, Nagamangala taluq, under the charge of a European 
Commissariat subordinate officer. Merino rams were imported yearly 
from AustraHa and the cross-breeds distributed all over the country. 
The breed of sheep throughout the Province was thus immensely 
improved both as to size, quality of mutton, and wool. The wool was 
sent in bales by the Mysore (Government to England for sale, as well 
as for the purpose of being manufactured into blankets and serge. 
The farm was given up in 1863, as it did not pay expenses. This was 
owing apparently to sheep-breeding alone receiving attention : if other 
branches of farming had been combined, the results would probably 
have been more favourable. 

In 1888 a flock of fifteen rams and ewes was imported from Australia 
with the view of improving the fleece of the country breed. A flock 
of white sheep and their lambs by an acclimatized merino ram had also 
been collected for breeding purposes. The lambs thus bred are larger 
and the fleece of the sheep much better than those of the ordinary 
sheep of the country. Some have been sent to Haidarabad and others 
sold or distributed to raiyats for breeding. 

Goats. — There are two kinds of goats, the long-legged or nteke, and 
the short-legged or kaiichi incke, but the two can propagate together. 
In every flock of sheep there is commonly a proportion of 10 or 
20 nicke to 100 sheep. This does not interfere with the pasture 
of the sheep, for the goats live entirely on the leaves of bushes and 
trees. One male is kept for twenty females. Of those not wanted for 
breeding, the shepherd sacrifices some for his own use v/hile they are 
young ; the remainder he castrates and sells to the butcher. The 
female breeds at two years of age. They breed once a year, about 
four times, after which they are generally killed by the shepherds for 
their own use. For three months the kid is allowed the whole milk ; 
afterwards the mother is milked once a day for two months ; and eight 
goats will give a quart of milk. The excrement of both sheep and 
eoats is much used for manure. 



208 



ETHNOGRAPHY 

The aboriginal inhabitants of Mysore cannot probably be now traced 
with any degree of certainty, though remains of prehistoric races 
abound in stone monuments of different kinds, elsewhere described. 
On various scientific grounds India appears to have been originally 
part of a continent (to which the name Lemuria is sometimes given) 
stretching west to Africa and east to Cochin China and Australia, of 
which Madagascar on the one side, and the islands included in 
Melanesia in the Indian Archipelago on the other, are some of the 
principal existing remains.^ Of the primeval human races whose home 
it may have been, there survived (according to a theory of Professor 
Huxley's, developed by Professor Haeckel of Jena) two, namely, a 
woolly-haired and a smooth-haired. From the former sprang the 
Hottentots and negroes in Africa westwards and the Papuans of New 
Guinea eastwards ; from the latter, represented perhaps by the natives 
of Australia, were derived the straight-haired and the curly-haired 
races. The first were the progenitors of the Malays of the islands in 
the Pacific Ocean, and of the Mongols of Eastern and Northern Asia, 
who penetrated on one side to Europe (their survivors being found in 
the Finns, Lapps, Magyars and Turks), on the other side to America, 
producing the Red Indians : the second peopled India and spread to 
South-western Asia, North Africa and the South of Europe. The 
original inhabitants of South India and Ceylon, distinguished as 
Dravidians {homo Dravida), may ])erhaps represent the least changed 
examples of the second branch. This hypothesis discredits the views 
at one time adopted, that the Dravidians migrated into India from the 
north-west, of which there is little evidence, the indications being held 
to be equally in favour of the opposite course. 

Several of the Puranas' claim an Aryan descent for the southern 
races by making their progenitors or eponyms, Pandya, Karnata, Chola 

^ " Throughout the later part of the palceozoic and the whole of the mesozoic 
era, there was a continuons stretch of dry land over what is now the Indian Ocean." 
" At the close of the cretaceous or commencement of the eocene period, the great 
Indo-African continent was finally broken up, and all but the remnants in India and 
South Africa sunk finally beneath the sea." — R. D. Oldham, Gi-oIotQ' of India, 
pp. 211, 494. 

* The Vriyu, Matsya, Agni and Brahma Puranas. — Muir, .S". T., II., 422. 



PRIMITIVE TRIBES 209 

and Kerala, to be descendants of Dushyanta, the adopted son of 
Turvasu, who was the younger brother of Yadu, and a prince of the 
lunar line. Their father Yayati, the son of Xahusha, gave the govern- 
ment of the south to Yadu, and that of the south-east to Turvasu, who 
is also said to have been the progenitor of the Yavanas.' Another 
account" substitutes Kola for Karnata. The former is a name which 
occurs extensively throughout India as the designation of a wide-spread 
aboriginal race. If the two therefore are interchangeable, it would 
seem as if the people of Karnata were considered identical with the 
Kols of the Central Provinces.'' The name appears in Kolar, after 
which the eastern District of Mysore is called, as well as in Kolala in 
the Tiimkur District.^ 

Though the Dravidians were certainly not Aryans, these statements 
may embody prehistorical myths. For analysis of such myths may be 
made to show that Turvasu was the name of a star-worshiping people, 
whose god (Akkadian 7'asii) was the meridian pole {tur), which stood 
, for the Linga or I'hallus, being evolved from the fire-drill and socket, 
its revolution amid the circumpolar stars of the Great Bear being 
considered the cause of the rains. They may be identified with the 
Zend Turanians {an signifying god in that language), and with the 
maritime traders called Tour-sha and Tur-sene or Tyrrhenians 
mentioned in Egyptian and (ireek records. Their first great trading 
port was Dvdraka in the peninsula of Kathiawar ; other exporting 
harbours being Surpdraka (Surat) at the mouth of the Tapti, and 
Baragyza (Broach) at the mouth of the Narmada. They made settle- 
ments at the holy island of Dilmun (now Bahrein) in the Persian Gulf, 
and at Eridu, near the mouth of the Euphrates. 

In course of time migration set the other way, and we meet with a 
race, also non-Aryan, who reverenced the moon {sin) and brought in 

' Turvasu was also sentenced to rule over savages and barbarians — Mlechehhas, or 
]ieople not Hindus . . Manu, too, places the Dravidas amongst Mlechehhas ; and 
these and similar passages indicate a period prior to the introduction of Hinduism into 
the south of India. — Wilson, Jlshiiti Ptirana, iv, 117. '•' Harivamsa, Muir, ^/. <//. 

•' The tribes driven out of the valley of the Ganges by the Aryans were almost 
certainly Kols to the south, and semi-Tibetans to the north. — Caldwell, Grain. Drav. 
I.aui^., Int., 63. 

^ The generally received theory is that the Kolarian triljes are relics of barbarians 
who entered India from the north-east at some very remote pre-historic period : they 
were subsequently, perhaps thousands of years ago, pushed aside by Turanian innni- 
grants frt)m Western Asia, who penetrated India from the north-west and filled the 
western and southern districts ; at a later period the Aryans came into India, also 
from the north-west, settled in the Punjab, and eventually s]iread, first east and 
lastly south, into all parts of the Indian continent. 

P 



2 1 o ETHNOGRAPHY 

tlic year of thirteen lunar months. These were the Hus, Shus or Sus, 
the yellow race from the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates (and later 
of Shushan) who settled in the delta of the Indus — the Su-varna from 
whom Sindh was called Sindhu-Suvarna, part of Bengal Karna-Suvarna, 
and Oujarat and Kathiawar received the name of Saurashtra. They 
correspond also with the Sabar?e of Ptolemy, the Suari of Pliny, and the 
Sauviras of Baudhayana. They were the great Sumerian and Vais'ya 
traders of Western Asia and India (if not China), the progenitors of 
the modern Saukars. Their capital was Patala (Haidarabad in Sindh), 
then a seaport, though now 150 miles from the sea. They gave to the 
river its name Sindhu or Hindhu, which has come to designate the 
whole of India and its inhabitants. They are referred to as Yonas by 
Asoka and as Yavanas in the Mahabharata.^ 

Dushyanta (previously mentioned) or Dushmanta, as he is also 
called, who was of the line of Puru but adopted by Turvasu, became 
the father, by Sakuntala, the heroine of Kalidasa's exquisite drama, of 
Bharata, after whom India was called Bharata-varsha, or land of the 
Bharatas. These are represented by the Bars or Bhars, whose name is 
perhaps really derived from the Bar or banyan-tree {ficus indica), which 
they held sacred. They are an aboriginal race, classed among the 
Dravidians, and once ruled over a large area from the Central 
Provinces to Oudh and Behar. They are mentioned by Ptolemy as 
Barrhai, and may be the Sanskrit barbara or barbarians." Besides Yadu 
and Turvasu, Yayati had three sons, Druhyu, Anu and Puru. And the 
collective people of the five races who claimed to be descended from 
them were the Uravidian Bharatas under Vis'vamitra, who resisted the 
Aryan advance under Vasishtha, and whose defeat is celebrated in the 
seventh mandala of the Rig-veda.'* 

As regards Mysore, which is included in the Dravidian region, it 
seems not unlikely that the Tudas or Todas of the Nilgiris may be 
representatives of primeval tribes there settled. Not only is their 

' See J. F. Hewitt's " The Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times," from which these 
particulars have been extracted, out of a bewildering maze of detail. " It was in 
this region (the Western Punjab) probably that they (the Aryans) found the first 
enemy of foreign race to themselves, for they mention hostile serpent-worshippers of 
a yellow complexion, and from other sources we learn that very early in history there 
had been movements amongst the light-tinted race of West-Central Asia, that went 
by the generic name of Skythian."— J. A. Baines, General Report on the Census of 
India, 1891, p. 122. 

* See "The Original Inhabitants of Bharata-varsha," by Dr. G. Oppert. 

^ The story is told in Rig-veda, vii., iS, 2,1 (1-6) and 83, and in iii., 33.— Hewitt, 
p. 112. 



TUDAS 2 1 1 

language Old Canarese (modified apparently by the exigencies of their 
present location'), but it is suggestive that they hold sacred the buffalo, 
from which animal Mahishur (Mysore) derives its name. It might even 
be supposed that the legend of the conquest of Mahishasura by 
Chamundi is based on an historical fact, — a victory gained over the 
minotaur ruler of the Mahisha mandala, or buffalo kingdom, by 
adherents of one of the Saktis of Siva, in consequence of which the 
Tudas and other tribes were driven to take refuge in the mountains, 
but that its frequent occurrence as a subject of sculpture in other parts 
seems to indicate that the triumph was an event of wider and more 
national importance. 

The Tudas have excited much interest as a race and as regards their 
origin. It was at one time held by some that they were Skythians, but 
it is now generally admitted that they arc later arrivals than the race by 
whom the ancient monuments were constructed on which a Skythian 
descent was based. 

In the next chapter, however, it will be seen that the ancient history 
of the country leads us back, as one of the earliest known events, to the 
conquest by the Haihayas, presumably a Skytiiian people, of Mahish- 
mati or Mahesvara-pura (in the Central Provinces;, and its subsequent 
recovery by the emperor Sagara, sprung from the ejected native race, 
who thenceforward imposed on the vanquished the stigma of shaving 
their heads in peculiar modes as a mark of subjection. Now not only 
do the Tudas (in common with other supposed aborigines) wear their 
hair unshorn, but it is worthy of note that they are acknowledged as 
lords of the soil by the Kotas, Badagas- and other tribes on the hills, 
also immigrants from Karnata,"'' though of a later date, who pay them 
^i^iidu, kutii or tribute ; and that in virtue of this position the Tudas 
systematically abstain from all labour, unless milking their buffaloes can 
be described as such. 

Another early if not aboriginal race are probably to be found in the 

* The Tildas chiefly converse in the ojien air, calling to each other from one hreezy 
hill top to another. Their speech sounds liUe Old Canarese spoken in the teeth of a 
gale of wind. . . . The language seems to have been originally Old Canarese 
and not a distinct dialect. The Tudas were probably immigrants from the Canarese 
country, and have dwelt on the Nilagiris for al)out Soo (Pat least i,8oo) years. — 
— Dr. I'ojie, Out lines of 7'iida Gram. 

* The liadagas, northerners, are so called from badai^a, the Kannada for north. 

^ Kota may be considered as a very old and very rude dialect of the Canarese, 
which was carried thither (the Nilgiri hills) by a persecuted low-caste tribe al some 
very remote period. . . . The dialect spoken by the Burghers or H;idagas (the 
northern people) is an ancient but organized dialect of Canarese. — Dr. Caldwell, 
■Grain. Drav. Lang., Intro., 37. 

P 2 



2 1 2 ETHNOGRAPHY 

Hale I'aika or I'aiki, of the- Nagar Malnad, and there are some curious 
coincidences between them and the Tudas. Their name is said to be 
derived from hale and /<?>//(vj, meaning Old Foot, as they furnished the 
foot-soldiers and body-guards of former rulers, to whom they were 
noted for their fidelity.^ Considering the locality which they chiefly 
inhabit, we may conjecture that they formed some portion of the so- 
called monkey army which assisted Rama in his expedition against 
Ceylon. A nearly corresponding tribe on the coast north of Honavar 
is called Kumara Paika, the Junior Foot. There is a military tribe in 
Vizagapatam, called Paik.s, who are said to be plainly aboriginal."' 
Also Paiks in Orissa, who call themselves sons of the squirrel, are classed 
among the first Turanian immigrants.'* The principal occupation 
now of the Hale Paiki is the extraction of toddy from the bhagni palm 
{caryoia rtrens), the cultivation of rice land, and of kans or woods 
containing pepper vines ; but they are described as still fond of fire- 
arms, brave, and great sportsmen. In Vastara and in Tuluva (S. 
Canara) they are called Bilvar or bowmen.'' In INIanjarabad they are 
called Devara makkalu, God's children, which seems to support an 
aboriginal claim, and are mande and grama patels. 

Now it is not a little singular that Paiki is the name of the highest 
clan of the Todas, from which alone the pdldl or priests are taken, and 
that the latter style themselves Der mokh, i.e. Devara makkalu, or 
God's children. The viand of the Nilgiris corresponds with the viaude 
of Manjarabad. The Todas, on account of their dark complexion, 
were supposed by Dr. Caldwell to have come from " the eastern or 
sun-burnt side of the range of Ghats." On the other hand "the simi- 
larity of some of their customs to those of the Malayalams and the 
position of their mands, which are mostly in the western uplands of the 
plateau, whilst some are even in the Wainad, seem to lend colour to 
the view that their country lay to the west of the Nilagiris." Whatever 

' The derivation hale pdyika is questionaljle. I have seen hale payaka, which would 
mean "old drinkers," also given as the origin of the word. The occupation of toddy- 
drawing may have suggested the latter. And if the peculiarity which Colonel 
Marshall has remarked in the Todas, that they always keep step in walking — said to 
he very unusual even among trained sepoys when off duty — be common to the hale 
paika, it may have suggested the other. 

^ Macleane, p. 66. ^ Hewitt, p. 192. 

* In connection with the view of Ethiopian affinities in these races, it is curious to 
note that Herodotus in his account of the presents sent by Cambyses to the Ethiopians 
(HI, 20-22) particularly mentions z. f ask of date wine, and that their king, though 
ilistrustful of the other things, was delighted beyond measure with the beverage when 
he was informed how it was obtained. Also that he sent the Persian king a singular 
f>ow in return. The bow figures in some remarkable rites among the Todas. 



KURUBAS 213 

may have been the land of their origin, it seems more Hkely that " a 
race of drovers of semi-amphibious buffaloes gradually pushed forward 
its herds through the rich moist fiats of Wainad to the grassy downs of 
the Nilagiris, than through the dry plains of Coimbatore and Salem. "^ 

Colonel Marshall, in his interesting work on the Todas, says : — " In 
the process of writing of them I have grown to the very strong 
conviction that the people are a surviving sample of some portion of the 
Turanian race when in its very primitive stage. Without much exercise 
of the imagination I can picture them the contemporaries and 
neighbours, even perhaps the ancestors, of races of south-western Asia 
which have made a figure in early history. There is much of the 
' blameless Ethiopian ' about them : soniething of the Jew and 
Chaldean in their appearance." In a note he adds : — " On the eve of 
sending this work to the press I would beg again to urge my belief in 
the connection between the Dravidian Toda and the Ethiop."-' 

Still keeping to the hills, we may probably set down the Kurubas of 
the south-western forests, and the Soligas of the Biligirirangan hills on 
the south-east, as aboriginal tribes. The Kurubas, or Kurumbas, as 
they are there called, extend to the Nilgiri hills, where the Kadagas, 
who attribute to them great powers of sorcery, always at the time of 
ploughing employ a Kuruba to turn the first furrow, which may be 
emblematic of an ancient ownership in the soil, and a sort of acknow- 
ledgment that the Kuruba permits it to be cultivated. It is significant 
too that the Kurubas do not pay giidu or tribute to the Todas as the 
other tribes do. ' 

The Kadu or wild Kurubas of Mysore are divided into Betta or 
Hill Kurubas,-* a small and active race capable of enduring great 
fatigue, who are expert woodmen : and the Jenu or Honey Kurubas, 
said to be a darker and inferior race, who employ themselves in collect- 
ing honey and bees'-wax. Their villages or clusters of huts are called 
hddi. Among their peculiar customs, a separate hut or chdvadi is set 
apart in which the unmarried females of the hddi sleep at night, and 
another at the other extremity of the hadi for the unmarried males ; 
both being under the supervision of the headman of the tribe. They 
are their own barbers, bits of broken glass doing duty for razors. 
Strangers are not allowed to enter a hadi with shoes on. In cases of 
death, adults only are cremated; children are buried. The Betta 

• Grigg's " Manual of ihc Nilagiri District," ch. ix. 
^ " A Phrenologist among the Todas," p. 4. 

^ Breeks, "The Trimitive Triljes and Monmnents of the Nilagiris." 

* There are also sul)divisions called Ane (elephant), Bevina (from bi'vii, the neem- 
tree), and Koiji (firebrand) Kurubas. 



2 1 4 ETJIXOGRAPII Y 

Kurubas worship forest deities called Nonili and Mastaiunia, and are 
said to be revengeful, but if treated kindly will do willing service. The 
J«?nu Kurubas never own or cultivate land for themselves, nor keep 
livestock of their own. Both classes are expert in tracking wild 
animals, as well as skilful in eluding pursuit by wild animals acci- 
dentally encountered. Their children when over two years old move 
about freely in the jungle.^ 

The Iruliga of the forest tracts in the eastern Districts, seem to be 
another tribe closely resembling the Jenu Kurubas, and engaged in the 
same pursuits. Their name is said to be derived from irul, night, 
indicating the blackness of their hue. Buchanan mentions that they 
called themselves Chensu, the name of well-known wild tribes in the 
Madras country. The Soligas are a very secluded race. They speak 
Old Canarese, and are remarkable for their keenness of sight, and skill 
in tracking wild animals. The tribes of Hasulas and Maleyas, who 
somewhat resemble them, are met with along the Ghats on the western 
frontier. But these appear to be immigrants from South Canara, and 
speak Tulu. They collect cardamoms and other wild products for their 
employers, whose agrestic slaves they have virtually become. They live 
in small isolated huts, which, in the case of the Hasulas, are provided 
not only with the usual principal entrance by which to crawl in, but 
also with a half-concealed hole in the rear, through which the shy 
inmates steal out into the jungle at the merest suspicion of danger or 
on the approach of a stranger. Their religion seems to be devil- 
worship. ^^'hen a person dies, his spirit is supposed to have been 
stolen by some one else's devil, who is pointed out by the astrologer 
after divination by throwing cowries or rice. The heir or relation of the 
deceased then redeems the spirit by offering a pig, fowl or other gift, and 
it is caused to take up its abode in a pot, which is periodically supplied 
with water and nourishment. - 

The Korachas, Koramas, or Koravas, a numerous wandering tribe, 
who carry salt and grain from one market to another by means of large 
droves of cattle and asses, and also employ themselves in making 
bamboo mats and baskets, appear to have an affinity with aboriginal or 
early naturalized tribes. The mode in which the men wear their hair, 
gathered up into a large knot or bunch on one side of the top of the 
head, exactly resembles what we see in the sculptured figures on various 
stone monuments. The women, again, may be known by numerous 
strings of small red and white glass beads and shells worn round the 
neck and falling over the bosom. In the depths of the forest they are 

' Report on the Mysore Census of 1S91, pp. 226^ - lb. p. 230. 



HOLAYAS 215 

even said to dispense with more substantial covering. This also accords 
with the ancient practice illustrated in numerous bas-reliefs. For 
women, as there represented, are commonly arrayed in nothing more 
than rows of ornamental chains and jewellery, pendent from the throat 
and loins — an attire, if such it may be called, worthy of the Age of 
Innocence ; and becoming enough, it may be, on the golden-olive and 
nut-brown tints, that scarce reveal a blush, of Nature's vesture for the 
fair of these climes. 

The Koravas in Chutia Nagpur are described as Kolarians,^ and such 
those in Mysore may be by origin. They are here credited with strong 
thieving propensities. One section is called Dabbe (split bamboo), and 
consists no doubt specially of mat-makers. It would appear as if some 
reminiscence of a custom like coirrade lingered among the Koravas, for 
it is said that when a woman is confined, her husband takes medicine 
for her.- They live in small camps of movable wicker huts, which are 
sometimes stationary for a time near large towns, but are often removed 
from place to place daily. 

Descending to the interior, we find an out-caste race, the Holayas, 
whose name may be derived from hola, a field,'' occupying a quarter 
of their own, called the Hola-geri, outside every village boundary hedge. 
They are the Chandilla of Sanskrit writers ; and are the representatives 
of the Bala-gai or right-hand faction, of which an account will be found 
further on. "As a body they are the servants of the ryots, and are 
mainly engaged in tending the plough and watching the herds. But 
one of this despised order is generally the priest to the village goddess, 
and as such, on that annual day when all hasten to pay their offerings 
at her shrine, takes precedence of the twice-born Brahman."^ 

The ioti or kulavddi (he who directs the ryots), always a Holaya, 
is a recognized and indispensable member of every village corporation. 
In his official position he is the village policeman, the beadle of the 
village community, the headman's henchman ; but in the rights and 

' Hewitt, p. 47. " The old traditions make no distinction between the dark races, 
if indeed there were any. Philology indicates a fairly well-marked distinction between 
the languages of the tribes of the central belt, and groups one section, mainly that to 
the southward, under the head of Dravidian, and the other under a title which has 
remained, for want of a better, in its primitive and not very correct form of Kolarian. 
Physiolog)-, however, has been busy amongst these tribes, and discovers no trace of 
distinction between the two groups." — Baines, p. 123. 

'■' Mys. Cen. Rep., p. 226. 

3 But the Brahmans call them Iloleyas, which they derive from hole, impure. 

^ This and following particulars are taken from a paper by Captain Mackenzie on 
tlie " Kulavadi of the Hassan District." — Ind. Aiil., II., 65. 



2 1 6 ETHNOGRAPHY 

privil Clot's wliirli yil cling to him wc get glim[).sc.s of his former estate, 
mul fnid proofs that the Holayar were the first to establish villages. All 
the castes unhesitatingly admit that the kulavacli is {de jure) the owner 
of the village. If there is a dispute as to the village boundaries, the 
kuLivddi is the only one competent to take the oath as to how the 
boundary ought to run, and to this day a village boundary dispute is 
often decided by this one fact — if the kulavadis agree, the other inhabi- 
tants of the village can say no more. Formerly, when a village was first 
established, a large stone, called karu kailu, was set up within it. To 
such stones the patel once a year makes an offering, but the kulavadi, 
after the ceremony is over, is entitled to carry off the rice, &c., offered, 
and in cases where there is no patel, the kujavadi performs the 
ceremony. 

But what seems to prove strongly that the Holaya was the first to 
take possession of the soil is, that the kulavadi receives, and is entitled 
to receive, from the friends of any person who dies in the village a 
certain burial fee, or, as it is forcibly put, " they buy from him the ground 
for the dead." This fee is still called in Canarese 7ie/a hdga} In 
Manjarabad, the ancient Balam, the kujavadi does not receive this fee 
from those ryots who are related to the headman. Here the kulavadi 
occupies a higher position ; he has in fact been adopted into the patel's 
family, for on a death occurring in such family the kulavadi goes into 
mourning by shaving his head. He always receives from the friends 
the cloths the deceased wore, and a brass basin. 

The kulavadi, however, has to pay an annual tax, consisting of 
one fowl, one hana (4 annas 8 pie), and a handful of rice, to the agent 
of the Sudugadu Sidda or lord of the burning grounds, who resides 
somewhere in the Baba Budan hills and is of the Gangadikara ^^'ok- 
kaliga caste. 

Traditions, whose authenticity there seems no reason to doubt, are 
preserved, as elsewhere related, of an early Jain immigration, perhaps 
in the 4th century B.C., from Ujjayini and the north ; also of the 
introduction in the 3rd or 4th century a.d. of Brahmans, the pro- 
genitors of the Haiga or Havika Brahmans of the Nagar country, from 
Ahichchhatra in Panchala or Rohilkhand, by one of the Kadamba 
kings ; - of the attempt of the king of the Chandalas above the Ghats to 

' From iiehi, the ground, and h(iga, a small coin (worth one anna two pie). 

' The Haiga Brahmans seem to be of pure race and of no bastard or doubtful 
caste. They are described as very fair, with large eyes and aquiline noses, a descrip- 
tion which would imply for them a derivation from an uncorrupted and little inter- 
mixed northern source. — Campbell, Ethtwl. India^ 74. 



POPULATION 217 

form a matrimonial alliance with a Kadamba princess, his consequent 
death by treachery and the loss of his kingdom, into which the 
Brahmans under the new rulers gained admission. In the south we have 
evidence that in the 3rd and 4th centuries the (ianga kings were 
extending their sway over Mysore, and this seems to have been accom- 
panied by a gradual setting aside of the predominant Jain influence by 
that of Brahmans. The Chola invasions of the nth century introduced 
a large Tamil influence. In the east and north, wc may suppose that 
under the Mauryas and the Pallavas, up to the 6th century. Buddhistic 
influences would be chiefly at work, and settlers from the Telugu 
countries attracted into Mysore. The progress of events as related in 
the next chapter will suggest the circumstances under which the 
population was probably recruited by Kongas, Reddis, Woddas and 
other tribes. 

As far back as the loth century we lind two great territorial divisions, 
namely, Gangavadi, occupying the southern and central parts of the 
country, and Nonambavadi the northern. The correspondence of 
names shows that in the Gangadikara and Nonaba Wokkaligas, who 
form, especially the first, so large a proportion of the agricultural class, 
we have the descendants of the subjects of those provinces. The advent 
of Muhammadan and Mahratta immigrants can without much difficulty 
be assigned to the right time, and that of Europeans is well known. 
The vicissitudes through which the country has passed will prepare us 
to find a great admixture of castes and people. Accordingly, no fewer 
than 112 different names of castes and 382 recognized subdivisions 
occur in the last Census Report for 1891. The number of sub- 
divisions actually returned, however, is stated to have been no less 
than 864. 



POPULATION 

The first census was taken in 1 840-1 and the next in 1 85 1-2, since 
which period annual returns were made up until 1871, when a census 
more minute and exact was carried out. The latter indeed may 
probably be considered the only real census obtained by actual enumer- 
ation of the people ; the older khdneshunidri estimates having been 
generally formed, it is believed, by multiplying the ascertained number 
of families by a figure assumed to be the average number of memliers 
composing each. Nevertheless the figures, so far as any are available, 
are not without interest. 



2l8 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



Year. 


Hindus. 


Muhammadanx. 


Others. 


Total. 


I So I 






1,969,493 


1S04 


2,094,359 


77,395 




2,171,754' 


1832 








3,500,000'^ 


1841 








3,050,713 


1851 








3,426,458 


1852 








3,460,696 


1854 








3,501,283 


1855 








3,535,441 


1S56 


3,476,966 


152,611 




3,629,577 


1S57 


3,447,944 


161,160 


... 


3,609,104^ 


1S58 


3,557,110 


181,817 




3,738,927 


1859 


3.621, 723« 


200,500* 




3,822,223 


i860 








3,821,000 


1863 








3,872,209 


1864 








3,895,687 


1865 








4,013,601 


1866 








3,915,721 1 Famine 


1867 


3-724.I78 


172,255 


14,302 


3,910,735/ years. 


1868 








3,909,121 


1869 


3>793,973 


182,654 


29,713 


4,006,340 


1870 


3>839>679 


189,272 


27,815 


4,108,607 



The results of the regular census of 187 1 showed that the population 
must have been under-estimated in the previous valuations.^ But so 
far as these afford any data for calculation, the rate of increase in the 
decade 1841-1851 was i2'3 per cent; in the 9 years 1851-1860 
the rate was ii*5 percent; and in the decade 1860-1870 it was 7*5 
per cent. 



' Excluding Balam and the recently interchanged districts, the number was 202,261. 
A considerable migration took place from the districts allotted to the Xizam into 
Dodballapur and that neighbourhood, but nearly the whole of these persons gradually 
returned after the cession of those provinces to the Company. Many families which 
had emigrated to Baramahal in 1792, when it was ceded to the Company, now returned 
to Mysore. About 200,000 persons also emigrated temporarily from the Mahratta 
country into Mysore, to escape from the famine which prevailed there. 

^ This is printed in the report as 4,500,000, a total which seems so manifestly 
wrong that I have taken the liberty of altering the first figure. 

'^ The decrease is explained as due to the omission of the island of Seringapatam. 

* Approximate. 

* Writing in 1804, Col. Wilks has the following remarks on the estimate of 
population at that period : — " I am induced to suspect some error in one of the 
computations, notwithstanding the frequency in Mysore of that most fatal source of 
depopulation, the presence of a Mahratta army. The usurpation of Haidar All may 
be considered as complete in 1760 ; at that time many of the districts were permanently 
occupied by Mahratta troops. Gopal Rao Hari invaded Mysore in the same year. 
It was again invaded by Bani \'isaji Pandit in 176 1 ; by Madhu Rao in 1765, 1767 
and 1770 ; by Tryambak Rao in 1771 ; by Raghunatha Rao in 1774 ; by Hari Pant 
Purkia in 1776 and 1786; and lately I have investigated on the spot and examined 



CENSUS TOTALS 



219 



7'he following table shows the total male and female population, and 
the total in each District, as found by the census of 187 1, compared 
with the numbers of the previous estimate : — 



District.' 



Bangalore 
Kolar ... 
Tumkur 
Mysore 
Hassan 
Shimoga 
Kadur ... 
Chitaklroog 

Total 



Estimated Population of 

1869-1870. 



Actual Number as per General 
Census of 1871. 



Increase 
'percent. 



Male.*;. 



356,241 
274,859 
251,029 
400,537 
320,373 
234,167 

137,593 
203,069 



Females. 



303.162 
251,601 
245.034 
362,922 
272,428 
196,053 
124,229 
175,310 



Total. 



659.403! 
526,460 
496,063 

763,459 
592,801 
430,220 
261,822 
378,379 



Males. 



Females. Total. 



414,543 
309,685 

315.440 
467,562 

328,324 
258,446 

170,337 
271,587 



413,811 
309,269 

316,799 
475,625 
340,093 
240,530 
163,588 
259,773 



828,354 
618,954 
632,239 
943,187 
668,417 
498,976 
333,925 
531,360 



2,177,8681,930,7394,108,60712,535,9242,519,4885,055,412 



25-6 
17-6 
27-5 
307 
12-8 
i6-o 
27-6 
40-4 

23-0 



Since the general census of November 1871 a general census has 
been taken on two occasions, one on the night of the 17th February 
rSSi, and the other on the night of the 26th February 1891, syn- 
chronous with the general census of all India on those dates. The 
results of the three may be exhibited as follows : — 



Year. 


Males. Females. 

; 


Total. 


Difference 
per cent. 


No. per 
square mile. 


' 1871 
1881 
1891 


2,535,924 2,519,488 
2,085,842 2,100,346 

2,483,451 2,460,153 

1 


5,055,412 
4,186,188 
4,943,604 


- I7'i9 
+ 18-09 


172-5 
142-8 
168-6 



the traces of the merciless ravages committed in 1 791 and 1792 by I'arasuram Bhao. 
In consequence of these incessant calamities, many districts formerly well-peopled do 
nt)t exhibit the vestige of a human being ; and Chitaldroog District in particular may 
be considered as deprived of the great mass of its inhabitants. 

The word valsH is applied to the inhabitants of a district who, deserting their homes 
on the approach of a hostile predatory force such as that of the Mahrattas, migrate 
en masse to another part of the country or to inaccessible woods and hills until the 
departure of the enemy. And no testimony could be more emphatic to a state of 
habitual misery than the existence, in all the languages of the south, of this single 
term to describe what cannot be expressed in any European language but by a long 
circumlocution." 

' The limits of the several Districts have i)een subject to alterations since, and do 
not therefore exactly coincide with the existing limits, though the names are the 
.same. 



220 ETIINOGRAPJIY 

The decrease which took place in the decennial period 187 1 to 1881 
was due to the great famime of 1877 and 1878. (The present popula- 
tion is somewhat greater than that of Ireland — 4,704,750 in 1891.) 

The distribution of the population by districts is as follows : — 



District. 


Approximate 
Area. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


No. per 
square 
mile. 


Percentage 
to total. 


Bangalore ... 


3,081 


399.486 


403.508 


802,994 


260 


16-24 


Kolar 


3.433 


297.655 


293.375 


591,030 


175 


11-96 


Ti'imkur 


4,367 


291.133 


289,653 


580,786 


133 


11-75 


jMy.sore 


5,078 


580,737 


601,077 


1,181,814 


232 


23-90 


Has.san 


2,603 


255.044 


259,908 


514.952 


197 


10-42 


Shimoga 


4,048 


275.884 


252,097 


527.981 


130 


10-68 


Kadur 


2,685 


173,922 


156,141 


330,063 


123 


6-67 


Chitaldroog... 

. 


4,010 


209,590 


204,394 


413.984 


103 


8-38 



The classification of the people according to the main heads of 
religious belief gives the following results : — 



Class. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


1 Percentage. 

1 


Hindus 

Jains 

Muhammadans 
Christians ... 
Others (Parsi, Sikh, Brahmo) 


2,324,499 
7,116 

131.473 
20,306 

57 


2,314,605 

6,162 

121,500 

17,829 

57 


4,639,104 

13,278 

252,973 

38,135 

114 


93 '84 
-27 

5-II 
•77 


Total 


2,483,451 


2,460,153 


4,943,604 


1 



Compared with the similar table for 187 1 it appears that Hindus have 
diminished by 1-25 per cent., while Muhammadans have increased by 
•98, and Christians by '27, which together exactly make up the 
difference. It should however be taken into account that the total 
population in the same period fell by 2-5 per cent. 

Hindus. — Under the term Hindu have been included all natives of 
this part of India who do not properly come under one of the other 
headings. The Hindus are nominally divided into four castes, which 
are entirely separate from each other, and between whom no connection 
by marriage or otherwise is permitted. The distinction is complete in 
every sense, hereditary and personal, and it is impossible for any 
member of these castes to be other than what his birth made him, 
unless indeed he should transgress some law binding on his particular 
caste beyond the possibility of pardon or expiation. In such a case the 



CASTE 221 

punishment is expulsion from the community or loss of caste, when the 
unfortunate individual becomes contemptible in the eyes of all, and his 
place henceforth is amongst the lowest Pariahs, the dregs of Hindu 
society. Even the most despised caste would decline to admit him on 
terms of social equality, even though he had been originally one of the 
heaven-born Brahmans. The first or highest caste is the Brahman or 
priestly class ; the second the Kshatriya or military class ; the third is 
the Vaisya class, composed of husbandmen and merchants ; and the 
fourth is that of the Siidras, and comprehends artisans, labourers and 
agriculturists.^ Besides these there are many castes unrecognized by 
the four grand divisions, whose manners and customs are governed by 
laws of their own, and who are as exclusive in their way as any of the 
four above mentioned. 

Caste," originally called vartja, colour, but now more usually Jdti, 
I)irth, was doul)tless at first a distinction of race based on difference of 
complexion, and intended to prevent degeneration from intermixture 
of the fair-skinned Aryan conquerors with the dark-skinned earlier 
settlers, or the black aboriginal tribes. The tradition of the common 
origin of the four pure castes or tribes from the head, arms, thighs, and 
feet of Brahma, points to them collectively as forming eventually one 
nation, each class distinguished from the others by reason of its 
occupation, which was probably hereditary. But numerous other 
mixed castes were always found among the great body of the popula- 
tion. The statements in Manu suffice to show that endless ramifica- 
tions had taken place in his time through intermarriages of different 
castes, and he assigns separate names to an enormous number of new 
castes that sprang from these connections. " Indeed, it is evident that 
some of the lowest castes, perhaps many, were in part derived from the 
highest," says Mr. Sherring, who also writes :— " Had the creation of 
new castes continued to be made in succeeding ages with the same 
ease and rapidity as they were in these earlier times, it is plain that the 
caste system would have destroyed itself, in two ways, — first, by the 
multiplication of new castes throughout the land, and, secondly, by the 
intermarriages of all the castes. The increased strictures imposed upon 
the castes, especially upon the primary ones, and the prohibition of 
irregular marriages — that is, of marriages of members of one caste with 

' Strong opposition was manifested on the part of certain classes in the census of 
1891 to be graded among Sudras, accompanied with strenuous efforts to be included 
among Brahmans. 

- From casta, Portuguese for race or breed. According to a passage in the Maha 
Hharata, the colour of Brahmans is white, of Kshatriyas red, of \'aisyas yellow, of 
Sudras black. 



3 2 2 E THNO GRAPH Y 

mcnihcTs of another, — gave in later years strength and vitality to a 
system which otherwise must soon have become extinguished. At 
what epoch this fundamental change in its constitution was made is not 
known." ' 

In Mysore the various castes are probably as numerous as in any 
other part of India of equal extent. The natives of the Province, by a 
fanciful arrangement, recognize loi as the limit to the total number, 
but in the enumerators' forms of the recent census it was found that 864 
castes had been returned, more than double the number given in 1871. 
Some of these, though returned in different localities under different 
names, doubtless belonged originally to the same stock. A few families 
or individuals probably separated from the main body, and having 
removed to another part of the country, either adopted a new name or 
were given one by their neighbours. There is every reason to believe 
that in some similar manner the number of castes is even now con- 
stantly increasing. Disputes arise, and the caste divides into two 
factions, each headed by some influential man or family ; they refuse 
to associate with each other or to intermarry, and unless in a short 
time some common interest compels the parties to re-unite, a separate 
caste or sub-division is permanently formed, which adopts some 
peculiarity of its own to distinguish it from the original. 

The agricultural, artisan and trading communities are termed patjas 
or professions, which are eighteen in number. These paiias are divided 
into two factions, called Bala-gai and Yeda-gai, or right and left hands. 
A large number of castes belong to one or other of these divisions. 
All Brahmans, Kshatriyas, and most of the Siidras are considered 
neutral. Although the right- and left-hand factions are said to include 
only eighteen trades, there are many castes which adhere to one side 
or the other, but their numbers do not seem to be taken into 
account. 

The following are the castes composing the two factions : — 



A'4 


^ht-hand Faction. 


Left-hand Faction. 




Banajiga ... 

Wokkaliga 

Ganiga 


Traders. 
... Cultivators. 
... Oilmen who yoke 
only one bullock 


Panchala, com 
Badagi ... 
Kanchugara 


prising : — 
... Carpenters. 
... Copper or 
smiths. 


brass 




to the mill. 


Kammara 


Iron smiths. 




Rangare . . 
Lada 


. . . Dyers. 

... Mahratta traders. 


Kal-kutiga 
Akasale... 


Stone-masons 
... (Goldsmiths. 


, and 


Gujarati ... 


... Gujarat merchants. 









» Hindu Tribes and Castes, Intro, xvii. Gotamiputra Satakarni, who reigned in 
the second century, is said, in an inscription at Nasik, to have prevented the mi.xing 
of the four castes {varna). — Arch. Siirv. W. Ind., iv., 109. 







PANAS 


223 


Kaniati 


Lalxjurers. 




Bheri 


A class of Xagarta 


Jaina 


... Jain traders. 






traders. 


Kuril ha 


Shepherds. 




Devanga 


Weavers. 


Kumliara ... 


Potters. 




Hegganiga 


Oilmen who yoke 


Agasa 


... Washermen. 






two bullocks to 


Besta 


I'ishermen or 


Pa- 




the mill. 




lanquiii l)earers. 


(jolla or Dhanapala 


Cowherds who 


Padmasdle 


... A class of weavers. 




transport money. 


Nayinda ... 


Barbers. 




Beda 


Hunters. 


Up]iara 


Salt-makers. 




Yakula 


Cultivators. 


Chitragara 


Painters. 




Pa]li or Tigala 


Market gardeners. 


Golla 


. . . Cowherds. 




Madiga, the lowest 


eft -hand caste. 


Holeya, the 


lowest right-hand caste. 









The Banajigas and Linga Banajigas are the foremen of the right- 
hand faction. They say that all the eighteen pauas or professions 
enumerated above belong to them, and that the nine pa/jas of the left- 
hand are separate. The Panchalas and Nagartas, who are at the head 
of the left-hand faction, contend that the eighteen paiias are equally 
divided between the two factions, and that the nine above enumerated 
belong to them. In the main it is evidently a struggle for precedence 
between the artisans and the traders, or between followers of the old- 
established handicrafts and innovators who brought in the exchange of 
commodities with other parts, supported by producers and ministers to 
luxury. It has been found impossible to obtain a uniform, authentic, 
and complete list of the castes composing each faction, but the state- 
ment above is only doubtful in the case of one or two of the inter- 
mediate castes, and perhaps Komatis should take the place of Jains, 
and Toreya that of Yakula. The works referred to as authorities are 
Sahyddri Khanda and Ellcsa-vijaya, both said to be of the time of the 
rise of Vijayanagur in the fourteenth century, but the information has 
not been found in the former, and the latter work is not forthcoming. 

The origin of the distinction between the two divisions is founded 
on fable,' and is said to have taken place at Conjeveram, where the 
goddess Kali placed certain castes on her right hand and others on 
her left. The two parties have ever since disputed as to the relative 
honour accorded to each side. The division appears to be of compara- 
tively modern origin, as no mention of it has been found in any ancient 
work.- It is, moreover, confined entirely to the south of India. Each 



' There is also a right- and left-hand division of Sakti worshijipers, the rites of the 
former being principally magical, of the latter bloody and licentious. But there 
.seems to be no connection between the cases. 

- There is indeed a doubtful passage in the Mahawaitso which may be sujijioscd to 
refer to it, and if so, the institution would seem to be of great antiipiity. When the 
Pandya princess was sent from Madura to Ceylon, in response to an embassy from 



224 ETJfNOGRAPHY 

parly insists on ils exclusive rights to certain privileges on all public 
festivals and ceremonies, and it not unfrequently happens that one side 
usurps the supposed and jealously guarded rights of the other. On 
such occasions a faction fight is almost sure to ensue. Cases are 
recorded where the carrying of an umbrella, or wearing particular 
coloured flowers in the turban, has given rise to severe outbreaks 
accompanied by bloodshed. The opposition between the two divisions 
is still kept up, but apparently not with the same bitterness as in former 
times. In fact some of the castes seem in the late census to have been 
averse to own themselves as belonging to either hand, preferring to 
admit adhesion only to the eighteen pana or the nine pana, while over 
100,000 made no return at all in the matter. The figures actually 
obtained were, 1,693,461 as belonging to the eighteen pana (the right- 
hand), and 503,439 as belonging to the nine pana (the left-hand). 

The right-hand claim the exclusive privilege of having twelve pillars 
in the panda I or shed under which their marriage ceremonies are 
performed (allowing to the left only eleven) ; of riding on horse- 
back in processions, and of carrying a flag painted with the figure of 
Hanuman.i 

The two factions are also styled Desa and Pete (in some places 
Nadu). The reason given is that Linga Banajigas, who are at the head 
of the right-hand division, not being original natives of the place, were 
called Desavalas or outsiders, and the others Pete or Naduvalas. 

In the recent census of 1891 the old caste gradation has been set 
aside in favour of classifications according to occupation, and, as 
regards Hindus, according to the numerical importance of the castes. 
The results of the former are given under the following prescribed 
heads : — 

Class of Occupation 
A Agricultural 
B Professional 
C Commercial 
D Artisan and Village menial 
E Vagrant minor Artisans and Performers, &c. 

Races and nationalities 

Others, not stated ... 

The following is a different return of occupations based on sources of 
livelihood. Of the total number set down as thus supporting them- 
selves the actual workers or bread-winners form only 34 '2 7 per cent, 
the remainder being dependants, chiefly women and children : — 

king \'ijaya soliciting her hand in marriage, she is said (according to one version) to 
have been accompanied by a thousand members of the eighteen castes and five dif- 
ferent classes of workmen. ' For caste insignia, see Ind. Ant. iv, 345. 



Numbers 


Percentage 


1,665,442 


33 "69 


290,704 


5-88 


470,570 


9-52 


i>877.94i 


37-99 


344.055 


6-96 


291,168 


5-89 


3.724 


0-07 



OCCUPATIONS 



225 



Class of Occupation 


Males 


Females 


Total 


PercentaKC 


Government 


122,327 . 


.. 113,838 . 


236,165 


... 477 


Pasture and Agricul- 










ture 


1,685,445 ■ 


.. 1,630,55s . 


.. 3,316,003 


... 67-07 


Personal service 


55.182 . 


54,157 • 


•• 109,339 


... 2 '2 1 


I'reparation of ma- 










terial sulxstances . 


221,819 • 


212,610 . 


■■ 434,429 


... 878 


Commerce, Transport 










and Storage 


90,094 . 


87,284 . 


•• 177,378 


- 3-58 


Professions ... 


40,187 . 


39,825 . 


80,012 


.. i-6i 


Indefinite and Inde- 










pendent 


268,397 . 


321,881 . 


• 590,278 


.. 1 1 -92 



Analysis of the preceding table into the various prescribed orders 
supplies the following further information. The actual number of 
separate occupations is 634. To the percentage of each on the 
population of the State has been added, for comparison, the percentage 
of similar occupations in British India : — ■ 





Total 


Percen 


age in 




Total 


Percentage in 






Mysore 


India 






Mysore 


India 


Government — 








Metals and 








Administra- 








Precio u s 








tion 


213.751 • 


• 4-32 -. 


1-95 


Stones . . . 


73,602.. 


• 1-49 •• 


133 


Defence 


22,233.. 


• 0-45 .. 


0-23 


Glass and 








Service of 








Earthen - 








other States 


181 . 


• " - 


o-i8 


ware 
Wood and 


27,421 . 


• 0-55.. 


0-S2 


I'asture and 








Cane 


33.I77-- 


. 0-67... 


1-50 


Agriculture — 








Gums, Drugs 








Live Stock 


23,106 . 


. 0-47.. 


1-27 


and Dyes 


2,843.. 


0-06... 


0-14 


Agriculture 3,292,897 . 


.66-61.. 


5979 


Leather 


24,459 •• 


• 0-49... 


I-I4 


Personal Ser- 








Commerce, 








vice — 








Transport and 








Domestic & 








Storage — 








Sanitary ... 


109,339 ■■ 


. 2-21 ... 


3'9i 


Commerce 
Transport 


160,967 .. 


3-26... 


1-63 


l'rc]>aration of 








and Storage 


16,411 .. 


• 0-33... 


I 38 


Materials — 








Professions — 








Food and 








Learned and 








Drink .. 


62,819.. 


. 1-27... 


5-07 


Artistic ... 


76,980.. 


1-56... 


1-97 


Light and 








Sport and 








Fuel 


23,188.. 


. 0-47... 


1-23 


Amuse- 








Buildings ... 


30,508 .. 


. 0-62 .. 


0-50 


ments 


3.032.. 


006... 


005 


Vehiclesand 








Indefinite and 








Vessels ... 


862.. 


0-02 ... 


0-05 


Independent — 








Supplemen - 








U nskilled 








tary articles 


10,057.. 


. 0-20... 


0-40 


Labour . . . 


493.67S.. 


9-99... 


8-87 


Textile Fa- 








Undefined 


2,826.. 


o-o6 ... 


0-54 


brics and 








Independent 








Dress 


145.493 •• 


2-94... 


4-39 


of work ... 


93,774 


. I -90 . . . 
Q 


1-66 



226 



E THNOGRAPHY 



A supplementary table shows the nuinl)ers of those who combine with 
their hereditary occupations a certain amount of land cultivation : — 





No 


Per cent 


novernnient 


8,333 


... 247 


Pasture .ind Agri- 






ciillure 


317 


I "O 


Personal service ... 


3,583 


... IO-6 


Preparation of ma- 






terials 


13,100 


... 38-9 



No Per cent 

Commerce .. ... 2,138 ... 6"i 

I'rofessions 1,706 ... 4'8 

Indefinite and Inde- 
pendent 4,657 ... I3'9 



Total ... 33,834 



The classification of the main Hindu castes according to numerical 
strength yields the following results, the percentage to the total popu- 
lation being also shown in the case of those above 100,000. The 
capital letters indicate the class of occupation as contained in the first 
table above : — 



Wokkaliga A .. 
Holeya ... D 
Lingayita ABC 
Kuril ba ... D 
Madiga D 



Over 100,000. 



1,341,849 . 

- 520,493 • 

483,159 • 

• 349,037 • 

• 239,575 . 



.. 27-14 


.. 10-51 


.. 9-77 


.. 7-06 


.. 4-84 



Beda 

Brahmana 
Golla 
Banajiga .. 
Wodda . . 



217,128 . 

183,541 
128,995 • 

114,735 
107,203 . 



4-39 
371 
2 60 
2-32 
2-16 



Besta ... 
Akkasale 
Uppara 



50,000 to 100,000. 

D ... 99,897 I Xeyigara 
D ... 98,181 I Agasa 
D ... 89,123 I Tigala . 



85,671 
56,710 



20,000 to 50,000. 



Marata... 
Kumbara 
I'diga .. 
I.ambani 
Nayinda 



44,446 
40,809 
39,937 
39,137 
37,296 



Ganiga 

Komati 

Koracha 

Xagarta 

Kshatriya 



35,8oS 
29,054 

24,494 
22,964 

21,795 



Satani ... 



10,000 to 20,000. 
19,987 I Darji .. 



10,664 



Rachevar 

Jogi 
Badagi . . . 



Meda 
Domba 
Lada 
Goniga 



A B D E 

... E 

D 



5,000 to 10,000. 

9,554 Xatuva 

9,410 

8,646 



Kammara 
.Mudali 



1,000 to 5,000. 

4,261 Bhat Raju . 

2,500 I Da.sari ... 

2,046 I Iruliga 

1,426 ' Budabudike. 



B ... 


7,476 


D ... 


6,250 


C ... 


5,437 


B . 


■ 1,388 


B . 


■ 1,178 


B . 


• 1,156 


E . 


. 1,092 



KSHATRIYA 



227 







Below 


1,000. 










Garudiga 


E 


.. 876 




Giijarati 


C 






71 


Mochi... 


D 


.. 746 




Sudugadusidda ... 


E 






46 


Sannyasi 


B 


.. 684 




Baniya 


C 






41 


I'ille ... 


A 


■• 559 




Gondaliga 


E 






29 


Gosayi 


B 


•• 424 




Marvadi 


C 






21 


Kanchugara ... D 


•• 396 




Pandaram 


E 






15 


Jalagara 


D 


.. 258 




Uriya 


A 






8 


Bairagi 


B 


222 




Karma 


E 






7 


Monda 


E 


.. 189 




Kayast 


B 






6 


Xayar . . . 


A 


.. 117 




Saniyar 


E 






3 


Kanakkan 


B 


108 




Multani 


C 






2 


Sillekyata 


E 


• 93 




Jat 


C 






I 


The totals 


of these gro 


Lips may 


be thus stated, showing 


the 


number 


of castes under each and tl 


le percenta 


ge to the total Hindi 


I popul 


ation: — 










Total 




Per 


cent 


10 castes 


of over 100, oc 


)0 




3,685,715 




79-50 




6 „ 


50,000 to I 


DO.OOO 




516,568 




II 


13 




10 ,, 


20,000 to 5 


0,000 




335.740 




7-24 




2 ,, 


10,000 to 2 


0,000 




30,651 







66 




6 „ 


5,000 to 10 


,000 




46,773 




I 


00 




8 „ 


1,000 to 5.( 


XX) ... 




15,047 







32 




24 


l)elo\v 1, 00c 


) 




4,9^2 







10 





The classes contained in the first table of occupation are subdivided 
into certain groups, and the different castes may be described in the 
order in which they fall under these heads. 

In the Agricultural class (A) the first group is called " military and 
dominant," and comprises Kshatriya, Mahratta and Rachevar. 

Kshatriya. — The total number is 21,824, composed principally of 
12,287 Kshatriyas, 7,895 Rajputs, and 1,629 Rajapinde. Under the 
first occur the following subdivisions, — Bais, Bintakiir, Bondili, Dhatri, 
Govar, Kamsi, Kotari, Rajakula, Raju (Kanda, Kannada and Mopiir). 
The Rajput tribes are, — Cham, Chandrabansi, Chhattri, Chavan, 
Hindustani, Rajput Gauda, Rohila, Singh, Salar, Surajbansi, Thakih- 
(Chandra, Dekal, Gaya, Gaharvariya and Nava), Talukhandiya and 
Tamboli. Under Rajapinde are included Arasu, Bada Arasu, and 
Komarapatta. There are also 1 2 Kodaga or Coorgs. The distribution 
in the Districts is as follows : — 





i 










c; 




^ 









3 


t 




bO 







Caste. 


n 

c 

n 





3 




S 

3,740 


I 
I, .347 


i 

tn 
1.205 


•0 ' 
a 


2 


Kshatriya 


2,455 


783 


898 


1,450 


410 


Kajpiit ... 


1,857 


947 


990 


1,611 


364 


1,668 


166 


92 


Rajapinde 


30 


68 


92 


1,317 


— 


24 


98 1 




Total 


4,342 


1,798 


1,980 


6,668 


1,711 


2,897 


1. 714 1 


502 



Q 2 



128 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



'I'hc K.shalriyas and Rajputs arc prinf,ii)ally in the army and police. 
The Rnjapinde includes the Arasu, t(; which belongs the Royal family 
of Mysore, and other castes connected with the ruling house. 

Marata, or Mahratta. — There are 44,446 of these, of whom over 
10,600 are in each of the Bangalore and My.sore Districts, 4,640 in 
Kolar, and about 3,000 in each of the other Districts. The sub- 
divisions are said to be,— Khaniya, Baruva, Kine, Kshatrabhanu, 
Lankekdra, Manga, Ravuta, Bhilsa and Kumari ; Kine and Bhusa 
being more numerous than the others. Their principal occupation is 
military service, especially as cavalry and rough riders. But the 
majority have for some time past taken to cultivation and menial ser- 
vice. The Mahrattas are commonly called Are by the Mysore people. 

Rachevar. — Those belonging to the Agricultural class number 3,696, 
including the subdivision of Telugu Rachevar, and 66 Ranagara. More 
than a third are in Mysore District, 870 in Bangalore, half that number 
in Hassan, Kolar, and Tumkur, with 10 in Shimoga. There are no 
Rachevar in Chitaldroog, but it has 15 Ranagara. Both claim a royal 
connection. 

The second agricultural group is the most important one of Cul- 
tivators, and contains 128,168 Lingayita, 1,342,882 Wokkaliga, and 
56,710 Tigala, distributed as shown below, with 117 Nayar,^ nearly all 
in the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore, and 559 Pille,^ mostly in 
Mysore, Kolar, and Bangalore Districts. 



Caste. 


C 

a 

pa 


c 


E 




a 


Shimoga. 
Kadur. 


Chitaldroog. 


Lingayita 
Wokkaliga 
Tigala 


13,194 

225,511 

29,192 


1,421 

163,160 

10,156 


8,971 

179,206 

14,718 


52,264 

325,557 
1,222 


19,260 

171,323 
714 


1 

13,958 9,943 9,157 

135,069 73,496, 69,560 

197 491 20 


Total 


267,897 


174,737202,895 


379,043 


191,297 


149,224 83,930 78,737 



The principal divisions of the Lingdyifa in this class are Gaudamane 
58,487, Malava 795, and Panchachara Cauda 68,886 ; which include 
the subdivisions Gauliga, Gurusthala, Nonaba and Sada. 

Wokkaliga. — In addition to 163,502 returned simply by this name, 
the following are the most important tribes: — Gangadikara 593,205, 
Morasu 131,950 (besides Beral-koduva 8,066), Sada 106,407, Reddi 
(Kodati, Peddakanti, Pakanati, Nerati, Kamme, Honne, and Hema), 
84,653, Kunchatiga 84,504, Nonaba 63,803, Halepaika 15,570, Halu 
14,778, Hallikara 13,492, Telugu 12,316, Vellala (Bellala and Tuluva) 

' Including Achpille, Agamudi and Panan. "^ Including Kajjar and Vellala. 



WOKKALIGA 



229 



9,842, Uppina Kojaga 9,842, Dasa 9,433, ]Musaku 8,754, Falya 4,116, 
Roddugara 3,744, Lalagonda 1,959, Svalpa 899, Nadu 588, Aramudi 
242, Kotegara 218, Yellamakapu 171, Konkaniga 159, Kanesalu 137, 
Totagara 117, Velnati 26. The following subdivisions are not separately 
returned : — A'di, Agni. Agramudi, Aladakapu, Angalika, Bachanige, 
Badagar, Belagude, Belakuvadi, Bhogar, Chittala, Dasavantige, 
(iadakanti, Gausanige or Gosangi, Ghaniya, Hosadevara, Kamawokkal, 
Kannada, Karale, Kariga, Karu, Karukal, Kolama, Koluva, Konda- 
kattc, Konga, Koratakapu, Kottadevarakapu, Kumbi, Kudika-wokkal, 
Kulibedaga, Kunte, Malavaru, Mudali, Musaku, Muttu, Padayachin- 
ayakan, Palayar, Palyakar, Palyagar-gauda, Pamar, Panasakapu, 
Panned, Pelagunda, Pettigesalina, Puda, Punamale, Rayaroddugara, 
Reddi (Anche, Arava, Bellala, Kammadi, Kapu, Kondi, Neita, Raju, 
Tenugu, and Vadaga), Sime, Sirdevara, Sitabhaira, Sole, S'oshya, 
Togata, Tuluva, ^'alasakapu, Valu, Vanta, ^'asudeva, Velama, 
\'irabhadrakapu, \'ellala (Jahala, Lingakatti and Pandya), Yeda- 
yellama, Yalanati, Yalavolu, Yelumaneyavaru. 

The following statement, showing the location of the principal great 
classes in the several Districts, is instructive : — 










3 


«> 


c 




, 





Wokkaliga. 


to 
c 




U5 


c 


>> 






1 
u. 


2 
IS 

u 


(langadikara 


105,284 


519 


64,478 


271,935 


126,443 


9,081 


13,386 


2,089 


Morasii ... 


46,505 


84,263 


997 


21 


138 


22 


4 


— 


Sada ... 


3.367 


4,556 


8,891 


3,078 


4,194 


39,669 


14,664 


27,988 


Reddi 


24,466 


40,267 


1,640 


8,503 


352 


1,014 


355 


8,056 


Kunchatiga 


11,840 


663 


44,231 


3,488 


3,828 


8,082 


1,614 


10,758 


Nonaha ... 


159 


— 


30.654 


2,010 


7,444 


8,552 


11,119 


3,865 


Halepaika 




— 


— 


— 


— 


12,576 


2,994 




Halu 


3 


— 


— 


— 


6,818 


238 


7,719 


— 


IlaHikara 


2,414 


260 


5,148 


2,409 


1 ,399 


935 


802 


125 



The Gangadikdra are the most numerous of the Wokkaligas, being 
over 44 per cent, of the whole number, and purely Kannada. They are 
found principally in the centre and south of the country, and represent 
the subjects of the ancient province of Gangavadi, a Ninety-si.\ Thou- 
sand country, which formed an important part of the Ganga empire. The 
name Gangadikara is a contraction of Gangavadikara. At the present 
day the Gangadikaras are followers some of Siva and some of \'ishnu. 
Of the former some wear the iinga and others not. These sects 
neither eat together nor intermarry. The guru of the Yishnu wor- 
shippers is the head of the Sri-Vaishnava Brahmans, who lives at 
Melukote. In addition to being cultivators, the Gangadikaras act as 
farm labourers and as porters. 



3 30 E THNOGRA PI/ V 

The Morasu are Wokkaligas cliieflyof Kolar and Bangalore Districts. 
They api)car to have been originally immigrants from a district called 
Morasa-nad, to the east of this country, whose chiefs formed settlements 
in the neighbourhood of Nandidroog. The section called Beral-koduva 
(or finger-giving) had a strange custom, which, on account of its 
cruelty, was put a stop to by Government. Every woman of the sect, 
previous to piercing the ears of her eldest daughter preparatory to her 
being lictrothed in marriage, had to suffer amputation of the ring and 
little fingers of the right hand. This was performed, for a regulated 
fee, by the blacksmith of the village, who chopped off the last joint of 
each finger with a chisel. If the girl to be betrothed were motherless, 
the mother of the boy to whom she was to be betrothed was bound to 
submit to the mutilation unless she had already made the sacrifice. 
The story invented to account for this barbarous custom is given in the 
first edition. Since its prohibition the women content themselves with 
putting on a gold or silver finger-stall or thimble, which is pulled off 
instead of the end of the finger itself. The principal sanctuary of the 
Morasu Wokkaligas is at Siti-betta in the Kolar taluq, where there is a 
temple of Virabhadra. 

Of the other large tribes of Wokkaligas, the Sada abound mostly in 
the north and west. They include Jains and Lingayits, Vaishnavas, 
and Saivas. Not improbably they all belonged to the first originally. 
In the old days many of them acted in the Kandachar or native 
militia. They are not only cultivators but sometimes trade in 
grain. The Reddi are chiefly in the east and north, and have numerous 
subdivisions. To some extent they seem to be of Telugu origin, and 
have been supposed to represent the subjects of the ancient Rattavadi, 
or kingdom of the Rattas. 

The Nonaba, in like manner, are relics of the ancient province of 
Nojambavadi or Nonambavadi, a Thirty-two Thousand country, situated 
principally in the Tumkur and Chitaldroog Districts. It is in these 
parts and the west that they are now located. At the present day they 
are by faith Lingayits, the residence of their chief guru being at 
Gandikere, near Chiknayakanhalli. The acknowledged head of the 
Nonabas, though no more than an ordinary cultivator, is the present 
descendant of an original Honnappa Gauda, and named after him : he 
lives at Hosahalli, near Gubbi. 

The Halepaika, inhabiting the north-west, are of interest, and have 
already been described above (p. 212). The Halu Wokkaligas are most 
numerous in Kadur and Hassan Districts. As their name implies, 
they combine the keeping of cows or buffaloes and sale of milk (M/u) 
with other agricultural pursuits. The Hallikara are also largely engaged 



TIG ALA 



:3i 



with cattle, and the breed of their name is the best in the Amrit Malial. 
The Lalagonda, principally confined to Bangalore District, are not only 
farmers, but hirers-out of bullocks, gardeners, builders of mud walls and 
traders in straw, etc. The Vellalas are the most numerous class of 
Wokkaligas in the Civil and Military Station of I^angalore. 

There do not appear to be any peculiarities deserving of notice in 
regard to the numerous other classes of Wokkaligas, who are only 
distinguishable by name. And as in each successive census a good 
many designations returned in the previous one do not recur, it is 
evident that some classes are known by more than one name, and 
probably use different ones on different occasions. 

Tigala. — These arc skilful kitchen and market gardeners, mostly of 
Tamil origin, though they have long lost the use of that language. In 
addition to those called simply by the tribe-name, the following 
principal divisions are noted : — Ulli, Vanne, Pajli, Reddi, Arava, and 
Tota, as well as the subdivisions Agra Vannia, Agni, Brahmarishi, 
Dharmarajukapu, Enneri, (lauda. Hale Tigaja, Halli, Kandapajli, 
Kannada, Pandya, Raja, Samba, Vannikula, and Yanadi. Nearly a 
half are in the Bangalore District, most of the remainder being in 
Tumkur and Kolar. 

The next agricultural group is Forest and other Hill tribes, number- 
ing altogether 67,040. The following are the classes included under 
this head, with their distribution :— 










3 


, 


c 


a 




t 


Caste. 


Banga 


■5 


a 

3 

H 






'.c 




2 


Lambani 


. 1 3,3.5 


751 


2,977 


1,084 


2,846 


14,127 


8,794 


5.243 


Koracha ) 
Korama i 


. I 5.246 


3.414 


2,470 


4,169 


1.437 


4.398 


2,059 


1. 301 


Kail Kuruba 


1 219 


147 


1.450 


400 


45 


— 


8 


— 


Irujiga ... 


1,042 


22 


67 




I 


" 







The Lambani, or I>ambadi, also called Sukali and Brinjari, have the 
following subdivisions : — Banjari, Bhiitya, Dhiimavatpada, Khetavat, 
Ramavatpada, and Sabavat. They are a gipsy tribe that wander about 
in gangs, accompanied by large herds of bullocks, especially in the 
hilly and forest tracts where there are few good roads, engaged in the 
transport of grain and other produce. They first prominently came to 
notice towards the end of the last century, during the Mahralta and 
Mysore wars, when immense numbers of them were employed by the 
armies of both sides as foragers and transporters of supplies required 



2 3 2 ETHNOGRAPH Y 

for the tr()oi)s. ' Of late years many of them have been employed as 
labourers on coffee-estates, and some have even partially abandoned 
their vagrant life, and settled, at least for a time, in villages of their 
own. These, called Thandas, are composed of clusters of their usual 
rude wicker huts, pitched on waste ground in wild places. The women 
bring in bundles of firewood from the jungles for sale in the towns. 

The Lambdnis speak a mixed dialect, called Kutni, largely composed 
of Hindi and Mahratti corruptions. In a police report regarding these 
people, the late Dr. Shortt stated, " that their social system is unique, 
and that they are guided exclusively by their own laws and customs ; 
that each community is governed by a priest, who exacts and receives 
implicit obedience, and who exercises, under the cloak of rehgion and 
supernatural agency, the undisputed power of life and death over them. 
They maintain the closest secrecy regarding their customs, and would 
sooner forfeit life than divulge them. Infanticide, human sacrifice, 
witchcraft and sorcery prevail among the different communities, who 
can recognize one another by masonic signs." 

The women are distinguished by a curious and picturesque dress, 
completely different from that worn by any other class. It consists of 
a sort of tartan petticoat, with a stomacher over the bosom, and a 
mantle, often elaborately embroidered, which covers the head and 
upper part of the body. The hair is worn in ringlets or plaits, hanging 
down each side of the face, decorated with small shells, and terminating 
in tassels. The arms and ankles are profusely covered with trinkets 
made of bone, brass, and other rude materials. The men wear tight 
cotton breeches, reaching a little below the knee, with a waist-band 
ending in red silk tassels, and on the head a small red or white 
turban. 

It appears'- that the Lambanis here have twenty-six clans, and claim 
a descent from one Chada, who left five sons, Mula, M6ta, Nathad, 
Jogda, and Bhimda. Chavan, one of the three sons of Miila, had six 
sons, each of whom originated a clan. At some remote period a 
Brahman from Ajmir married a girl of Chavan's family, and gave rise 
to the Vadtya clan, who still wear the sacred thread. A IMahratta from 
Jotpur, in northern India, also allied himself with Rathol, Chavan's 
brother, and founded the Khamdat clan. There are no descendants 
of ]\I6ta here, but those of Nathad are called INIirasikat, Paradi or 
Vagri, and live by catching wild birds. The Jogdas are Jogis. The 

^ A correspondent from the British camp at that time terms them " the worthy and 
inoffensive Brinjaris." — Cal. Gaz. II, 318. But they are often credited with inborn 
thieving and marauding propensities. 

- According to the last Cen.sus Report (1891). 



KORACHA 233 

lihimdas are itinerant blacksmiths, known as Bail Kammar. There is 
even a class of Lambani outcastes, called Dhalya, who are drummers 
and live separately. They principally trade in bullocks. The 
Lambanis acknowledge the Gosayis as their gurus, and reverence 
Krishna ; also Basava, as representing the cattle that Krishna tended. 
But their principal object of worship is Banashankari, the goddess of 
forests. 

The Koracha and Korama have already been referred to above 
(p. 214). Although virtually the same people, the follow-ing sub- 
divisions are separately noted. For Korachas : Aggada, Dabbe, 
(longadi, Kannada, Telugu, Uppu, Uru. For Koramas : — Bettale, 
Gantu, Gazula, Kannada, Setti, Satubeda, Uppu, ^^'ldda, Yddava, 
Yantumule. For Koravas : — Maval, Palchankoti, Uppu. They 
wander about with large droves of cattle and asses, conveying salt and 
grain from one market to another. They carry with them the frame- 
work of a rude description of hut, and while one part of the tribe 
proceeds with the baggage animals, the others settle for a time in some 
convenient spot, where they erect their huts and employ themselves in 
making mats and baskets, begging and stealing, until their proximity 
becomes a nuisance to the villagers and they are compelled to move 
on. They are described as thieves and robbers from childhood, and 
are frequently associated with Brinjaris and other vagrants in burglaries, 
dacoities, and acts of violence, often escaping detection owing to their 
complete arrangements for obtaining information. They speak Telugu 
and Tamil, and are said to have a peculiar gipsy language of their 
own, with a system of signals which enables them to converse with the 
initiated unobserved. They have no idols to which they pay particular 
homage, and only invoke Tirupati \'enkatramana when in distress, 
vowing small offerings of money to the temple should they escape. 

The men tie up their hair in a large bunch or chignon on one side 
of the top of the head, in precisely the same manner as we find the 
men's hair arranged on most of the old sculptured stones of the 
country. The women wear an immense number of strings of small 
white and red beads and shells round the neck and falling over the 
bosom. 

I'he Kadu Kuruba and Jenu Kuruba have already come under 
notice (above, p. 213), also the Iruliga, who are much like the latter; 
and certain other forest and hill tribes have likewise been referred to. 

We now pass to the Professional class (B), which, under the groups 
of Priests, Devotees, and Temple-servants, includes 277,086 persons, 
distributed as follows, 183,451 being Brahmana, 62,918 Lingayita, 
19,987 Satani, 8,132 Jaina, and 2,508 various devotees. 



234 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



Sect. 


i 

1 




Tumkur. 





c 


Shimoga. 


u 

3 

a 


t 

2 
Is 


Hrahmana 


29,882 


23,930 


17,099 


43,013 


17,151 


29,379 


17,072 


6,015 


Lingayila 


6,577 


3,347 


8,544 


11,990 


8,965 


9,620 


7,094 


7,885 


Sdtaiii 


3,742 


1,937 


3,801 


4,480 


3,660 


682 


989 


696 


Jaina 


359 


876 


1,526 


1,928 


1,246 


422 


1,264 


416 


Dasari, &c. 


381 


629 


413 


302 


167 


232 


220 


«63 





Pancha Drdvida. 




28 


Karnataka or Kannada 


■ 94,329 


- 133 


A'ndhra or Telugu 


• 33,672 


... 2,067 


Dravida or Tamil 


■ 32,853 




Maharashtra or Mahratta 


. 20,087 




Gurjara or Gujarati 


2 



Brahmana. — The Brahmans throughout India, with a few excep- 
tions, belong, according to original location or language, either to the 
Pancha Gauda (the five tribes north of the Krishna), or to the Pancha 
Dravida (the five tribes south of that river). The following are the 
subdivisions, together with the numbers in Mysore pertaining to each 
.so far as can be gathered from the census returns of 1891 : — 

Pancha Gaitda. 
Kanyakubja (N.W.P. ) ... 

Sarasvata (Punjab) 

Gauda (Delhi and Bengal) 

Maithila (Behar) 

Utkala (Ori.ssa) 

These seldom intermarry, and though the tribes living here have 
long been intermixed, they generally retain in their families the 
language of the country from whence they originally came. 

The Brahmans are farther subdivided into a number of gotras, the 
original progenitors of which were seven principal rishis or sages, 
namely, Bhrigu, Angiras, Atri, Vis'vamitra, Kasyapa, Vas'ishtha, and 
Agastya. In the unlimited ramifications of g6tras which have branched 
out from the parent stems, the line of descent is exhibited in the 
pravara or pedigree, and a man and woman of the same gotra and 
pravara never marry together. The connection of the gotra is entirely 
in the male line, a woman on marriage being affiliated to the husband's 
g6tra. The following are the strongest gotras in Mysore, or those con- 
taining over 1,000 in each: — 



Bharadvaja .. 


• 25,950 


Kaus'ika ... 


• 9,893 


Vadhula 


2,788 


Kasyapa 


• 24,151 


Kaundinya 


• 9,074 


S'andilya ... 


2,495 


Vis'vamitra .. 


■ 11,771 


Harita ... . 


. 8,471 


Maudgalva 


2,252 


Vas'ishtha . 


■ 11,592 


Gautama ... 


• 5,897 


Maunabhargava 


1,920 


S'rivatsa 


. 10,480 


Jamadagni... 


• 3,294 


Gargyayana 


1,162 


A'lreya 


• 10,307 


A'ngirasa ... . 


■• 2,929 


S'athamarshana 


1,050 



BRAHMANS 



235 



Altogether sixty-nine g6tras are represented here, the remamder, in 
alphabetical order, being : — Achyuta, Agastya, Ambarisha, As'valayana, 
Badarayana, Barhaspatya, Ch6pagayana, Devaraja, Dhananjaya, Galava, 
Gauda Sarasvata, Ghritasams'a, Havikarma, Kalakaus'ika, Kamakayana, 
Kanva, Kapi, Katyayana, Kosala, Kundali, Kutsa, L6hita, Maitreya, 
Mandavya, Maunjyayana, Mitravasu, Mohana, Nistudhana, Paras'ara, 
Parthiva, Paulastya, Paurakutsa, Piitamanasa, Rajendra, Rathi'tara, 
Salankayana, Salavatsa, Sankalika, Sankarshana, Sankhyayana, 
Sankriti, Santasa, S'aunaka, Svatantrakapi, Upamanyu, Vadhryas'va, 
Vaikhanasa, Vais'ampayana, Vamana, Vishnuvardhana, Vyasa. 

Kshatriyas, and others who are not Brahmans, may properly assume 
the gotra of \k\€\x purohita, or family priest and domestic chaplain, who 
is of course a Brahman. But certain classes who are ambitious of 
being reckoned as Brahmans, have invented gotras for themselves of 
apocryphal origin. 

In addition to the gotra, there is the s'dkka, or particular branch or 
school of the Veda which each Brahman professes to follow in the per- 
formance of his sacrifices and rites. Classified on this basis 91,638 are 
Rig-vedis, 77,972 Yajur-vedis, and 12,776 Sama-vedis. Therearenone 
apparently who acknowledge adhesion to the Atharva veda. Some 
classes that are not Brahmans boldly proclaim themselves followers of 
a fifth veda. ' 

All the Brahmans here, moreover, belong to one of three main 
sects : — Smarta, Madhva, and S'rivaishnava. The following is their 
distribution, the totals being 129,550, 32,070, and 20,764 respectively : — 



Sect. 


Bangalore. 


Kolar. 


3 

3 
H 


«5 

3 


t 
X 

11,842 


n 

E 
15 


Kadur. 


2 
2 




Smarta 


18,939 


14,802 


12,430 


29,911 


23,267 


15,060 


3,299 


Madhva 


7,309 


5.834 


3,210 


6,336 


1,057 


4,983 


1,104 


2,237 


S'rivaishnava ... 


3>354 


2,689 


1,367 


6,751 


4,161 


1,124 


862 


456 



All three sects are composed of either Vaidikas or I^aukikas, the 
former, those who have devoted themselves entirely to religion, and 
live on charity ; the latter, those who attend to worldly affairs. The 



' Somewhat on the same principle that the Press in England calls itself the l-'ourth 
Estate, supplementary to the three recognized governing estates of king, nobles and 
commons. 



236 ETHNOGRAPHY 

distinction is merely an individual one, as different members of the 
same family may be either Vaidikas or Laukikas according to inclina- 
tion. 

The Smarta derive their name from s/iiriii\ the code of revealed or 
traditional law. They worship the triad of Brahma, S'iva, and Vishnu 
under the mystic syllable 6>w, and while admitting them to be equal, 
exalt S'iva as their chief deity. They hold the pantheistic Vedanta 
doctrine of Advaita or non-dualism, believing God and matter to be 
identical, and everything but an atom of the divinity, they themselves 
being parts of the Supreme Being. The founder of the Smarta sect 
was S'ankara or S'ankaracharya, the Hindu reformer of the eighth 
century, and their guru is the S'ringeri Swami, designated the Jagad 
Guru. The probably very ancient sect of the Bhagavata, or the 
Bhagavata sampradaya, numbering 12,788, are reckoned as Smartas, 
but they incline more to Vishnu worship, and follow the Tengale in 
the time of observing the Ekadas'i fasts. The guru of the Bhagavatas 
is at Talkad. The distinctive marks of a Smarta Brahman are three 
parallel horizontal lines of pounded sandalwood, or of the ashes of cow- 
dung, on the forehead, with a round red spot in the centre, but the 
Bhagavatas wear perpendicular Vaishnava marks. 

The Madhva are so called from Madhva or Madhvacharya, the 
founder of the sect, who arose in South Kanara in the thirteenth 
century. They worship both Vishnu and S'iva, but more particularly 
the former. They profess the doctrine of Dvaita or dualism, consider- 
ing the Creator and the created to be distinct, and their final absorption 
to be in the future. It appears that they may be divided into the 
Vyasakiita and the Dasakuta. The former adhere strictly to the 
religious teachings of the founder, which are entirely in Sanskrit. The 
latter base their faith on hymns and writings in the vernacular, which 
they can understand, of persons of their sect distinguished as Dasas or 
servants of God, and they go about with musical instruments singing 
these in honour of the Divine Being. A Madhva Brahman is known 
by a black perpendicular line from the junction of the eyebrows to the 
top of the forehead, with a dot in the centre. A Smarta may become 
a Madhva, and vice versa, but the former happens oftener than the 
latter. In such cases intermarriages between persons of the same 
circle are not prohibited, though they embrace different doctrines, but 
the wife always adopts the tenets of her husband. 

The S'rivaishnava, also called Aiyangar, are worshippers of ^'ishnu, 
as identified with his consort Lakshmi or S'ri, whence their name. 
The founder of their sect was Ramanuja or Ramanujacharya, who lived 
in the Chola and Mysore countries at the beginning of the twelfth 



BRAHMANS 237 

century, and after him they are also called Ramanujas in some parts of 
India. Their creed is the Vis'ishtadvaita, which differs from the Dvaita 
in attributing both form and qualities to the Deity. In Mysore their 
guru is the Parakalaswami of Melukote. They are the most exclusive 
of all the Brahmans in points of food and intermarriage, the 
orthodox among them requiring curtains to screen their food from the 
gaze of others, even their own relations and fellow-sectarians. They 
form two principal divisions, the Tengale, or southern, numbering 7,161, 
and the ^'a(jagale, or northern, numbering 12,914. The distinction 
between the two arises from dispute as to certain doctrinal points, said 
to be eighteen in number,' which were formulated some four centuries 
back, in Sanskrit and Tamil verses, by Manaval Mahamuni on the side 
of the Tengale, and by Vedanta Desikar on the side of the Vadagale, 
and the dispute has placed a gulf between the parties ever since. 
There are some differences also in social observances. The Tengale, 
for instance, do not subject widows to the tonsure, which is usual 
among other Brahman sects. They also give more prominence 
to the vernacular versions of their Sanskrit sacred writings. The 
S'rivaishnava are known by the ndimi or trident on the forehead, 
the centre line being yellow or red, and the two outer ones white. 
The Tengale distinguish themselves from the Vadagale by continuing 
the central line of the trident in white for some distance down the 
nose. 

The three main sects above described contain nearly eighty recorded 
subdivisions, distinguished by names which are mainly territorial or 
numerical in origin. The derivation of many of the names appears to 
l)e unknown even to those who bear them. 

Those included under Smarta and Madhva, in alphabetical order, 
are :— Adi S'aiva, Aruvattu-wokkalu, A'ruvelu, A'ruvelu Niy6gi, Ashta- 
sahasra, Badaganad, Bhagavata-sampradaya, Bodhayana, Brihach- 
charana, Chitpavan, Des'astha, Devalaka or Sivaradhya, Dnivida, Hale 
Karnataka or Hala Kannadiga, Havika or Haiga, Hoysaniga, Kambalur, 
Kamme (Babbiir, Kannada, Ulcha and Vijayapura), Kandavara, 
Kardfle, Karnataka, Kasalnad, Katyayana, Kavarga, Ki'lnad, Konkan- 
astha, K6ta (or Kaikota and Ippatnalkaravaru), Koti's'vara, Kus'asthala 
(or Senve), Madhva (Waishnava and Pennattur), Mulikinad or Muri- 
kinad, Nambilri, Nandavaidika, Niyogi, Panchagrama, Praknad, 
Prathamas'akhe (Kanva, Madhydnjana or Yajnavalkya), Sahavasi, 
Sanketi, Sarvarya, S'lrnad, S'is'uvarga, S'ivalli (or Kurus'ivalli), S'ukla 
YajusVakhe, Telaghanya, Totada Tigala, Tulava, Uttraji (or Uttradi), 
Vadama, Vadhyama, ^'anglpuram, Veginad, Velna<.'. 

1 The majority are detailed in the Census Report for 1S91. 



238 ETHNOGRAPHY 

'I'lic strongest of these divisions numerically are, — those returned 
simply as Smarta, 23,374; Badaganad, 23,019; Dcs'astha, 17,127; 
Kamme (Babhur, Kannada and Ulcha), 14,265; Mulikinad, 11,188; 
Hoysaniga, 8,328 ; Dravida, 7,856 ; Hale Karnataka, 7,526 ; Vaishnava 
(Madhva), 7,280. 

The Badaganad had their origin in the northern [batiaga) districts 
{nd(f), and s])eak Kannada : they are both Smartas and Madhvas. 
The Des'astha are immigrants from the Mahratta country, and mostly 
retain the use of Mahratti : they are Smartas and Madhvas, the latter 
preponderating ; but the difference of faith is no bar among them to 
intermarriage and free social intercourse. The Babbur Kamme are 
all Smartas ; the Kannada Kamme and Ulcha Kamme are both 
Smartas and Madhvas : nearly all speak Kannada, a few Telugu also. 
The Kamme country seems to have been to the east of the Kolar 
District. The Mulikinad or Murikinad are Smartas from the Kadapa 
district, speaking Telugu. The present chief priest of S'ringeri is 
of this sect. The Hoysaniga, also called Vaishaniga, are chiefly 
Smartas and speak Kannada. Their name may be derived from the 
old Hoysala or Hoysana kingdom. The Dravida, Vadama (1,454), 
and Brihachcharama or Pericharana (1,293), niay be taken together: 
they are immigrants from the Tamil country, and are Smartas, speak- 
ing Tamil, and a few Telugu. The Hale Karnataka or Hala 
Kannadiga are mostly confined to the Mysore District, where they 
are generally village accountants. There are two branches — Mugur 
and S6sile. They are nearly all Smcirtas, and their language is 
Kannada. Though their claim to be Brahmans was apparently not 
denied, they were for some reason, till recently, under a sort of ban, 
and often called by a nickname ; but about twenty-five years ago 
they were publicly recognized by both the S'ringeri and Parakala 
mathas. Other Brahmans, however, have no intercourse with them, 
social or religious. 

Of the other sects, the A'ruvelu, or the Six Thousand (4,486), are 
both Smartas and Madhvas, and speak both Kannada and Telugu. 
The A'ruvelu Niy6gi are a branch of them, who are laukikas, or 
devoted to secular callings. The Aruvattu-wokkalu or Sixty families 
(4,997) originally formed a portion either of the A'ruvelu or the 
Kamme, but were selected as his disciples by Vyasaraya Swami, of the 
Madhva faith, two or three centuries ago. The small sect of Kambalur 
or T6tada Tigala (113), mostly in Shimoga District, are also connected 
with the A'ruvelu. Moreover, the Uttaraji or Uttaradi (425), appear 
to have branched off from the A'ruvelu some three or four centuries 
ago, when they became the disciples of S'ripada Raya of Venkatagiri. 



BR AH MANS 239 

The addition of these several offshoots would bring the number of 
the A'ruvelu up to 9,921. 

The Chitpavan (2,345) are Mahrattas and Smartas. The Havika 
or Haiga (3,246) are immigrants from Haiga, the ancient name of 
North Kanara, and they are almost entirely confined to the west of the 
Shimoga District. They are Smartas, and are now principally engaged 
in the cultivation of areca-nut gardens. According to tradition they 
are of northern origin, and were introduced by one of the Kadamba 
kings, in the third or fourth century, from Ahichchhatra. This would 
bring them from Rohilkand, but Ahichchhatra may be only a learned 
synonym for Haiga (see note above, p. 216). The name Havika is 
said to be a corruption of Havyaka, or conductor of sacrifices, and 
perhaps it was for such purposes that they were imported at a time 
when there were no Brahmans in those parts. The small communities 
of Kandavara (213), Kavarga (7), K6ta and K6tis'vara (25), Kus'as- 
thala, S'is'uvarga, properly S'ishyavarga (139), with the S'ivalli (2,397), 
are all Tula Brahmans, immigrants from South Kanara, the ancient 
Tuluva, and mostly located in the western Districts. They engage in 
agriculture and trade, and speak Tulu and Kannada. The Karade or 
Karhade (253) are Mahrattas from Karhad. Some of them are 
employed in the Revenue Survey. The Konkanastha (296) are also 
Mahrattas from the Konkan, and are Smartas. The above two sects do 
not intermarry, but mix freely in other respects. The Nandavaidika 
(1,257) are from the Teluga country: both Smartas and Madhvas : 
language Telugu and Kannada. The Prathamas'akhe (5,027) and 
SuklayajusVakhe or ]Madyandina are both Smartas and Madhvas : they 
speak Telugu and Kannada. The Sahavasi are immigrants, like the 
Chitpavan, from the Mahratta country. 

The Sanketi (2,522) are Smartas from Madura, and speak a corrupt 
mixture of Tamil and Kannada. There are two branches, the Kaus'ika 
and the Bettadpur, so named from the places in which they first settled, 
which are in the Hassan and Mysore Districts. They eat together, but 
do not intermarry as a rule. The Kaus'ika, however, who were the first 
comers, are said occasionally to get wives from the Bettadpur, but in 
such cases the girl's connection with the latter altogether ceases. The 
Sanketi reverence a prophetess named Nacharamma or Nangiramma, 
who seems to have been instrumental in causing their migration from 
their original seats. The story about her is given in the first edition. 
The Sirandd (3,490) have two divisions, the Hale Siranad, who are 
Smartas, and the Hosa Siranad, who are chiefly Madhvas. Both speak 
Kannada and derive their name probably from Sira in the Tumkur 
District. The Vengipuram (193) arc all Smartas, speaking Telugu. 



240 ETHNOGRAPHY 

The VclnafJ (3, i<S[) arc also Telugu Smartas, and resemble the 
Murikinacj. They are mostly in the south and east. The Vegindd are 
Smartas, and speak Kannada. There is only one member returned of 
this sect, a man in Kolar District. 

The subdivisions of the S'n'vaishnavas, in alphabetical order, are : — 
Bhattaracharya, Embar, Hebbar (Melnatar), Hemmigeyar, Kadambiyar, 
Kandade, Kilnatar, Mandyattar, Maraddrar, Metukunteyar, Morasanad, 
Munch (Sn or Ch61i, NalUinchakravarti, Prativadi-bhayankarattdr, 
.Somes andal or Attan-kutattar, Tirumaleyar. No less than 16,817 have 
returned themselves simply as S'n'vaishnavas. 

The IJhattaracharya are Tengales, and generally Vaidikas : they 
speak Telugu and Tamil. The Embar are Tengales from S'rirangam, 
and speak Tamil. The Hebbar (1,724) are descendants of immigrants 
from the Tamil country, who settled in five different villages, and were 
hence also known as the Panchagrama (358). These places were 
Grama (Hassan District), Kadaba (Tumkur District), Molur (Bangalore 
District), Hangala (Mysore District), and Belur (Hassan District). 
Hebbar was the old Brahman designation of the headman of a village, 
as Heggade was of the Jains, and these names still linger in the west. 
It is said to be a corruption of heb-hdrava, or the head Brahman. The 
settlers in Grama, it appears, had acquired this title, which owing to their 
connection was extended to all the Panchagrama. They all eat 
together and intermarry : are both Tengale and Vadagale, and speak 
Tamil. The Hemmigeyar are all Vaidikas and Vadagale, settled at 
Hemmige near Talkad, which is said to have been granted by the 
king of the day to one of their ancestors as a reward for distinguishing 
himself in a literary discussion. Their language is Tamil. The 
Mandyattar (566) are immigrants from a village called Mandyam 
near Tirupati. They are located in Meluk6te and Mandya, the 
latter being named after their native place. They are all Tengale and 
speak Tamil. The Maradiirar are similar settlers at the neighbouring 
village of Maddiir, which is a corruption of Maradiir. The Metukun- 
teyar are Vadagale and disciples of the Parakalaswami. They speak 
Telugu and Tamil. The Munchdli and Choli, so called because they 
retain the lock of hair in front of the head, are Tengale, and their 
language is Tamil. The Nallanchakravarti are Vadagale from Con- 
jeveram, and are all Vaidikas, speaking Tamil. The Prativadi- 
bhayankarattdr, meaning the terrifiers of opponent disputants, are 
Tengale and ^'aidikas from S'riangam : language Tamil. There are 
only two men of this sect put down, both in Kolar District. The 
Somes'anddl are Vadagale, and chiefly Vaidikas, from the same part : 
language Tamil. The Tirumaleyar (262) are descendants of Koti- 



SATANI 241 

kanyadana Tatacharya, whose name implies that he had given away a 
milHon virgins in marriage, a son of the guru to Raman ujacharya. 
They are all Vadagales and Vaidikas, and seem to have come from 
Conjeveram. They speak Tamil. 

The Temple servants or Brahmans who act ^% pujdris are all "\'aidikas, 
but are considered to have degraded themselves by undertaking such 
service, and the other Brahmans will have no connection with them. 
The S'ivadvija or Sivanambi (605) and TambaHa (2) are of the 
Smarta sect, and ofificiate in S'iva temples. The Vaikhanasa (407) 
and Pancharatrcil (142) belong to the S'rivaishnavas, and officiate in 
Vishnu temples. The Tammadis who officiate in certain Siva temples 
are Lingayits. 

Lingayita. — The priestly orders among these are the A'radhya 
(11,618), Gurusthala (12,129), Jangama (38,215) and ^'^^^ S'aiva (956). 
The A'radhya are a sect of Lingayit Brahmans. They assume the 
janivdra or sacred thread, but call it sivaddra. The Gurusthala are a 
class of Jangama who take the place of gurus in performing certain 
domestic ceremonies for which the gurus do not attend. The Jangama 
are priests chiefly of the I^anchama Banajiga and Devanga. They are 
divided into Charanli and Virakta, the former being under a vow of 
celibacy. The Jangama derive their name especially from the portable 
ox jinigama linga worn on the person (which indeed is characteristic of 
all Lingayits) as distinguished from the sthdvira or fixed linga of the 
temples, and also perhaps from their being itinerant. In addition to 
the linga they wear a necklace of beads called riidrdksha, and smear 
their whole bodies with the ashes of cow-dung. A Jangam will not 
permit himself to be touched by any person who does not wear the 
linga. They wander about and subsist on charity, and their children 
generally adopt the same profession. 

Satani. — These are regarded as priests by the Holeya and other 
inferior castes, while they themselves have the chiefs of the S'rivaishnava 
Brahmans and Sannyasis as their gurus. Their subdivisions are 
Khadri Vaishnava, Ndtacharasilrti, Prathama Vaishnava, Sameraya or 
Samagi, Sankara, Sattadhava, Suri, Telugu Satani, Venkatapurada and 
Vaishnava. Some are employed in agriculture, but as a rule they are 
engaged in the service of Vishnu temples, and are flower-gatherers, torch- 
bearers and strolling minstrels. Buchanan supposed them to be the 
remains of an extensive priesthood who formerly held the same relation 
to the Holeya that the Brahmans now do to the Si'idras. But as a sect 
they appear to be of more modern origin. They call themselves 
\'aishnavas and correspond with the Baisnabs in Bengal. They are 
followers of Chaitanya, from whose name, or that of Satdnana, one of his 

R 



242 E THNOGRAJ'H V 

disciples, their designation may be derived. Properly speaking, they 
are not a caste, but a religious sect of votaries of Vishnu, more 
especially in the form of Krishna, who have ceased to regard caste 
distinctions. In the north of India admission to the sect is obtained 
by payment to a Gosayi and partaking of food with other members of 
the sect. 

Jaina. — The priests of this religion have been returned as 
Tirthankara (2,564) and Pitambara (5). The Jaina yatis or clergy 
here belong to the sect of Digambara, properly, clad with space, that 
is nude, but they cover themselves with a yellow robe, and hence 
the name Pitambara. An account of the Jaina will be found under 
Religion. 

The Devotees and religious mendicants are, — among Hindus, Dasari 
(1,178), Sannyasi (684), Gosayi (424), and Bairagi (222): among 
Lingayits, Ay3'a, Ganadhisvara, Shatsthala and Vader (956) : among 
Jains, Digambara (5,477), Svetambara (85), and Bavaji (i). 

Dasari are mendicants belonging to different castes of Siidras. 
They become Dasas, or servants, dedicated to the god at Tirupati, by 
virtue of a particular vow, made either by themselves or relatives at 
some anxious or dangerous moment, and live by begging in his name. 
Dasaris are strictly Vishnuvites, as the vow is taken only by castes who 
are worshippers of that deity. Dasaris are always invited by Sudras 
on ceremonial days and feasted. The subdivisions are Dharma, Giidama, 
S'anku, and Tirunama Dasaris. 

A Sannyasi is properly a man who has forsaken all. He has 
renounced the world, and leads a life of celibacy and abstemiousness, 
devoting himself to religious meditation and abstraction, and to study 
of the holy books. He is considered to have attained to a state of 
exalted piety that places him above most of the restrictions of caste 
and ceremony. It is the fourth ds'rama or final stage of life for the 
three higher orders. The number of Brahman Sannyasis is very small, 
and chiefly confined to those who are gurus or bishops of the different 
sects. These are as a rule men of learning and the heads of 
monasteries, where they have a number of disciples under instruction 
who are trained for religious discussion. They are supported entirely 
by endowments and the contributions of their disciples. Periodical 
tours are undertaken for the purpose of receiving the offerings of 
their followers. They travel in great state, with elephants, horses, and 
a retinue of disciples. On the approach of a guru to any place all 
the inhabitants of pure birth go out to meet him : the lower classes are 
not admitted to his presence. On being conducted to the principal 
temple, he bestows upadcsa or chakrdniikam on such as have not 



GOSA YI 243 

received these ceremonies (which may be considered analogous to 
confirmation by prelates in the English Church), and distributes holy 
water. He inquires into their matters of contention or transgressions 
against the rules of caste, and having disposed of these, hears his 
disciples and other learned men dispute on theological subjects. This 
is the grand field for acquiring reputation among the Brahmans.' The 
gurus are bound to spend all they get in what is reckoned as charitable 
distribution, that is in the support of men and buildings dedicated to 
the service of the gods. But the majority of the Sannyasis (of whom 
no less than 412 are in the Kolar District, and 175 in Tumkur) are a 
class of Siidra devotees who live by begging and pretend to powers of 
divination. They wear the clerical dress of red ochre and allow the 
hair to grow unshorn. They are married and often have settled 
abodes, but itinerate, and their descendants keep up the sect and follow 
the same calling. 

The Gosayi are followers of Chaitanya, the Vishnuvite reformer 
of the sixteenth century, whose original disciples, six in number, were 
so called. They never marry, but the order is recruited from all the 
four principal castes, especially the two highest, and those who join are 
cut off" for ever from their own tribes. Such as lead a strictly ascetic 
life are called Avadhuta, while those who engage in commerce and 
trade are called Dandi. Most of those in Mysore belong to the latter 
subdivision, and are wealthy merchants from northern and western 
India, settled in Mysore, Bangalore and other chief towns, dealing 
largely in jewels and valuable embroidered cloths. The profits of their 
traffic go to their Mahant or teacher. The property of either Avadhuta 
or Dandi devolves on his chela or adopted disciple. 

The Bairagi are followers of Ramanand, the \'ishnuvite reformer, 
who early forsook the cares of the world and gave himself up to 
Vairagya, or the renunciation of all worldly desires, becoming the first 
Vairagi or Bairagi. Yxom. his four disciples arose four sects, each of 
which is composed of Nihangs, those who are purely ascetics and lead 
secluded lives, and Samayogis, who marry and live with their families ; 
but both orders can eat together. Many profess to be physicians and 
herbalists, while others pretend to be alchemists. All are beggars, and 
as pilgrims resort to holy places, especially to Tirupati. Their usual 
route in the south is from Rames'vara to Totadri, which is in that 
neighbourhood, S'rirangam, Ciopalswamibetta, Meluk6te and Tirupati. 
They are also called Sadhu and are all worshippers of Vishnu and 

' These disputations are said to 1)e very similar to those which were common 
among the doctors of the Romish Church seven or eight hundred years ago. — 
Biichanaii. 



244 ETHNOGRAPHY 

adherents of S'n'vaishnava IJrahmans. They are mostly taken from 
the Sudra castes, but many of them wear the triple cord and 
profess themselves to be (iauda 13rahmans from the north. Half 
the number at the census time were in Bangalore District and a 
considerable number in Kadur. There were none in Hassan and 
Shimoga, and only three in Chitaldroog. 

The Yader, a corruption of Odeyar or Vadeyar, meaning lord or 
master, are Lingayits like the Jangama. They are held in great veneration 
in their sect and are feasted by laymen on all important occasions, 
especially at S'ivaratri, when their attendance is said to be in such great 
demand that they have to hurry from house to house, just tasting a 
morsel in each. Mostly in Kadur, Mysore and Shimoga Districts ; 
none in Kolar and Hassan. 

The Digambara and Svetambara are the tvv-o great sects of the 
Jains. The derivation of the former name has already been given 
above. The Svetambara are those who are clad in white. This 
section is found more in the north of India, and is represented by but 
a small number in Mysore. The Digambara are said to live absolutely 
separated from society and from all worldly ties. Most numerous in 
Mysore, Tumkur and Kadur Districts. 

Quitting the religious groups we come to that of the professional 
Writers, of whom there are io8 Kanakkan and 6 Kayastha, all in the 
Civil and Military Station of Bangalore. The former may be allied to 
the Karnams and Kanakka-pillai (commonly called Conocopoly) of the 
Madras country, who are village and other accountants. The Kanakkan 
include the subdivisions of Karnikar, Sirkanakkan, and Sirkarnikar. 
The Kayastha are from northern India and have a subdivision called 
Madur. 

Next are Musicians and Ballad-reciters, the well-known Bhats or 
Bhatraju, numbering 1,388, and found chiefly in the eastern and 
southern Districts. They speak Telugu and are supposed to have 
come from the Northern Sarkars. They were originally attendants on 
Hindu princes as professional bards, singing their praises and reciting 
ballads on the wondrous deeds of their ancestors.^ Now, from want of 

' The name is a curious approximation to that of the western bard, and their 
offices are nearly similar. No Hindu Raja is without his bhats. Haidar, although 
not a Hindu, delighted to be constantly preceded by them, and they are an appendage 
to the state of many other Musalman chiefs. They have a wonderful facility in 
speaking improvisatore, on any subject proposed to them, a declamation in measures, 
which may be considered as a sort of medium between blank verse and modulated 
prose ; but their proper profession is that of chaunting the exploits of former days in 
the front of the troops while marshalling for battle, and inciting them to emulate the 
glory of their ancestors. — Jl'ilks, in 1810. 



COMMERCIAL CLASS 



245 



their ordinary employment, they have descended into the mendicant 
class. They are principally worshippers of Vishnu. 

The Dancers and Singers follow, composed of Natuva (1,804) and 
Kaikola (5,672). The subdivisions are Binkali Kaikola, Bogavaru, 
Devadasi, (layaka, Lokabalike, Nayaksani. The women dance and 
sing ; the men are musicians and accompany them on various instru- 
ments. Nearly all the Kaikola are in ^lysore District : those that 
speak Kannada are of Lingayit connection and called Basavi. The 
Natuva are most numerous in Kolar and Mysore Districts : those who 
speak Telugu are of the Telugu Banajiga caste. The females are 
generally prostitutes and attached as dancing girls to Hindu temples. 
The class is recruited either from those born in it or those adopted 
from any of the Hindu castes. Sometimes the parents of a girl have 
dedicated her to a temple even before her birth ; in other cases good- 
looking girls are purchased from parents who are too poor to maintain 
them. 

The last professional group is the Chitari, who are classed as 
Rachevar, and composed of Chitragara, also called Bannagara (912), 
mostly in Mysore, Tumkur and Chitaldroog Districts, and Jinagara 
(3,728), nearly all in Shimoga District. They are painters, decorators 
and gilders, and make trunks, palanquins, lacquer toys and wooden 
images for temples, cars, etc. 

The Commercial class (C) consists entirely of Merchants and Traders. 
The following are the principal divisions according to strength, with 
their distribution. There are also 161 Baniya, 2 Miiltani, and i Jat, 
all in the Civil and Military Station of Ijangalore ; S3 Marvadi, and 71 
Cujarati. 










c 


u 


c 


S> 


u 


'S 


Caste. 


PC 






p 


X 


Shimo 


3 
21,052 


3 



Lingayita 


19,700 


6,139 


21,289 


91,257 


39,006 


49,333 


44,297 


Banajiga ... 


2«,437 


36,296 


12,408 


17,811 


3w35 


6,709 


5,115 


4,224 


Komati ... 


4,766 


8,890 


5>304 


3,210 


1,766 


1,175 


1,338 


2,605 


Nagarla ... 


5,289 


3.004 


315 


439 


77 


7,966 


5,223 


651 


Miulali 


1,625 


714 


380 


1,305 


167 


229 


225 


492 


Jainaand S'ravaka 


lOS 


18 


305 


230 


6S 


2,974 


43 


200 


Ladar 


53 


18 


134 


1,185 


91 


II 


338 


216 



Of the 292,073 l.ingdyita, forming 62 per cent, of the trading com- 
munity, 222,389 are returned by that name alone and i)reponderate in 
Mysore District. Other divisions are Linga Banajiga (37,322), most 
numerous in Chitaldroog and Hassan Districts ; Sajjana (30,424), 



246 E THNO G RA /'// V 

more than half in Shimoga District; Sthaladava (1,243), "C-arly all in 
Bangalore District ; l\anchamasale (182), nearly the whole in the Civil 
and Military Station of Bangalore; Hirehasube (loi), almost all in 
Mysore District; and K6risetti (52), all in Tumkur District. Further 
subdivisions are Badagalava, Bannadava, Basale, Bavane, Gada Lin- 
gayita, Gaddigeyava, J6ti Banajiga, Kannadiga, Kanthapavade, Kaikola, 
M(^lpdvadc, Nfrume'linava, Petemane, T6gasetti, and Turukane 
Banajiga. In the rural parts they are perhaps engaged more in agri- 
culture than in trade. 

The Banajiga number 114,735, ^'""^ form 24 per cent, of the 
traders. The strongest section is that of Telugu Banajiga (59,495), the 
greater number in Kolar and Bangalore Districts, as are also those put 
down simply as Banajiga (17,779). The Setti (14,875) are most 
numerous in Tumkur District and the Civil and Military Station of 
Bangalore. The Dasa (7,925) are chiefly in Mysore District. The 
Bale (5,378), makers and vendors of glass bangles, are chiefly in the 
Civil and Military Station of Bangalore. The Yele (3,601), or betel-leaf 
sellers, are most numerous in Mysore and Tumkur Districts. De'vadiga 
(2,31 5), bangle-sellers, nearly all in Shimoga District, and the rest in 
Kadur District; Nayadu (1,141), most numerous in Bangalore and 
Chitaldroog Districts ; Huvvadiga (905) or flower-sellers, nearly all in 
Kadur District ; Arale (340) or cotton-sellers, mostly in Mysore and 
Bangalore Districts; Sukhamanji (313), nearly all in Bangalore 
District, and the rest in Kolar District ; and Muttarasu (7), all in the 
Civil and INIilitary Station of Bangalore, make up the remaining chief 
sections. The minor subdivisions are A'di, Aggada, A'kuleti, Bherisetti, 
Banta, Bidara, De'sayi, Dharmaraju, Gajulabalji, Gandhudibalji, 
Gerballi, Gaudu, Ganga, Kalayi, Kamme, Kannada, Kapali, Kavare, 
Kempti, Kempu, Kolla, Kotta, Lingabalji, Marasi, Mudusarebalji, 
Miirusire, Mutta, Muttaraju, Pagadala, Pasaluvate, S'ivachara, Soliya- 
setti, Virasaggada, and Yellamma. The principal occupations of 
Banajigas are agriculture, labour and trade of all kinds. 

The Kbmati (29,054) and Nagarta (22,964) are principally found in 
towns and large trade centres. Both claim to be ^'aisyas, and the 
former are specially considered to be such. The Komati subdivisions 
are Kannada, Myada, Setti, Trikarma, Tuppada, and Yavamanta. The 
majority are worshippers of S'iva and a few of ^'ishnu, but the chief 
object of reverence is the goddess Kanyaka Parames'vari. All eat 
together and intermarry. They deal in cloth and, except spirits, in all 
kinds of merchandise, especially money and jewels, but never cultivate 
the ground nor become mechanics. The Nagarta, besides 4, 297 only 
so named, chiefly in Bangalore and Kolar Districts, are subdivided into 



ARTISANS 247 

Ay6dhyanagara (39), all in Bangalore District; Bheri (229), nearly all 
in Kolar District; Namadhari (15,428), mostly in Shimoga and Kadur 
Districts; and Vais'ya (2,971), most numerous in Bangalore and Kolar 
1 )istricts. There are also minor sections called S'ivachar and Vaishnava. 
Of the Nagarta some are worshippers of Vishnu and others of S'iva : 
of the latter a part wear the linga and others not. The three sects do 
not intermarry or eat together. They are dealers in bullion, cloth, 
cotton, drugs and grain, but do not cultivate the ground or follow any 
handicraft trade, though some act as porters. 

The Mudali (5,437) or Mudaliyar, with the subdivision Agamudi, 
are of Tamil origin, from Arcot, Vellore and other places, the 
offsjiring of traders, servants and contractors who followed the 
progress of British arms. The majority are in the cities of Bangalore 
and Mysore. They are a thriving and money-making class, and 
many of them are employed under (iovernment : they also engage 
in trade of all kinds, and as contractors for buildings and other public 
works. 

Of the Jaina (1,981) and S'rdvaka (1,962) the great majority of the 
former and the whole of the latter are in Shimoga District, and probably 
represent a very ancient trading community of those parts. The Ladar 
(2,046) are traders from the Mahratta country, and are principally 
settled in the Mysore District. 

The Baniya are wealthy money-lenders from other parts. Their 
divisions are Agarvala, Bakkal, Jaman, Multani, and Oswal. The 
Mdrvddi (Dodaya and Kumbi), Gujardti and Multdni zxe. traders from 
the countries after whose names they are called. The Marvadi deal in 
pearls and cloths. The (iujarati are small money-lenders, and also 
trade in jewels, cloths and other articles. 

The class Artisan and \'illage Menial (D) includes the following : — 



Smiths, Carpenters and Masons ... 


Pdnchala 


"3,731 


Barbers 


Niiyinda ... 


37,296 


Tailors 


Darji 


10,664 


Weavers and Uyers 


Neyi^ara, Coniga 


88,413 


Washermen... 


Agasa 


85,671 


Cowherds, iSrc. 


Ciolla 


128,995 


Shepherds 


Kuruba 


346,768 


(Jilpressers ... 


Caniga 


35, 80S 


I'otters 


Kumbara .. 


40,809 


Salters 


Uppara 


89,123 


Cold-lace makers 


Sarige 


15 


Fishermen 


Besta 


99,897 


Toddy drawers 


I'<liy^^ 


39,937 


Village Watchmen, &c. ... 


Ib.leya 


520,493 


Leather workers 


Madiga, Mochi ... 


240,321 



248 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



The sul)juincd tahlc shows their distribution over the several 
Districts : — 



Caste. 




c 

r! 



a. 

E 


>'sore. 




1 


c 



2 




c 


U, 


^ 


2 


K 


IS 
12,107 


u: 


Ic 
U 


Panchala 


14,105 


9,688 


9,685 


37,448 


1.3,588 


8,745 


8,365 


Nayinda 


7,971 


8,559 


3,807 


8,401 


2,979 


2,828 


923 


1,828 


Darji 


3,668 


574 


908 


1,457 


511 


2,090 


734 


722 


Neyigara 


24,492 


8,696 


8,109 


10,224 


12,808 


6,674 


10,236 


7,174 


Agasa ... 


11,447 


10,327 


10,323 


19,435 


10,456 


13,103 


4,186 


6,394 


Colla 


20,430 


20,022 


38.237 


5,445 


5,212 


3,995 


4,149 


15,892 


Kurul)a ... 


41,407 


35,304 


38,186 


115,805 


40,730 


23,683 


26,255 


25,398 


Ganiga ... 


5,909 


5,790 


3,305 


15,634 


2,259 


547 


1,092 


1,272 


Kunil)ara 


4,306 


3,962 


3,183 


16,136 


Z^m 


3,281 


4,oiS 


2,610 


Uppara ... 


1,516 


3,127 


11,568 


34,717 


8,566 


10,956 


10,000 


8,673 


Sarige ... 


10 


5 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Besta 


8,357 


3,910 


4,201 


59,550 


7,628 


7,290 


4,102 


4,859 


I\liga 


2,569 


1,708 


5,348 


8,450 


2,757 


10,944 


3,882 


4,279 


Holeya 


81,369 


57,665 


23,616 


173,003 


87,055 


38,000 


51,291 


8,491 


Madiga ... 


46,329 


39,661 


48,324 


24,179 


11,190 


23,043 


10,453 


37,142 



The Panchala, as their name implies, embrace five guilds of artisan.s, 
namely, .Agasale, or goldsmiths ; Kanchugara, brass and copper smiths ; 
Kammdra, blacksmiths ; Badagi, carpenters ; and Kalkutaka, stone- 
masons. They profess to be descended from the five sons of Vis'va- 
karma, the architect of the gods, who severally adopted these pro- 
fessions. The various trades are not confined to particular families, 
but may be followed according to the individual inclination. The 
Panchala wear the triple cord and consider themselves equal to the 
Brahmans, who, however, deny their pretensions. The goldsmiths are 
the recognized heads of the clan and have a caste jurisdiction over the 
rest. 

The Agasale, or Akkasale proper (63,578), and goldsmith Panchala 
(31,958) have also subdivisions called Bailu Akkasale or Rotvad (337), 
Pattar or Pattari (747), Oja or Vajar (737), and Jalagara (258), as w^ell 
as A'chari, Arava Panchala, Manu, Maya, Panchagrama, Sajjana, Sonar, 
Sonajiband, Vaivaghni, Vis'va, Vis'vabrahma, and ^'is'vaghni. Some 
are followers of S'iva and others of Vishnu, but the difference in 
religion is no bar to intermarriage or social intercourse. The most 
influential members are among the S'aivas and wear the linga, but they 
do not associate with any other linga-wearers. The Jalagara are the 
people who wash the sand of streams for gold. The majority are 
returned from Mysore IMstrict. 

The Kanchugara (369) or brass and copper smiths are divided 
between the Bangalore and Mysore Districts. The section called 



ARTISANS 249 

Gejjegdra (27) are all in Mysore, These make the small round bells 
used for tying about the heads or necks of bullocks. Dancing girls 
also bind them to the ankles when dancing, and postal runners have a 
bunch at the end of the rod on which they carry the mail bags, the 
jingle giving notice of their approach. 

The Kammara (6,250) or blacksmiths, include Eailu Kammara, 
Ka]lar and Karman. The Kammara is a member of the village cor- 
poration, and in addition to working in iron often acts as a carpenter as 
well. In the repair of carts and agricultural implements his services 
are constantly in demand. 

The Badagi (8,643) or carpenters, and Gaundar (3), the latter 
confined to the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore, have sections 
called Panchachara, Gudigara, S'ilpi and Vis'vakarma. The Badagi is 
also a member of the village corporation, but the profession of 
carpentry is now taken up by other castes, such as Kunchitiga and 
Wokkaliga, not to mention Musalmans. The Gudigara are specially 
the producers of the beautiful sandal-wood carving for which the 
Mysore country is famous. They are settled in Shimoga District, 
chiefly at Sorab. S'ilpi are properly sculptors, and might be classed 
among masons. 

The Ndyinda or barbers, also called Hajam, include a number of 
sections, namely, Balaji, Bajantri, Bengali, Karnata, Kelasi, Konda, 
Kondamangala, Mangala, Nata, Natamangala, Reddi, S'ilavanta, 
Teluga and Uppina. The Nayinda is a member of the village 
corporation. They speak both Kaiinada and Telugu, and are generally 
employed as musicians as well as barbers : in the former capacity they 
are in great requisition at feasts and marriages. They include wor- 
shippers of both Vishnu and S'iva, the S'ilavanta being Lingayits. 

'Y\iQ Darji ox tailors, besides 4,817 so returned, include Shimpi or 
Chippiga (12), Namdev (3,566) and Rangare (2,269). '^^c latter are 
also dyers and calico-printers. The Darji are immigrants from the 
Mahratta country and specially worship Vitth6ba or Krishna. 

The Neyigdra (86,986) are weavers proper, the G6niga (1,426) being 
specially sack weavers and makers of gunny bags {goni). The main 
divisions of the former are Devanga (49,006), Togata or Dandasetti 
(i3>3oo). '"^dle or Saliga (10,255), Bihmagga (9,946), Seniga (105), 
Patvegar (3,174), Khatri (946), and Saurashtraka (254). In these are 
included minor sections called Jada, Kuruvina, Padmamurikinati, 
Padmasale, Pattasale, Patnulukar, Sakunasale, and Singundi. 

The Kannada Devanga are weavers who wear the linga, but they 
have no intercourse with the Linga Banajiga. They worship S'iva and 
I\irvati, and their son Ganes'a, who is a special patron of their looms. 



2 50 ETJIXOGRAPIIY 

There arc also 'rdugu Dcvanga, who are of two sects, one of whom 
worship Vishnu and the other S'iva, l)ut the latter do not wear the 
linga. This difference of religion is no bar to intermarriage, and the 
wife adopts the religion of her husband. The Togata, most numerous 
in the eastern Districts, are of Telugu origin and worshippers of S'iva 
in the form of his consort Chaudes'vari. They manufacture the 
coarse kinds of cloth that are worn only by the poorer classes. The 
Sdle or Saliga are also Telugu by origin, and comprise the Padmasale 
or Pattasale, who are worshippers of Vishnu, and the S'akunasale, who 
arc worshippers of S'iva and wear the linga. The two sects do not 
intermarry. The Bilimagga, most numerous in Mysore District, call 
themselves Kuruvina Banajiga, and regard the former designation as 
a nickname. They are an indigenous caste and speak Kannada : 
worshippers of S'iva. The Seniga, confined to Kolar and Bangalore 
Districts, are a wealthy caste of weavers, immigrants from the lower 
Carnatic, and speak Kannada. They specially manufacture cloths for 
female wear, of superior kind and high value. They are Lingayits by 
religion, but are not friendly with the other Lingayits. 

The Patvegar, of whom the majority are in Bangalore District, are 
silk weavers and speak a language allied to Mahratti. They worship 
all the Hindu deities, but especially the S'akti or female energy, to 
which a goat is sacrificed on the night of the Dasara festival, a 
Musalman officiating as slaughterer, for which he receives certain fees. 
After the sacrifice the family of the Patvegar partake of the flesh. 
The caste have the reputation of not being over cleanly in their habits. 
The Khatri, all but two being in the Bangalore District, are also silk 
weavers, and in manners, customs and language are akin to the 
Patvegars, but do not intermarry with them, though the two castes eat 
together. They claim to be Kshatriyas. The Saurashtraka, commonly 
known as Patnuli or J^'inikhanvala, are, all but 7, in the Bangalore Dis- 
trict. They manufacture superior kinds of cotton and woollen carpets, 
and also shawls of cotton and silk mixture. They are worshippers of 
Vishnu. 

The Gbniga (1,205), ^^ already described above, are sack weavers. 
More than a half are in the Bangalore District. Other divisions are 
Janapa (32) and Sadhuvams'astha (189), the latter all in Tumkur 
District. Some are agriculturists, and some grain porters. 

The Agasa or Asaga are washermen. They are divided into 
Kannada Agasa and Telugu Agasa, who neither eat together nor 
intermarry. But there are numerous subdivisions, named Belli, 
Dhobi, Halemakkalu, Iraganti Madivali, Kapusakalavadu, Madivali, 
Morasu, Murikinati, Padata, Sakalavadu, Tamil and Vannan. The 



ARTISANS 251 

Agasa IS a member of the village corporation and his office is 
hereditary. Besides washing he bears the torch in public processions 
and at marriages. The class seldom follow any other profes- 
sion than that of washing. Both men and women wash. Their 
proper beasts of burthen are asses, and these are sometimes employed 
in carrying grain from one place to another. Their principal object 
of worship is Ubbe, the steam which causes the garments to swell out 
in the pot of boiling water in which dirty clothes are steeped. 
Animals are sacrificed to the god with the view of preventing the 
clothes being burnt in the Ubbe pot. Under the name of Bhume 
Deva there are temples dedicated to this god in some large towns, 
the services being conducted by pujaris of the Agasa caste. They 
also worship \"ishnu and other gods. Their gurus are Satanis. 

The Golla are cowherds and dairymen. The Kadu or forest Golla 
(21,820) are distinct from the U'ru or town (lolla (15,618) and other 
(lolla (82,357) who belong to villages, and the two neither eat together 
nor intermarry. The subivisions of the caste are very numerous and 
are returned as follows : — Alia, Arava, Bokkasada, Bigamudre, 
Chapprada, Ch61iya, Doddi, Edaiyar, Gauli or Kachche (lauli, Gaulbans, 
Gayakavadi, G6pala, Gudejangaliga, Halu, Jambala, Kankar, Kannada, 
Karadi, Karma, Karne, Kavadiga, Kempu, Kilari, Kolalu, Konar, 
Kuduchappara, Kuri, Mande, Nalla, Namadakula, Nayi, Pata, Pata- 
yadavalu, Puja, Punagu, Piiri, Raja, Salja, Sambdra, Sonnan, Svari, 
Tellapusala, Telugu, Yadayar, Yakula, and Yadavakula. They worship 
Krishna, who is said to have been born in the caste. Formerly they, 
or a section of them, were largely employed in transporting money, 
both public and private, from one part of the country to another, and 
are said to have been famed for their integrity in such matters. From 
this circumstance they are also called Dhanapdla or treasury guards. 
The Kadu Golla are mostly in Tumkur District, and a good many in 
Chitaldroog District. They live in thatched huts outside villages and 
are inclined to be nomadic. vSome of their customs resemble those 
of the Kddu Kuruba. 

The Kuruba are shepherds and weavers of blankets or camblets 
{kainbli). The Kddu Kuruba have already been noticed under forest 
and hill tribes. The remaining great body of the civilized are divided 
into two tribes, the Hande Kuruba and Kuruba proper, who have no 
intercourse with one another. The latter worship Bire Devaru and 
are Sivites. Their priests are Brahmans and Jogis. The caste also 
worship a box, which they believe contains the wearing apparel of 
Krishna, under the name of Junjappa. The subdivisions of the caste 
are Bane, Banige, Banni, BelH, Bi'rappana A\'okkalu, Bydlada, 



252 ETffNOGRAJ'JIY 

(laiujakula, Ilalc, I lalh', 1 hilu, Hcggade, Hosa, Jadi, Jattedcvara, 
Kanibali, Kanakaiyanajati, Kannacja, Kenchala, Kotta, Kuri, Maji, 
Majjana, Majjige, Pata, S'ale, Sdvanti, Suggala, and Toppala. 'I'he Halu 
Kuruba (191,087), Hande Kuruba (7,944), and Kambali Kuruba (7,792), 
are mostly weavers of kamblis. Tarts of Chitaldroog and the town of 
KoLar are noted for the manufacture of a superior kind of a fine 
texture Hke homespun. The women spin wool. 

The Ganiga are oilpressers and oilmongers. They are known by 
different names, according to the special customs of their trade, sucli 
as Hegganiga, those who yoke two oxen to the stone oil-mill ; 
Kiruganiga (principally in Mysore District), those who make oil in 
wooden mills ; Wontiyettu Ganiga, those who use only one bullock in 
the mill. They are also known collectively as Jdtipana or Jotinagara, 
the light-giving tribe. The other subdivisions are Kannada, Telugu and 
Setti. There is a small section called Sajjana, who wear the linga and 
have no intercourse with the others. But the caste generally includes 
worshippers both of Vishnu and Siva. 

The Kumbdra are potters and tile-makers, and members of the 
village corporation. Of the two main divisions of Kannada and 
Telugu, the former claim to be superior. The subdivisions are 
Gaudakula, Gundikula, Kos'ava, Kulala, Navige, S'alivahana, Tamil 
and Vadama. 

The Uppdra or saltmakers are so called chiefly in the eastern 
Districts ; in the southern they are called Uppaliga and in the western 
Melusakkare. There are two classes, the Kannada and the Telugu. 
The former are principally engaged in making earth-salt, and the latter 
as bricklayers and builders. The well to-do or Sreshtha also undertake 
public works on contract and the erection of ordinary Hindu houses. 
They are both Vishnuites and S'lvites. 

The small body of Sarige or gold-lace makers are Rachevar by caste. 
They are all in the Bangalore and Kolar Districts. 

The Besta are fishermen, boatmen and palanquin-bearers. This is 
their designation principally in the east ; in the south they are called 
Toreya, Ambiga and Parivara ; in the west Kabyara and Ciange- 
makkalu. Those who speak Telugu call themselves Bhoyi. There 
are some other smaller sections of inferior rank, named Belli, 
Bhoja, Chammadi, Kabbaliga, Palaki, Palyapat, Rayaravuta and 
Sunnakallu. The latter are lime-burners, Many of the females are 
cotton-spinners and some of the men are weavers of cloth. There are 
also some in the employment of Government as peons and in other 
capacities. jNIost of the caste are worshippers of Siva. 

The Ti/iga are toddy-drawers, their hereditary occupation being to 



OUTCASTES 253 

extract the juice of palm-trees and to distil si^irits from it. In the 
Malnad they are known as Halepaika (15,000), and were formerly 
employed as soldiers under the local rulers. Many of them are now in 
household service. Most of them also hold land, and are agriculturist.s. 
The other subdivisions are Bilva, Devar, Sigroyidalu, Telugu Sanar, 
Tenginahdle. They worship all the Hindu deities, as well as S'aktis, 
and especially the pots containing toddy. 

The Holeya and Mddiga form the great body of outcastes. The 
former have already been described above (p. 215). These, in addi- 
tion to their duties as village watchmen, scouts and scavengers, are 
employed as field-hands, and in all kinds of manual labour. They also 
make various kinds of coarse cotton or woollen cloths in hand-looms, 
while the Aleman furnish recruits for the Barr sepoy regiments. There 
are two tribes, Kannada and Telugu Holeya, who eat together but do 
not intermarry. Their subdivisions are very numerous, but the follow- 
ing are said to be the principal ones :— Kannada, Gangadikara, 
Maggada, Morasu, Telugu, Tigula and Tamil Holeya or Pareya. The 
minor sections are Agani, Aleman, Balagai, Bellikula, Bhiimi, Chakra, 
Chalavadi, Chambula, Chavana, Chillaravar, Dasari, Collate, Jhadmali, 
Jintra, Joti, Kalu, Karnataka, Kapu, Konga, Kurupatte, L6k6ttara- 
pareya, Madya, Mala, Masalu, ]\Iattige, Nagaru, Nallar, Pale, Pa]li, 
Panne, Pasali, Rampada, Roppada, vSambu, Sangu, Sara, S'idlukula, 
S6mes'a, Tanga, Tangaja, Tirukula, Tude, T6ti, Uggranada, Vadaga, 
Valange, Yanne, ^'arka, Velagi, Vellala, Va]luvar, Veluva, Vanniyar, 
Vi'rabhagna and A'lrasambu. 

They are regarded as unclean by the four principal castes, and 
particularly by the Brahmans. In the rural parts, especially, when a 
Holeya has to deliver anything to a Brahman, he places it on the 
ground and retires to a distance, and when meeting one in a street or 
road he endeavours to get away as far as possible. Brahmans and 
Holeyas mutually avoid passing through the quarters they respectively 
occupy in the villages, and a wilful transgression in this respect, if it 
did not create a riot, would make purification necessary, and that not 
only on the part of the higher caste but even on the part of the lower. 
With all this, there is no restriction in the Mysore State on the acquisi- 
tion of land or property by Holeyas, and under the various blending 
influences of the times — educational, missionary, and others — members 
of this class are rising in importance and acquiring wealth. So nmch 
so ♦^hat in the cities and large towns their social disabilities are, to a 
great e.xtent, being overcome, and in public matters especially their 
complete ostracism can hardly be maintained. 

In the Maidan parts of the country, the Holeya, as the kulavddi, had 



254 ETHNOGRAPHY 

a recognized position in the village, and has always been regarded as 
an ultimate referee in cases of boundary disputes. In the Malnad he 
was merely a slave, of which there were two classes, — the huiUll, or 
slave born in the house, the hereditary serf of the family; and the 
mau'.id/, or slave of the soil, who was bought and sold with the land. 
These are, of course, now emancipated, and are benefiting by the free 
labour and higher wages connected with coffee plantations, often to the 
detriment of the areca-nut gardens, which were formerly kept up by 
their forced labour. 

The Madiga are similar to the Holeya, but are looked down upon 
by the latter as inferior. They are toti, or village scavengers, and 
nirga?iti, or watermen, in charge of the sluices of tanks and channels, 
regulating the .supply of water for irrigation. They are principally dis- 
tinguished from the Holeya in being workers in leather. The carcases 
of dead cattle are removed by them, and the hides dressed to provide 
the thongs by which bullocks are strapped to the yoke, the leather 
buckets used for raising water in kapile wells, and other articles 
required by the villagers. They are also cobblers, tanners and shoe- 
makers, and the increasing demand for hides is putting money into 
their purses. 

Their subdivisions are Arava, Chakkili, Chammar, (iampa, Gampa- 
sale, Goppasale, Hedigebiivva, Kanchala, Kannada, Marabiivva, 
Morasn, Matangi, Tirukula, Singadi, Tanigebuvva, Telugu, U'ru and 
A^ainadu. They are worshippers of Vishnu, S'iva and S'aktis, and have 
five different gurus or maths in the Mysore country, namely, at Kadave, 
Kodihalli, Kongarli, Nelamangala and Konkallu. They also call 
themselves Jambava and Matanga. There is, moreover, a general 
division of the caste into Des'abhaga, who do not intermarry with the 
others. Though subordinate to the maths above mentioned, they 
acknowledge S'rivaishnava Brahmans as their gurus. The Des'abhaga 
are composed of six classes, namely, Biljoru, ISIalloru, Amaravatiyavaru, 
Munigaju, Yanamaloru and Morabuvvadavaru. 

Certain privileges enjoyed by the Holeya and Madiga in regard to 
temple worship will be found described in connection with Melukote 
and Belur. 

The Mbchi (746) are not to be classed with the Madiga, except in 
the matter of working in leather. They are immigrants, who, it is said, 
came into Mysore with Khasim Khan, the general of Aurangzeb, and 
settled originally in Sira and Kolar. They claim to be Kshatriyas and 
Rajputs, pretensions which are not generally admitted. They are shoe- 
makers and saddlers by trade, and all S'aivas by faith. They have sub- 
divisions called Gujarat, Kannada, Kempala and Marata. 



Wodda 


. 107,203 


Mecia 


4,261 


Beda 


217,128 


Jogi, &c 


10,884 


Domha, Jetti ... 


3-703 


(laradiga 


S76 



WODDAS 255 

The next class (E) is styled ^'agrant Minor Artisans and Performers, 
and is composed of the following groups : — 

Earth-workers and Stone-dressers 

Mat and Basket-makers 

Hunters and Fowlers 

Miscellaneous, and Disreputal)le Livers 

Tumblers and Acrobats 

jugglers, Snake-charmers, i\;c 

The large and useful class of JVoddas is composed of Kallu ^^'odda and 
Mannu Wodda, between whom there is no social intercourse, nor any 
intermarriage. Both worship all the Hindu deities and S'aktis, but a 
goddess named Yellama seems to be a special object of reverence. 
The Kallu Wodda are stonemasons, quarrying, transporting, and build- 
ing with stone, and very dexterous in moving large masses of it by 
simple mechanical means. They consider themselves superior to the 
Mannu Wodda. The latter are chiefly tank-diggers, well-sinkers, and 
generally skilful navvies for all kinds of earthwork, the men digging 
and the women removing the earth. Though a hard-working class, 
they have the reputation of assisting professional thieves in committing 
dacoities and robberies, j)rincipally, however, by giving information as 
to where and how plunder may be easily obtained. The young and 
robust of the Mannu Wodda of both sexes travel about in caravans in 
search of employment, taking with them their infants and huts, which 
consist of a few sticks and mats. Wherever they obtain any large 
earthwork, they form an encampment in the neighbourhood. The 
older members settle in the outskirts of towns, where many of both 
sexes now find employment in various capacities in connection with 
sanitary conservancy. The Wodda, as their name indicates, were 
originally immigrants from Orissa and the Telugu country, and they 
generally speak Telugu. They eat meat and drink spirits, and are 
given to polygamy. The men and women of the caste eat together. 
The subdivisions are Bailu, Bhdja, B6yi, Haje, Jarupa, Jangalpatte- 
burusu, Telugu, Tigala, Uppu and U'ru. They are most numerous 
in the eastern and northern Districts. 

The Mida or (lauriga are mat and basket-makers, and workers in 
bamboo and cane. One-fourth arc in Shimoga District, and a good 
number in Mysore and Kadur Districts. 

The Bcda or Nayaka consist of two divisions, Telugu and Kannada, 
who neither eat together nor intermarry. One-third of the number are 
in ("hitaldroog District, and the greater proportion of the rest in Kolar 
and 'I'umkur Districts. They were formerly hunters and soldiers by 
profession. Most of the Mysore Pallegars belong to this caste, and 



256 ETHNOGRAJ'IfY 

the famous infantry of Haidar and Tipu was largely composed of 
B(^das. Now their principal occupation is agriculture, labour and 
Government service as revenue peons and village police. They claim 
descent from ^'almiki, the author of the Ramayana, and are chiefly 
Vaishnavas, hut worship all the Hindu deities. In some parts they 
erect a circular hut for a temple, with a stake in the middle, which is 
the god. In common with the Golla, Kuruba, Mddiga and other 
classes, they often dedicate the eldest daughter in a family in which no 
son is born, as a Basavi or prostitute ; and a girl falling ill is similarly 
vowed to be left unmarried, which means the same thing. The main 
divisions are Halu (3,929), Nayaka (15,453), Pajlegar (48), Barika, 
Kannaiyanajati, Kirataka, and Machi or Myasa (9,175). The minor 
subdivisions are Arava, Balajdgi, Gujjari, Hajli, Kanaka, Modayavaru, 
Muchchalamire, Mugla, Nagi, Telugu and Yanamala. The Machi or 
Mydsa, also called Chunchu, call for special notice. Many of them live 
in hills and in temporary huts outside inhabited places. The remarkable 
point about them is that they practise the rite of circumcision, which is 
performed on the boys of ten or twelve years of age. They also eschew 
all strong drink, and that so scrupulously that they will not use materials 
from the date-palm in their buildings, nor even touch them. On the 
other hand they eat beef, but of birds only partridge and quail. Possibly 
these peculiarities may have arisen from forced conversion to Islam in 
the days of Tipu. With the Musalman rite they also combine Hindu 
usages at the initiation of boys, and in the segregation of women in child- 
birth follow the customs of other quasi jungle tribes. The dead are cre- 
mated, and their ashes scattered on tangadi bushes {cassia auricidata). 

In the Miscellaneous group Xh^t Jbgi (9,692) are the most numerous. 
They are mendicant devotees recruited from all castes. Their divisions 
are Gantij6gi, Gorava, Helava, Jangaliga, Monda, Pakanati, Pichcha- 
kunte, Sillekyata and Uddinakorava. They mostly pretend to be 
fortune-tellers, while the Jangaliga and Pakanati deal in drugs, and 
wander about calling out the particular diseases they profess to cure by 
means of their wares. 

The Biididmdike (1,092) are gypsy beggars and fortune-tellers from 
the Mahratta country, one section being called Busare. They pretend 
to consult birds and reptiles, and through them to predict future events. 
They use a small double-headed drum, which is sounded by whisking it 
about so as to be struck by the knotted ends of a string attached to 
each side. The others of this group of beggars are Sudugadusidda 
(46), Ciondaliga (29), Pandaram and Valluvar (15), Karma (7), and 
S'aniyar (3). The first are all in Shimoga District, and the last three 
in the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore. 



MUSALMANS 257 

The Tumblers and Acrobats include Domba (2,500) and Jatti (1,203). 
The former are buffoons, tumblers, and <ynake-charmers. They are 
supposed to be descendants of an aboriginal tribe from the north of India 
(Doms probably). The Jatti or Jetti, also called Mushiiga in the 
western Districts, are professional athletes and wrestlers, or Malla. 
They are Rachevar by caste. Nearly a half are in the Mysore District. 
A number are maintained in connection with the palace, and are 
trained from infancy in daily exercises for the express purpose of 
exhibition. x\.n interesting account of this order, as it existed at the 
beginning of the century, extracted from Wilks, was given in the first 
edition. 

The group of Garudiga and M6(jihidiyuva consists of jugglers, snake- 
charmers, and conjurers. 

The last class (F) is styled Races and Nationalities, numbering 
291,168, and includes the Musalmans and Europeans, with Eurasians 
and Native Christians. The following are the figures : — 

Asiatic Races of reputed foreign cjrigin — 

Musalmans ... ... ... ... .. ... 244,601 

I'arsis, Jews, Chinese, (S:c ... ... ... ... 79 

Mixed Asiatic Races — 

Labbe 3, 717 

Pinjari ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2,180 

Pindari ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 2,048 

Mapile and others ... ... ... ... ... 427 

Non-Asiatic Races^ 

English, Scotch and Irish ... ... ... ... 5)943 

Other Europeans ... ... ... ... ... 288 

Eurasians ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3, 931 

Native Christians ... ... ... ... ... ... 27,954 

The Musalmans belong to one of two religious sect.s — the Sunni and 
Shiah — the great majority being Sunnis. They are so called from 
accepting the Sunnat or traditional law, based on the sayings and 
practice of Muhammad, as of authority supplementary to the Kuran. 
They also revere equally the four successors of the prophet, alleging that 
he made no arrangements for hereditary succession and left the matter 
to the faithful. The Shiahs, on the other hand, attach supreme impor- 
tance to the lineal descent of the Imam or head of the faithful. They 
therefore reject the claims of the three Khalifs that succeeded 
Muhammad and recognize Ali, the fourth Khalif, husband of Fatima, 
the prophet's only surviving child, as the true Imam, followed by their 
two sons Hasan and Hu.sain. To the usual formula of belief they add 
"Ali is the Khalif of God." 

The following is the distribution of the Musalmans in tlu' several 

s 



= 58 



ETHNOGRAJ'II Y 



Districts. There arc also 892 Sharif, 244 Memaii, and 861 returned 
only as Musahnans, besides 28 Arabs, 2 Kandaharis, and 2 lialuchis. 





i 


^ 


^ 


6 


i 


M 


c 


o" 


Class. 


a 
to 






g 


i 


E 


•5 


■n 






Ui 


s 
H 


^ 


X 


SI 


t^ 





Shekh ... 


38,923 


8,831 


14,247 


28,634 


9,324 


18,834 


10,912 


12,842 


.Sai\i(l ... 


11,407 


6,541 


3,009 


7,327 


1,705 


4,470 


1,943 


2,271 


Mu-^hal ... 


1,999 


1,264 


1,032 


1,413 


481 


2,615 


376 


237 


I'athan ... 


11,057 


4,937 


4,462 


7,586 


1,828 


3,753 


2,117 


1,839 


Haiiifi ... 


33 


6 


127 


433 


139 


343 


14 


3 


Daire 


2,419 


— • 


I 


80 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Lal)be ... 


1,098 


199 


92 


1,973 


67 


119 


161 


8 


Ma]iile ... 


28 


— 


— 


18 


71 


20 


41 




Pinjari ... 


124 


447 


617 


— 


26 


10 


I 


955 


Pindari ... 

■ 


180 




808 


1,027 


~ 


11 


15,565 




Total ... 


67,268 


22,225 


24,395 


48,491 


13,641 


30,197 


18,155 



The four classes first above given are those of reputed pure descent. 
But although good families doubtless remain in various parts, the bulk 
are of mixed descent, due to intermarriage and conversions, voluntary 
or enforced. Shekh denotes properly a lineal descendant from 
Muhammad through his successors Abu Bakr and Umar ; and Saiyid, 
a descendant through his son-in-law Ali and Husain. But these titles 
have probably been often assumed by converts promiscuously without 
reference to their signification. Pathans are of Afghan origin, descen- 
dants of Kutb-ud-Din, the founder of the Pathan dynast}', and his 
followers ; while Mughals are descended from Tartar chiefs who 
followed Tamerlane into India. The Sharif, nearly all in Tumkur 
District, claim to be descended from nobility. 

The Hanifi are a sect of Sunnis who follow the teachings and tradi- 
tions of Abu Hanifa, one of the four great doctors of Islam. In 
practice one of their principal distinctions is in multiplying ceremonial 
ablutions. The Daire or Mahdavi are a sect peculiar to Mysore, 
principally settled at Channapatna in the Bangalore District, and at 
Bannur and Kirigaval in the Mysore District. Their belief is that the 
Mahdi has already appeared in the person of one Saiyid Ahmed, who 
arose in Gujarat about 400 years ago claiming to be such. He obtained 
a number of followers and settled in Jivanpur in the Nizam's Domin- 
ions. Eventually, being worsted in a great religious controversy, they 
were driven out of the Haidarabad country and found an abode at 
Channapatna. They have a separate mosque of their own, in which 
their priest, it is said, concludes prayers with the words " the Imam 



EUROPEANS 259 

Mahdi has come and gone," the people responding in assent, and 
denouncing all who disbelieve it as infidels. They do not intermarry 
with the rest of the Musalmans. The Daire carry on an active 
trade in silk with the western coast, and are generally a well-to-do 
class. 

The Arabs, Kandaharis and Baluchis are mostly in Bangalore, and 
come here as horse-dealers and traders in cloth. 

The Labbe and Mapile^ are by origin descendants of intermarriage 
between foreign traders (Arabs and Persians), driven to India by 
persecution in the eighth century, and women of the country, hut the 
latter designation was taken by the children of those forcibly converted 
to Islam in Malabar in the persecutions of Tipu Sultan's time. The 
Labbe belong to the Coromandel coast, their principal seat being at 
Negapatam, while the Mapile belong to the Malabar coast. The 
former speak Tamil and the latter Malayalam. The Labbe are an 
enterprising class of traders, settled in nearly all the large towns. They 
are vendors of hardware, collectors of hides, and large traders in coffee 
produce, but take up any kind of lucrative business. They are also 
established in considerable strength as agriculturists at Gargesvari in 
the Mysore District. 

The Meman, all in the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore, are 
immigrants from Cutch, come here for trade. By origin they appear to 
have been Rajputs. The Pinjari, as their name indicates, are cleaners 
of cotton. They do not intermarry with other Musalmans, who as a rule 
have no intercourse with them. The Pindari were to a great extent 
Afghans, Mahrattas and Jats in origin, disbanded from the service of 
the Mughal empire, but became known as a tribe of freebooters who 
ravaged India on a grand scale, with large armies, and gave rise to many 
wars. They were finally suppressed in Central India in 181 7 in the 
time of the Marquess of Hastings. They are now settled down in the 
pursuit of peaceful occupations in agriculture and Government service 
of various kinds. 

'I'he Parsis (35) arc from liombay, and engaged in trade, except a 
few who are in Government service. One-half are in Mysore, and most 
of the remainder are in Bangalore. Of the Jews (25), the majority are 
in Hassan District, relatives of an official there. The Armenians (8), 
Chinese (7), Burmese (4), and Singalese (3), are all in Bangalore. 

Of Europeans (6,231), the following is the distribution of the 
nationalities that are strongest in numbers : — 

' Labile is supposed to be derived from the Arabic labbaik, " here I am," being 
the response of slaves to the call of their masters. Mdpile is apjiarently from 
Mapilla, Malayalam for " son-in-law." 

S 2 



26o 



ETHNOGRAPHY 





Bangalore. 




I2 




X 


in 


•5 

6 

I 
3 





Nation. 


C. and M. 
Station. 


District. 


"o 5 


2 
u 


English 

Scotch 

Irish 

French 

German 

Italian 


3.933 

303 

583 

62 

44 
2 


287 
I 
I 
2 

4 

I 


216 

I 
85 


27 


215 
3 

I 
6 
2 

2 


128 

2 

I 


31 

I 


17 



Of those from the United Kingdom, a considerable proportion 
in the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore belong to the British 
Army. Such as are not included in the military are engaged in civil 
employ of various kinds under Government, or Railway Companies, 
and in business or trade, while a number are missionaries, pensioners, 
and so forth. The Europeans in Kolar District are mostly connected 
with the gold mines, all the Italians there being miners. Those in 
Mysore who are not Government servants or employed under the 
Palace, are as in Bangalore. The Europeans in Kadur and Hassan 
Districts are principally coffee-planters. Besides the foregoing there 
are eleven Spaniards, eight Swiss, four Austrians, two Belgians, two 
Danes, and twenty-four others. Nearly all are in Bangalore, except six 
of the Swiss, who are in Kadur District. 

The Eurasians number 3,931, of whom 2,649 ^^^ i'^ the Civil and 
Military Station of Bangalore, and 401 in the Bangalore District. 
In the other Districts there are 276 in Kolar, 17 in Tumkur, 208 
in Mysore, 97 in Hassan, 16 in Shimoga, 229 in Kadur, and 38 in 
Chitaldroog. The remarks under Europeans in great measure apply 
to these also, but they are as a rule in more subordinate positions. 
Anglo- Indian and Eurasian colonies have been formed at Whitefield 
and Sausmond, about fifteen miles to the east of Bangalore, the 
residents of which are occupied in agriculture and dairy-farming. 

The Native Christians are mostly Hindu by origin. Of the total 
number of 27,954, as many as 10,252 are in the Civil and Military 
Station, and 5,404 more in the District of Bangalore. Of the remain- 
ing Districts there are 2,418 in Kolar, 699 in Tumkur, 2,509 in Mysore, 
3,067 in Hassan, 1,603 '^^ Shimoga, 1,773 in Kadur, and 229 in Chital- 
droog. A large number are no doubt domestic servants to Europeans 
and Eurasians, but they are found in all grades of life, and a certain 
proportion are settled in agricultural villages of their own, established 
by various missionary agencies. This is especially the case in the 
eastern and southern Districts. The Christian settlement of Sathalli in 
the Hassan District dates from the time of the Abbe Dubois, the 
Ijeginning of the century. 



URBAN POPULATION 



261 



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262 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



'J'herc arc thus twenty-four tcjwns with a po[)ulatioii exceeding 5,000, 
namely, 



Hanf^aloic 


.. 180,366 


Davangcre ... 


.. 8,061 


Nanjangud ... 


6,421 


Mysore ... 


.. 74,048 


Chikmagalur 


.. 7,«i6 


I larihar 


6,385 


Seriiigajwtani 


• • 12,55' 


Anckal 


■• 7,419 


Closepet 


6,236 


Kolar 


.. 12,148 


I)od Ballapur 


• • 7,141 


Hole Narsipiir 


5,75« 


Shimoga ... 


■ ■ 11,340 


Tarikere 


.. 7,056 


Malavalli . . . 


5,639 


Tiimkur ... 


.. 11,086 


Devanhalli ... 


.. 6,693 


Hunsur 


5,141 


Chik Ballapur 


10,623 


Hassan 


.. 6,654 


Mulbagal 


5,026 


Channapatna 


9,160 


Sidlaghalta... 


.. 6,572 


Shikarpu-r ... 


5,011 



to which, in order to make up the totals given, must be added the 
large village of Agara in Mysore District, with 5,218 inhabitants ; and 
the village of Wokkaleri in Kolar District, where the occurrence of a 
large festival at the time of the census 'raised the population to 7,273. 

Besides these, there are seventy-four other smaller municipal towns, 
namely, 



II with population of over 4,000 
15 ,, ,, ,, 3,000 



26 with population of over 2,000 
22 ,, ,, ,, 1,200 



The town population may thus be reckoned as 626,558, forming 
127 per cent, of the total. 

To estimate the growth of towns during the present century the 
following statistics are available : — 



Town 


1852 


1858 


1871 


1881 


1891 


Bangalore 


134,628 


175,630 


142,513 


155,857 


180,366 


Mysore 


54,729 


55,761 


57,815 


60,292 


74,048 


Seringapatam 


12,744 


14,928 


10,594 


11,734 


12,551 


Kolar 


— 


— 


9,924 


11,172 


12,148 


Shimoga 


— 


14,186 


11,034 


12,040 


11,340 


Tumkur 


— 


9,339 


II , 1 70 


9,909 


11,088 


Chik Ballapur 


— 




9,882 


9,183 


10,623 



Except in Bangalore and Mysore these figures do not disclose any 
firmly established tendency to a decided increase in the urban popula- 
tion in the case of the principal towns. 

Other particulars regarding the occupations, »S:c. of the people, are 
given under each District in Vol. II. 



CHARACTER. DRESS, &c. 

The people of Mysore are a hardy and well-formed race, fairer as a 
rule than those of the low country, and with regular features. " I have 
never," says Buchanan, " seen finer forms than even the labouring 



DWELLINGS 263 

women of that country frequently possess. Their necks and arms are 
in particular remarkably well-shaped." 

In public character and disposition they may be described as the 
most conservative of the South Indian races. In practice, perhaps they 
exhibit a greater aptitude for the labours of the field and the tending of 
cattle than for other occupations. With the bucolic turn of mind there 
was no doubt much stolidity to be found among the agrestic hinds, and 
till lately predial slaves, but accompanied with blind devotion and 
simple fidelity to their masters. The better specimens of headmen, on 
the other hand, are dignified and self-reliant, commanding and gaining 
respect, proud of hospitality, sagacious observers, shrewd in conversa- 
tion and with a vein of homely good sense and humour. The 
industrial classes and field- labourers are very hard-working, especially 
the women. 

The dwellings of the people are generally built of mud, one-storeyed 
and low, with few, if any, openings outwards e.xcept the door, but 
possessed of courtyards within, surrounded with verandahs, and open 
to the sky. In the better houses these are well-paved and drained, 
while the wooden pillars are elaborately carved or painted. The huts 
of the outcaste and poorer classes are thatched, but the houses of the 
higher orders are covered with either terraced or tiled roofs, the latter, 
uiore especially in the west, where the rainfall is heavy. 

The villages are pretty generally surrounded with a thick hedge of 
thorn, a protection in former days against the attacks of the Mahratta 
cavalry. For the same reason the entrance is often a flat-arched stone 
gateway, so constructed as to present an obstacle to a horseman. In 
the districts lying north-east from the Baba Budans, villages commonly 
have the remains of a round tower in the middle, a somewhat 
picturesque feature, erected in former days as a place of retreat for the 
women and children in case of attack. Most important villages and 
towns have a considerable fort of mud or stone, also the erection of 
former troublous times, when every gauda aimed at being a palegar, and 
every palegar at becoming independent. The fort is the quarter 
generally affected by the Brahmans, and contains the principal temple. 
The pete or market, which invariably adjoins the fort at a greater or 
less distance beyond the walls, is the residence of the other orders. 

There is seldom any system in the arrangement of streets, which are 
often very roughly paved, and nearly always abounding in filth. The 
only motive for the formation of wide and regular streets in some of the 
towns is to provide for the temple-car being drawn round at the annual 
festival. All other lines of way are irregular beyond description. But 
improvements, both in laying out the streets and in their sanitation, are 



264 ETIINOGRAPJIY 

now to be seen in many places which have been brought under 
municipal regulations. 

White or coloured cotton stuffs of stout texture supply the principal 
dress of the people, with a woollen kamhii as an outer covering for the 
night or a protection against cold and damp. Brahmans are bare- 
headed, the head l)eing shaved all except the tuft at the crown {juttte), 
and most of the Hindus observe the same practice. The moustache is 
the only hair permanently worn on the face. The dhotra, a thin sheet, 
covers the lower limbs, one end being gathered into folds in front and 
the other passed between the legs and tucked in at the waist behind. 
A similar garment is thrown over the shoulders. To protect the head, 
a bright magenta worsted cap is often donned, such as a brewer's dray- 
man wears, but not in the same jaunty manner, for it is pulled well 
down over the ears and back of the neck. This and a scarlet, green, 
or blue blanket are favourite articles of attire for the early morning or 
on a journey. In attending offices Brahmans wear a turban {rwndl) 
and a long coat {aiigi), either woollen or cotton. This also is more or 
less the costume of the merchant class. A fashion has sprung up 
among college students of wearing a sort of smoking-cap instead of a 
turban. The ryots are generally content with a turban and a kambli, 
with most frequently a short pair of drawers {challand). When not at 
work they often wear a blouse or short smock-frock. 

The dress of the women is generally very becoming and modest. A 
tight-fitting short bodice {kiipsd) is universally worn, leaving the arms, 
neck, throat, and middle bare, the two ends being tied in a knot in 
front. It is generally of a gay colour, or variegated with borders and 
gussets of contrasting colours, which set off the figure to advantage. 
In the colder parts, to the west, a somewhat loose jacket, covering all 
the upper part of the body and the arms, is worn instead. The shire 
or sari, a long sheet, the ordinary colours worn being indigo or a dull 
red with yellow borders, is wrapped round the lower part of the body, 
coming down to the ankle. One end is gathered into a large bunch of 
folds in front, while the other, passed across the bosom and over the 
head, hangs freely over the right shoulder. In the west it is tied there 
in a knot. The Brahmani women pass the lower end of the cloth 
between the legs and tuck it in at the waist behind, which leaves the 
limbs more free. Their heads too are not covered, the hair being 
gathered into one large plait, which hangs straight down the back, very 
effectively decorated at the crown and at different points with richly- 
chased circular golden cauls and bosses. 

The Vaisya women are similarly dressed, but often with less good 
taste. As the fair golden-olive complexion natural to most Brahmani 



DRESS 265 

girls is much admired, those of the sex who are not so fair smear them- 
selves with saffron to produce a yellow tint, and not only on their cheeks 
but over their arms and legs. This practice, which seems very common 
with the trading class, is by no means attractive. Neither is the habit 
of blackening the teeth, adopted by married women. Many fair women 
are elaborately tattooed on the arms from the wrist to the elbow. The 
Sudra women generally gather the hair into a chignon or bunch behind, 
stuffed out with a fleece of wool, and run a large pin through, with an 
ornamental silver head to it, which is rather becoming. In the Malnad 
the women often do up the back hair in a very picturesque manner, 
with a plaited arrangement of the cream white ketaki blossom {patidanus 
odoraiissimus), or even with orchid blossoms or pink cluster roses. 

Ornaments are commonly worn in the ears and nose, and on the 
arms, with rings on the fingers and toes, and as many and costly 
necklets and chains round the neck as means will allow. Chains 
frequently connect the upper rim of the ear with the ornamental pin in 
the back hair, and have a pretty effect. The richer Brahmani and other 
girls wear silver anklets, often of a very ponderous make, which are by 
no means elegant. A silver zone clasped in front is a common article 
of attire among all but the poorer women, and gives a pleasing finish to 
the graceful costume. 

It would be useless to attempt to go through a description of the 
varieties of Hindu dress in different parts. The only marked differ- 
ences are in the Malnad, as described under Manjarabad, and the dress 
of the Lambani women. 

The Muhammadan dress for men differs chiefly in cut and colour, 
and in the wearing of long loose drawers. But for undress a piece of 
dark plaided stuff is worn like the dhotra. Muhammadans shave the 
head completely, but retain all the hair of the face. A skull-cap is worn, 
over which the turban is tied in full dress. The women wear a coloured 
petticoat and bodice, with a large white sheet enveloping the head and 
the whole person, and pulled also over the face. 

The higher Hindus wear leather slippers, curled up at the toe and 
turned down at the heel, but the labouring classes wear heavy sandals, 
with wooden or leather soles and leather straps. The Muhammadans 
also wear the slipper, but smaller, and frequently a very substantial big 
shoe, covering the whole foot. Women are never shod, except occa- 
sionally on a journey, or in very stony places, when they sometimes 
wear sandals. 

Members of the various Hindu orders are known by the sectarian 
marks painted on their foreheads. Married women commonly wear a 
wafer-spot or patch of vermilion, or sometimes of sandal-powder, on the 



266 



EllfNOGRAJ'J/V 



forehead. Tiiu Lingayits arc known by the pecuh'ar-shaped silver box, 
the shrine of a small black stone emblematic of the linga, which is 
worn suspended by a string from the neck and hanging on the chest. 
'J'he working-classes of that order often tie the linga in a piece of hand- 
kerchief round the arm above the elbow. The commoner religious 
mendicants dress in a variety of grotesque and harlequin costumes. 
But garments dyed with red ochre or saffron are the commonest indica- 
tion of a sacred calling. 



Alphabetical List of Castes mentioned in this chapter. 



A'chari 248 

Ach]iiljc 228 

A'di (iianajiga) 246 

,, S'aiva 237 

,, (Wokkaliga) 229 

Agamudi 247 

Agani 253 

Agarvdla 247 

Agasa 223, 

226, 247, 250 

Agasale 248 

Aggada (Banajiga) 

246 

,, Koracha233 

Agni (Tigala) 231 

,, Wokkaliga 229 

Agramudi 229 

Agra Vanniar 231 

Aiyangar 236 

Akkasale 

222, 226, 248 
A'kuleti 246 

A'ladakapu 229 

Aleman 253 

AUa 251 

Aniaravatiyavaru 

254 

Ambiga 252 

Anche Reddi 229 

A'ndhra 234 

A'ne Kurulia 213 

Angalika 229 

A'radhya 241 

Arale 246 

Aramudi 229 

Arasu 227 

Arava Beda 256 

,, Goila 251 

,, Madiga 254 

,, I'anchala 248 

,, Reddi 229 

,, Tigala 231 

Aravattokkalu 

237-8 

A ruvelu 237-8 

,, Niyogi 237-8 

Asaga 250 

Ashtasahasra 237 



Attan-kutatar 240 1 
Avadhuta 243 { 

Ayodhyanagara 247 
Ayya 242 

I 

Babbur Kamme 

^ 237, 238 
Bachanige 229 

Bada Arasu 227 

Badagalava 246 

Badaganad 237 

Badagar 229 

Badagi 222, 226, 248 
Bailu Akkasale 248 \ 

, , Kammara 

233> 249 I 

,, Wodda 255 I 
Bairagi 227, 242-3 
Bais 237 j 

Bajantri 249 

Bakkal 247 

Balagai 215, 253 
Balaji 249 

Balajogi 256 

Bale 246 

Banajiga222-3, 245-6 
Bane 251 

Banige 251 I 

Baniya 227, 245, 247 
Banjari 231 [ 

Bannadava 246 ' 

Bannagara 245 

Banni 251 

Banta 246 

Barika 256 

Baruva 228 

Basale 246 

Basavi 245 

Bavaji 242 

Bavane 246 

Beda 223, 226, 255 
Belagude 229 

Belakuvadi 229 

Bellala 228 

Beiiaia Reddi 229 
Belli (Agasa) 250 

,, (Besla) 252 

,, (Kuruba) 251 



Bellikula 


253 


Chalavadi 


253 


Bengali 


249 


Cham 


227 


Beralukoduva 




Chambula 


253 


228, 


230 


Chammadi 


252 


Besta 




Chanimdr 


254 


223, 226, 247, 


252 


Chandra Bans 


227 


Bettadpura 


239 


Chandra Thakiir 227 


Betta Kuruba 


213 


Chapprada 


251 


Bettale 


233 


Charanti 


241 


Bevina Kuruba 


213 


Chattri 


227 


Bhagavata 2 


36-7 


Chavan 


227 


Bhaniya 


228 


Chavana 


253 


Bhat Raju 226, 


244 


Chillaravar 


253 


Bhattarachdrya 


240 


Chippiga 


249 


Bheri 223, 


247 


Chitapavan 


237 


Bheris'etti 


246 


Chitari 


245 


Bhogar 


229 


Chitragara 223 


245 


Bhoja (Besta) 


252 


Chittala 


229 


,, (Wodda) 


255 


Choli 


240 


Bhoyi 


252 


Choliya 


251 


Bhumda 


233 


Chunchu 


256 


Bhumi 


253 






Bhusa 


228 


Dabbe 


233 


Bhutya 


231 


Daire 


258 


Bidara 


246 


Dandasetti 


249 


Bigamudre 


251 


Dandi 


243 


Bilimagga 249-50 


Darji 226, 247 


249 


Biiloru 


254 


Dasakuta 


236 


Bilva 212, 


253 


Dasa Banajiga 


246 


Binlakur 


227 


,, (Wokkaliga)229 


Birappana Wokkalu 


Dasari 226, 234 


242 




251 


,, (Holeya) 


253 


Bodhdyana 


237 


Dasavantige 


229 


Bogavaru 


245 


Dekal Thakiir 


227 


Bokkasada 


251 


Desast'ha 2 


37-S 


Bondili 


227 


Des'ayi 


246 


Boyi" 


255 


Devaddsi 


245 


Brahman 226, 


233 


De\adiga 


246 


Brahmarishi 


231 


Devalaka 


237 


Brihachcharana 




Devanga 223, 


249 


'237-8 


Devar 


253 


Brinjari 


231 


Devara makkalu 212 


Budabudike226 


,256 


Dhalya 


233 


Busare 


256 


Dhanapala 


223 


Bydlada 


251 


Dharma Dasari 


242 






Dharmaraju 


246 


Chakkili 


254 


Dharmarajukap 


u 


Chakra 


253 




231 



LIST OF CASTES 



267 



Dhatii 


227 


Clovar 227 


I)h(')l)i 


250 


(judama Dasari 242 


1 )humavatpa(!a 


231 


thidtjangaliga 251 


Digambara 242 


244 


Gudikara 249 


Dodava 


247 


Chijjari 256 


Dodd'i 


251 


Ciundikula 252 


Domba 226, 


255 


(".urust'hala 228,241 


Dravida 234, 2 


37-« 


C'lujarat ^Iochi 254 
Gujarali 222, 227, 


Edaiyar 


251 


245, 247 


Enibar 


240 


(iiirjara Brahman 


luiiieri 


231 


234 



Oadakanti 229 

Clada Lingayit 246 
Gaddigeyava 246 
Gaharvariya Thakur 

221 

Gajulabalji 246 

Gampa 254 

Gampasale 254 

Ganadhis'vara 242 
Gandhudil^alji 246 
Ganga 246 

Gangadikara 217, 
228-9, 253 
Gangemakkalu 252 
Ganiga 222, 226, 
247, 252 
Gaiitijogi 256 

Ganiu 233 

Garadiga 227, 255, 

257 
Gaiidamane 228 
GaiuUi Brahman 234 
, , Tigala 23 1 
Gaudakula 252 

Gaudu 246 

Gaulljans 251 

Gauli 251 

Gaiiiiga 228 

Gaundar 249 

Gaurija 255 1 

Ciausanige 229 

Gayaka 245 

Gayakavadi 251 
Gaya Thakur 227 
Gazula 233 

Gejjegara 249 

Gerhaiji 246 

Ghaniya 229 

Golla 223, 226, 247, 

251 
Gollatc 253 

Gondaliga 227, 256 
Gongadi 233 

Goniga 226, 247, 
249-50 
Gopdla 25 1 

Goppasale 254 

Gorava 256 

Gosangi 229 i 

Gosdyi 227, 242-3 



Haiga 216, 237, 239 
Hajam 249 

Haje Kannatliga 

' 237-8 

,, Karnatka 237-8 

,, Kuril ba 252 

Ilajemakkaju 250 

Haiepaika 212, 

228-30,253 

Hajepaiki 212 

Hale Tigala 231 

Haie Wodda 255 

Haili Beda 256 

,, Kuruba 251 

,, Tigala 231 

Hallikara 229-30 

Haiu Beda 256 



Jadi 




252 


Jahala \'eljala 


229 


Jaina 223, 


233. 


242, 




245 


247 


Jalagara 


227 


248 


Jaman 




247 


Jambava 


251 


254 


Jamkhanvala 


250 


Janapa 




250 


Jangtiliga 




256 


Jangalpatt 


iburusu 






255 


Jangama 




241 


Jarupa 




255 


Jat 


227 


245 


Jattedevara 


252 


Jatii 




257 


Jenu Kuru 


ba 


213, 
233 


Jetti 


255 


257 


Jhadmali 




253 


Jinagara 




245 


Jintra 




253 


Jogda 




232 



J6gi226, 232, 255-6 
Joti 253 

Jotibanajiga 246 
Julinagara 252 

Jotipana 252 



„ Goila 


251 


Kabbaliga 


252 


,, Kuruba 


2!;2 


Kachche Gauli 


251 


,, Wokkaliga 

228-9 


Kadambiyar 
Kridu Golla 


240 
251 


Hande 2 


51-2 


, , Kuruba 


213. 


Hanifi 


258 


231, 233 


251 


Hasular 


214 


Kaikoja 2 


45-6 


Havika 216,23; 


>239 


Kaikota 


237 


Hebbar 
Iledigebuva 
Heggade 
Hegganiga 223 
Helava 


240 

254 
252 
252 
256 


Kalayi 
Kalkutaka 
Kajjar 

Kaiiu Wodda 
Kalu 


246 
248 
249 
255 
253 


Hema Reddi 


228 


Kamati 


223 


Hemniigeyar 


240 


Kama-wokkalu 


229 


Hindustani 


227 


Kanibali 


252 


Hirihasube 


246 


Kambaliir 2 


37-8 


Holeya 215, 


223, 


Kammadi Kedc 


1229 


226, 246-7 


253 


Kammara 222, 


226, 


Honne Reddi 


228 


2 


48-9 


Hosadevara 


229 


Kammc 2 


v-^ 


Hosa Kuruba 
Hoysaniga 2 


252 
37-8 


,, Banajga246 
,, Reddi 228 


lluvvadiga 


246 


Kamsi 
Kanaka 227 


227 
256 


I'diga 226, 247, 252 
llijiatnalkaravaru 


Kanakaiyanajat 
Kanakkan 


1252 
244 


237 
I'raganti MadivaH 


Kanchala 
Kanchugara 


254 
222, 




250 


227, 


248 


Iruliga 214, 


226, 


Kandadc 


240 


231. 

Jada 


233 
249 


Kandappajji 
Kanda Raju 


231 
237 



Kandavara 237, 239 

Kanes'alu 229 

Kankar 251 

Kannada Agasa 250 

,, Banajiga 246 

,, Becla 255 

, , Devanga 249 

,, Ganiga 252 

,, Gojja 251 

,, Holeya 253 

,, Kamnie 237-8 

, , K6mati 246 

,, Koracha 233 

,, Korama 233 

,, Kumbara 252 

,, Kuruba 252 

,, Madiga 254 

,, Mochi 251 

,, Raju 227 

,, Tigala 231 

,, Uppara 252 

,, Wokkaliga 229 

Kannadiga 246 

Kannaiyana Jali 256 

Kant'ha Pavade 246 

Kanva 237 

Kanyakubja 224 

Kapali 246 

Kapu 253 

Kapu Reddi 229 

Kapus'akalavadu 

'250 
Karade 237, 239 
Karadi 251 

Karaje 229 

Karhade 239 

Kariga 229 

Karma 227, 251, 256 
Karman 249 

Karnata 249 

Karnataka (Brah- 
man) 234, 237 
,, Holeya 253 
Karne 251 

Karnikar 244 

Karu 229 

Karukal 229 

Kasalnad 237 

Katyayana 237 

Kavadiga 251 

Kavare 246 

Kavarga 237, 239 
Kausika 239 

Kayasla 227, 244 
Kelasi 249 

Kempala 254 

Kempt i 246 

Kempu Banajiga 246 
,, Golla 251 
Kenchala 252 

Kliadri \'aishnava 

241 
Khanulal 232 



268 



ETIJNOGRAJ'JIY 



Khatii 249 


Kuruiiattc 


253 


Khctaval 23 1 


Kurus'ivalli 


237 


Kihiri 251 


Ivuruvina 


249 


Kiliiad 237 


Kus'ast haja 


237 


Kilnatar 240 






Kine 22S 


Labl;e 257, 


259 


Kira (laniga 252 


Lc-ida 222, 226 


245 


Kiralaka 256 


Lalagonda 229 


231 


Kodaga 227 


Lambadi 


231 


Kodati Reddi 228 


Lambani 226, 


231 


Kolalii 251 


Lankekara 


228 


Kolania 229 


Lingabalji 


246 


Knlla 246 


Linga Banajiga 223, 


KdlH Kuruha 213 




245 


Ki)luva 229 


Lingakatti Veljala 


Komarapatta 227 




229 


Komati 223, 226, 


Lingayit 226, 


228, 


245-6 


233, 241-2 


245 


Konar 251 


Lokabalike 


245 


Konda 249 


Lokottaraparey 


^253 


Konclakatte 229 






Kondamangala 249 


Machi 


256 


Kondi Reddi 229 


Madhva 


235 


Konga(IIoleya) 253 


,, Pennattui 


237 


Konga Wokkaliga 


,, Vaishnav: 


1237 


229 


Madhyanjana 


239 


Konkanast'ha 


Madiga 223, 


226, 


237, 239 


247, 2 


53-4 


Konkaniga 229 


Madivali 


250 


Koracha 214, 226, 


Madya 


252 


231, 233 


Madyandina 


239 


Korama 214, 231, 


^laggada 


253 


233 


Maharashtra 


234 


Korava 214 


Mahdvi 


258 


Koratakapu 229 


Mahratta 


228 


Kos'ava 252 


Mdji 


252 


Kota 237, 239 


Majjana 


252 


Kotari 227 


Majjige 


252 


Kotegara 229 


Mala 


253 


Kotisvara 237, 239 


Malava 


228 


Kotta Banajiga 246 


Malavaru 


229 


,, Kuruha 252 


Maleya 


214 


Kottadevarakapu 


Malla 


253 


229 


Malloru 


254 


KshatrabMnu 228 


Mande 


251 


Kshatriya 226, 229 


Mandyattar 


240 


Kudike Wokkalu 


Manga 


228 


229 


Mangala 


249 


Kuduchappara 251 


Mannu Wodda 


255 


Kulala 252 


Manu 


248 


Kulibedaga 229 


Mapile 257 


, 259 


Kumari 228 


Marabuvva 


254 


Kumbara 223, 226, 


Maradurar 


240 


, 247, 252 


Marasi 


246 


Kumbi Marvacli 247 


]Marata 226 


, 228 


,, Wokkaliga 229 


,, Mochi 


254 


Kunchatiga 228-9 


Marvadi 227, 


245, 


Kundali 249 




247 


Kunte 229 


Masalu 


253 


Kuri Golla 251 


Matanga 


254 


,, Kurul)a 252 


Matangi 


254 


Kuruba,2i3, 223-6, 


Mattige 


253 


247, 251 


Maval 


233 



Maya 248 

Meda 226, 255 

Melpavade 246 

Melusakkare 252 
Menian 258-9 

Metukunteyar 240 
Mirasikat 232 

Mochi 227, 247, 254 
Modayavaru 255 
Modihidiyuva 257 
Monda 227, 256 
Mopi'ir Raju 227 
Morabuvvadavaru 

254 

Morasunad 240 

Morasu( Holeya) 253 

,, (Madiga) 254 

,, Wokkaliga 

228, 230 
Muchchalamire 256 
Mudali 226,245,247 
Mudali Wokkaliga 

229 
Mudusarebalji 246 
Mughal 258 

Mugla 256 

Mulikinadu 237-8 
Multani 227, 245, 

247 
Muncholi 240 

Munigalu 254 

Murik'inati 250 

Murusire 246 

Musaku 229 

Mushtiga 257 

Mutta 246 

Muttaraju 246 

Muttu 229 

Myada 246 

Myasa 256 

Nagarta 223, 226, 
245 
Nagaru 246 

Nagi 256 

Nallanchakravarti 

240 
Nalla 257 

Nallar 253 

Namadakula 251 
Namadhari 247 

Xamburi 237 

Namdev 249 

1 Nandavaidika 237, 

239 

Nata 249 

Natacharasurti 241 

Natamangala 249 

Xatuva 226, 245 

I Nava Thakur 227 

' Navige 252 

i Nayadu 246 

, Nayaka 255-6 



Nayakasani 245 
Nayar 227-8 

Nayi 251 

Nayinda 223, 226, 
247, 249 
Neita Reddi 229 
Nerati ,, 228 

Neyigara 226, 247, 

249 
Nihang^ 243 

Nirumelinava 246 
Niyogi 237 

Nonaba 217, 228-30 



Oja 
Oswal 



248 
247 



Padala 250 

Paclayachinayakan 

229 
Padmamurikinati 

'249 
Padma.sale223, 249- 

50 
Pagadala 246 

Pakanati 256 

Pakanati Reddi 228 
Palaki 252 

Palayar 229 

Palchankoti 233 
Pale 253 

Palli 223, 231, 253 
Pallegar 256 

Palya 229 

Paly agar Gauda 239 
Palyakar 229 

Palyapat 252 

Pamar 229 

Panan 228 

Panasakapu 229 
Panchachara Gauda 
228, 249 
Pancha Gauda 234 
Panchagrama 237, 
240, 248 
Panchaia 222-3, 
247-8 
Panchamasale 246 
Pancharatral 241 
Pandaram 227, 256 
Pandya Tigala 231 
,, Veljala 229 
Panne 253 

Panneri 229 

Paradi 232 

Pareya 253 

Parivara 252 

Parsi 259 

Pasali 253 

Pasaluvate 246 

Pata (Golla) 251 
,, Kuruba 252 
,, Vadavalu 251 



LIST OF CASTES 



269 



I'alhan 


258 


1 'attar 


248 


I'attari 


248 


I'attasale 


249-50 


I'atmili 


250 


I'atm'ili'ikar 


249 


I'atvegar 


249-50 


l'e(lakaiitiRed(li228 


Peiaguncia 


229 


Petemane 


246 


Pettigesalina 229 


Pichchakunte 256 


Pille 


227-8 


Pindare 


257, 259 


I'injari 


257, 259 


Pitaml^ara 


242 


Praknad 


2X7 


Prathamas'akhe 




237. 239 


Prathama 'S 


aish- 


iiava 


241 


Prativadi - 


bhayan - 


karattar 


240 


1 'uda 


229 


Puja 


251 


1 'iinagu 


251 


Puiiamale 


229 


Pari 


251 



Sajjana (Lingayit) 

245 
,, (Ganiga) 252 
,, (Panchaja) 248 
Sakalavadu 250 

Sakunasaie 249-50 | 
Salar 227 

S'ale 249, 251-2 
S'aliga 249 50 

S'alivahana 252 

Salja 251 

Samaji 241 

Samayogi 243 

Samba 231 

Saml)ara 251 

Samliu 
Sanieraya 
Saniyar 
Sangu 
Sankara 
Sanketi 



Rachevar 226, 228, 

245 
Raja (Ciolla) 251 

,, (Tigala) 231 
Rajakula 227 

Rajapinde 227 

Rajput 227 

, , (iauda 227 
Raju 227 

Raju Reddi 229 

Ramavatpada 231 
Rampada 253 

Ranagara 228 

Rangare 222, 249 
Ravuta 228 

Rayaravuta 252 

Rayaroddugara 229 
Reddi (Nayinda) 249 
,, (Tigala) 231 

,, Wokkaliga 22S-9 
Roddiigara 229 

R(')hila 227 

Koppada 253 

Rotvad 24S 

Sabavat 231 

Sada 228 

,, Wokkaliga 228- 

30 
Sadhu 244 

Sadhu-vamsastha 

250 
Sahavasi 237, 239 



253 
241 
256 

253 

241 

237, 239 



227, 



S'anku Dasari 242 
Sannyasi 227, 242 
Sara 253 

Sarasvata 234 

Sarige 247, 252 

Satani 226, 233, 241 
Sattadhava 241 

Satuljeda 233 

Saiirashtraka 249-50 
Savanti 252 

Sayyid 258 

Seniga 249-50 

Senve 237 

S'etti (Kanajiga) 246 
,, (Ganiga) 252 
,, (Komati) 246 
(Korama) 233 



Sharif 

Shatsthala 

Shckh 

Sidlukula 

Sigroidalu 

Silavanta 



258 
242 
258 
253 
253 
245 



Sillekyala 227, 256 
S'ilpi 249 

S'iiiie 229 

Singh 227 

Singadi 254 

Singundi 249 

Sirdevara 229 

Sirkanakkan 244 
Sirkarnikar 244 

S^'rnad 237, 239 
S'is'uvarga 237, 239 
Sishyavarga 239 
Sitabhaira 229 

Sivachar 247 

Sivachara 246 

Sivadvija 239, 241 
Sivalji 237 

Sivanambi 241 

Sivdradhya 237 



Smarta 235, 237 
Sole 229 

Soliga 213-4 

Soliyas'etti 246 

Somesa 253 

Someshandal 240-1 
Sonajiband 248 

Sonar 248 

Sonnan 251 

Soshya 229 

S'ravaka 245, 247 
Sresht'ha 252 

Srivaishnava 235, 
240 
Sthaladava 246 

SudugacluSidda2i6, 
227, 256 
Suggala 252 

Siikali 231 

Sukhamanji 246 
S'ukla Vajus s'akhe 

237. 239 
Sunnakallu 252 

Suri 241 I 

Suraj Bunsi 227 
Svalpa 229 

Svari 251 

S'vetambara 242, 
244 

Talukhandiya 227 
Tambuli 227 

Tamil Agasa 250, 

253 

,, Holeya 253 

,, Kiimbara 252 

Tammadi 241 

Tanga 253 

Tangala 253 

Tanigelnivva 254 

Telaghanya 237 

Tellapi'isala 251 

Telugu Agasa 250 

,, Banajiga 246 

,, Beda 255-6 

,, Ganiga 254 

,, Goila 251 

,, Holeya 253 

,, Koracha 233 

,, Kumljara 251 

,, Madiga 254 

,, Nayinda 249 

,, Rachevar 228 

,, Reddi 229 

,, Sanar 253 

,, Satani 241 

,, Wodda 255 

Tengale 237, 240 

Tenginahaje 253 

j Tenugu Wokkaliga 

I 228 

Thakur 227 

; Tigala (Holeya) 253 



Tigala 223,226,228, 

231 

,, (Wodda) 255 
Tirthankara 242 
Tirukula 253-4 

Tirumaleyar 240-1 
Tirunama Dasari 

242 
Togasetti 246 

Togata 229, 249-50 
Toppala 252 

Toreya 223, 252 
Tola 231 

Totada Tigaja 238 
Totagara 229 

Toti 253 

Trikarma 246 

Tude 253 

Tuluva Vellala 228 
,, Wokkaliga 

229 
Tuppada 246 

Turukane Banajiga 

246 

Uddina Korava 256 

Uggranada 253 

Ulchakamme 237-8 

Ulli 231 

Uppaliga 252 

Uppara 223, 246-7 

Uppina 249 

Uppinakolaga 239 

Uppu Koracha 233 

,, Korama 233 

,, Korava 233 

,, Wodda 255 

Uriya 227 

Uru Golla 251 

,, Koracha 233 

,, Madiga 254 

,, Wodda 255 

Utkala 234 

Uttaradi 239 

Uttaraji 239 

Vadaga 253 

,, Reddi 229 

\'adagale 237, 240 

Vadama (Brahman) 

238 
,, Kumbara 252 
Vader 242, 244 

Vadhyama 237 

Widtya 232 

\'aikhanasa 241 

\'ainadii 254 

Vaishaniga 238 

Vaishnava ( Nagarta ) 

247 
Vaishnava Satani 

241 



270 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



Vaisya 


247 


Vasiulcva 


229 


Vaivaglini 


248 


V'cginad 


237 


\'ajar 


248 


Veiagi ■ 


253 


Valange 


253 


Velama 


229 


Valasakapu 


229 


Vellaladfolc-ya 


)253 


\i\yx 


229 


■,■ Wokkal 


iga 


Valluvar 


256 


228 9, 


231 


■;, (Holeya 


)253 


Velnad 237, 


240 


Van nan 


250 


Velnriti 


229 


Vanne (Moleya 


)253 


Vengipuram 


240 


Vanne (Tigala) 


231 


Venkatapurada 


241 


^'anniklIla 


231 


Vijayai:)ura Kamme 


Vaniyar 


253 




237 


\'angi'puram 


237 


Viralihadrakapi 


229 


\'anta 


229 


\'iral)hagna 


253 


\'arka 


253 


Virasaggada 


246 



Viras'aiva 241 

Virasamlni 253 

Vis'va 248 

Visval)rahnia 248 

\'isvaglini 248 

Visvakarma 249 [ 

Vyasakuta 236 

Wodda 226, 255 

,, (Korama) 233 

Wokkaliga 222, 

226, 228-9, 249 

Wontiyettu (janiga 

252 

^'adava Korama 233 



\';idavakula 251 

^'adayar 251 

\'akula 223, 251 
N'alanati 229 

N'alavolu 229 

Ydnadi 231 

Vanamaloru 254, 

256 
^'antumule 233 

'N'avanianta 246 

^'eda ^'ellama 229 
"S'ellamma 246 

^'ellammakapu 229 
Velumaneyavaru 

229 



71 



HISTORY 

LEGENDARY PERIOD 

A land covered with one mighty and all-embracing forest, — the great 
Dandakaranya ; nestling here and there on the bank of a sacred stream, 
the dsraiiia or hermitage of some ris/ii or holy sage, with his mind 
intent upon penance or absorbed in austerities of overwhelming 
potency ; hidden in forest clearings or perched on isolated rocky 
eminences, the retreats and strongholds of lawless predatory chiefs or 
still more formidable asuras and rdkshasas, whence they issued for raid 
and foray or bent on deeds of violence :— such is the picture of the 
south of India presented to our view in the earliest records of the Hindu 
race. In the continual conflict between devas or gods and Brahmans 
on the one side, and asuras or giants and rdkshasas or demons on the 
other, is doubtless depicted a period when the Aryans in their south- 
ward progress were brought into collision with aboriginal races or the 
descendants of primeval immigrants. 

The course of events seems to have been somewhat on this wise. 
A few solitary vedic rishis made their way as hermits to the south, in 
search of suitable retreats in the depths of the forest, where the acc^uisi- 
tion of merit, by an uninterrupted round of austerities and rites, might 
gratify the spiritual pretensions which were contested among the haunts 
of xwKn as at variance w'ith the established system of society. But here 
too they found not unpeopled solitudes ; and as intruders of a different 
race, provoked the hostility of previous settlers, which took the form 
of interference with the sacrifices and molestation of the rites — the 
proclaimed sources of supernatural power, — whose efficacy depended 
on exact and complete performance. The superior attainments, how- 
ever, of the Aryan Brahmans enabled them in various ways to defeat 
the opposition of the tribes with whom they were thus brought into 
contact, and to introduce the elements of civilization among the ruder 
races of the south. 

Imi)cllcd by internal strife or by ideas of adventure and conquest, 
warriors of the Kshatriya class gradually followed these Brahman 
pioneers across the ^'indhyas, and came into collision with the rulers of 
indigenous tribes. The Brahmans, having already gained a footing 



272 



HISTORY 



among tlicsc, would be led to assert sacerdotal claims with increased 
and uncompromising vehemence, whence violent struggles ensued, not 
alone between hostile races, but between rival sects and factions, marked 
by all the asperity and implacable rancour of such contests. The power 
of the Kshatriyas is represented as having been virtually extinguished, 
and only resuscitated with the aid of the Brahmans and the admission 
of their ascendency. But the rival system of Buddhism, which was of 
Kshatriya origin, became in course of time predominant ; and so con- 
tinued for some centuries, until the gradual revival of Brahmanical 
influence ended in the banishment of the former from the land of its 
birth to the congenial soils where it still holds sway over the greater 
proportion of the human race. 

But the records which have come down to us of these revolutions 
and mutations require to be used with discrimination. For the Brah- 
mans, being last in the ascendant, have, apparently, by interpolations 
in old works, by the argument of more recent compositions and by the 
systematic destruction of Buddhist and Jain literature and remains of 
the intermediate period, persistently striven, not only to ascribe almost 
every public calamity to the neglect of their injunctions, but have even 
assigned a Brahmanical origin to the royal lines. Notwithstanding, 
therefore, evident anachronisms, and the prolongation of the lives of 
sages for several centuries, implied in their appearance at widely distant 
periods, the ancient literature, with steady uniformity, represents Brah- 
mans and their blessings as the most potent source of honour and 
power, their imprecation as ensuring the most inevitable doom ; while, 
until the brilliant discoveries of Prinsep, the history of the Buddhist 
period was almost a blank. Modern research has done, and is still 
doing, an immense deal to dispel the obscurity which rests upon the 
early history, and to throw light on the real progress of events and 
development of principles which have resulted in the formation of the 
India of to-day. 

Agastya. — Of the rishis who in the earliest times penetrated to the 
south, Agastya is one of the most conspicuous. The tradition that he 
caused the Vindhya mountains to bow down and yield him a passage, 
no less than the universal popular belief, seem to point him out as the 
forerunner of the last Aryan migration into the peninsula.^ The 
ascendency he gained over the enemies of the Brahmans had, accord- 
ing to the Ramayana, rendered the southern regions safe and accessible 
at the time when Rama crossed the Vindhya range. The scene of the 

• To him the Tamil race attribute their first knowledge of letters. After civilizing 
the Dravidians or Tamil people, he retired to a hill in the Western Ghats still named 
after him, and was subsequently identified with the star Canopus. 



HAIHAYAS 



273 



following grotesque and monstrous story of the exercise of his power 
is laid at Stambhodadhi (Kammasandra), on the banks of the Arkavati, 
near Nelamangala. There Agastya is related to have had an asrama, 
and thither came the rakshasa brothers Vitapi and Ilvala, who, having 
obtained the boon that they should be invulnerable to gods and giants 
and might assume any form at will, had applied themselves to the work 
of destroying the rishis. Their modus operandi was as follows : — Ilvala, 
the elder, assuming the form of a Brahman, would enter the asrama 
and invite the rishi to some ceremony requiring the sacrifice of a sheep. 
At this Vatapi, taking the form of the sheep, was sacrificed and eaten. 
The repast over, Ilvala would exclaim " Vatapi, come forth," when the 
latter, resuming his natural form, would burst out from the rishi, rend- 
ing him asunder, and the two brothers eat him up. This plan they 
tried on Agastya, but he was forewarned. When, therefore, after the 
sacrificial meal, Ilvala as usual summoned Vatapi to come forth, Agastya 
replied that he was digested and gone to the world of Yama. Ilvala, 
rushing to fall upon him, was reduced to ashes by a glance.^ 

Of other rishis, tradition has it that Gautama performed penance on 
the island of Seringapatam in the Kaveri, Kanva- on the stream at 
Malur near Channapatna, Vibhandaka on the Tunga at Sringeri, 
Markanda on the Bhadra at Kandeya, Dattatreya on the Baba Budans, 
besides many others in different places. 

Asuras arid Rdkshasas. — " The (asuras and) rakshasas who are repre- 
sented as disturbing the sacrifices and devouring the priests, signify," 
says Lassen, " merely the savage tribes which placed themselves in 
hostile opposition to the Brahmanical institutions. The only other 
actors who appear, in addition to these, are the monkeys, which ally 
themselves to Rama and render him assistance. This can only mean 
that when the Aryan Kshatriyas first made hostile incursions to the 
south, they were aided by another portion of the indigenous tribes." 

Of the asuras, traditions are preserved that Guhasura had his capital 
at Harihara on the Tungabhadra, Hidimbasura was established at 
Chitaldroog, Bakasura near Rahman Ghar, Mahishasura, from whom 
Mysore derives its name, at Chamundi, and so on. The asuras, it is 
said, being defeated by the devas, Ijuilt three castles in the three worlds, 
one of iron on the earth, one of silver in the air, and one of gold in the 
sky. These the devas smote, and conquered the three worlds ; the 

' For the original story see Muir, Sans. Texts, ii. 415. Weber considers it 
indicates the existence of cannibals in the Dekhan. Of Ilvala, perhaps we have a 
trace in the village of Ilavala, known to Europeans as \'chval, near Mysore. \'atapi- 
pura is the same as Haclami, near Dharwar. 

- Kanva is to the Telugu race nearly what Agastya is to the Tamil. 

T 



2 74 HISTORY 

muster (jf tlic forces for the assault on the tri])lc city, cjr Tripura,' having 
taken place, according to tradition, at the hill of Kurudu male, properly 
Ktldu male, near Mulbagal. 

The rdkshasas appear to have been a powerful race dominant in the 
south, whose capital was at Lanka in the island of Ceylon. The king- 
dom of the vdnara or monkey race was in the north and west of the 
Mysore, their chief city being Kishkindha near the village of Hampe 
on the Tungabhadra. The ancient Jain Ramayana, composed in Hala 
Kannada, gives a genealogy of the kings of either race down to the 
time of Rama's expedition, which will be made use of farther on, so far 
as it relates to Mysore. In it we are also introduced to the vidyddharas, 
whose empire was apparently more to the north, and w^hose principal 
seat was at Rathanupura-Chakravalapura.- 

Haihayas.— In order, however, to obtain something like a connected 
narrative of events more or less historical of these remote times, we 
may begin with an account of the Haihayas. \\'ilson imagines them to 
be a foreign tribe, and inclines, with Tod, to the opinion that they may 
have been of Scythian origin and perhaps connected with a race of 
similar name who first gave monarchs to China.'' They overran the 
Dekhan, driving out from Mahishmati, on the upper Narmada (Ner- 
budda), a king named Bahu, seventeenth in descent from Purukutsa of 
the solar line, the restorer of the dominion of the Nagas. He fied with 
his wives to the forest, where one of them gave birth to Sagara, who 
became a great conqueror and paramount ruler in India."* He nearly 
exterminated the Haihayas and associated races — the Sakas, Yavanas, 
Kambojas, Paradas, and Pahlavas — but, at the intercession of his 
priest Vasishtha, forbore from further slaughter, and contented him- 
self with imposing on them certain modes of shaving the head and 
wearing the hair, to mark their degradation to the condition of out- 
castes.'^ 

^ Reference to a city named Tripura will he fciund in connection with the Kadamba 
kings, farther on. The legend perhaps means that the indigenous tribes in the west 
retired above the Ghats before Aryan invaders, and were finally subdued by their 
assailants penetrating to the table-land from the east, and taking the lofty hill forts. 

- The Silaharas of Karahata (Karhad), near Kolapur, are called Vidyadharas. — 
Dr. Buhler, Vik. Dez>. Char. Int. 40. 

•■' Wilson, Vish. Fur. Bk. IV, ch. xi, last note. Tod, An. Faj. I, 36. Haihaya 
was also the name of a great-grandson of Vadu, the progenitor of the Vadavas. 

* Sagara is the king most commonly named at the end of inscriptions as an example 
of liberality in granting endowments of land. 

* For the bearing of these regulations on certain practices at the present day, see 
Dr. Caldwell's article on the kiidunii (Kan. jiitfii), reprinted from the Madras Mail 
mind. Ant. IV, 166. 

Eventually the Haihayas established their cajntal at Ratanpur (in the Central 



PARASU RAMA 275 

Parasu Bama. — At a later period, Arjuna, the son of Kritavirya, 
and hence called Kartaviryarjuna (which distinguishes him from Arjuna, 
one of the Pandu princes), was ruling over the Haihayas. On him the 
muni 1 )attatreya had conferred a thousand arms and other powers, with 
which he oppressed both men and gods. He is even said to have seized 
and tied up Ravana. About the same time a sage named Jamadagni, 
nephew of Visvamitra, the uncompromising opponent of Vasishtha, 
having obtained in marriage Renuka, daughter of king Prasenajit, they 
had five sons, the last of whom was Rama, called Parasu Rdma, or 
Rama with the axe, to distinguish him from the hero of the Ramayana. 
He is represented as the sixth avatar of Vishnu : his axe, however, was 
given him by Siva. 

Jamadagni was entrusted by Indra with the care of Surabhi, the 
celestial cow of plenty ; and on one occasion being visited by 
Kartavir\'a, who was on a hunting expedition, regaled the Raja and his 
followers in so magnificent a manner as to excite his astonishment, 
until he learned the secret of the inestimable animal possessed by his 
host. Impelled by avarice, he demanded the cow •} and on refusal 
attempted, but in vain, to seize it by force, casting down the tall 
trees surrounding the hermitage.- On being informed of what had 
happened, Parasu Rama was filled with indignation ; and attacking 
Kartaviryarjuna, cut off his thousand arms and slew him. His sons 
in return killed Jamadagni, in the absence of Parasu Rama. Where- 
upon Renuka became a Sati, by burning herself on her husband's 
funeral pyre. With her dying breath she imprecated curses on the 
head of her husband's murderer, and Parasu Rama vowed, after 
performing his father's funeral obsequie.s, to destroy the whole 
Kshatriya race. 

Having twenty-one times cleared the Earth of Kshatriyas, he gave 
her at the conclusion of an asvamedha, a rite whose performance was a 
sign of the consunnnation of victory, as a sacrificial fee to Kasyapa, the 
ofificiating priest ; who, in order that the remaining Kshatriyas might be 
spared, innnediately signalled him off with the sacrificial ladle, saying, 
" Go, great muni, to the shore of the southern ocean. Thou must not 

I'rovinces), and continued in ]wwer until deposed l)y the Mahrattas in 1741 a. I). 
Inscriptions have been found proving the dominion of the Haihayas over the upper 
Xarniada \'alley as far hack as the second century A. 1). — C P. Gaz. Int. 1. 

^ There is little douht that the so-called cow was a fertile tract of country, such as 
Sorab (literally Sural)hi), where the scene of this transaction is laid, is well known 
to be. 

- The story is dift'crently related in the Mahabharata, but \sitli too unnatural and 
improliable circumstances, and too manifest a design to inculcate certain Urahmanical 
notions. The sequel is the same. 

T 2 



2 76 J II STORY 

dwell in ni\- territory." ^ Parasu Rama then applies to Sagara,*^ the 
ocean, for sonic land, and compels it to retire,'' creating the seven 
Konkanas,^ or the maritime regions of the western coast, whither he 
withdraws to the Mahendra mountain. The Earth, who finds it very 
inconvenient to do without the Kshatriyas as rulers and kings, appeals to 
Kasyapa, who discovers some scions of royal houses that have escaped 
the general mas.sacre of their race, and instals them. 

This prodigious legend, in which the mythical type of Brahmanism 
is clearly enough revealed as arrayed in opposition to the military caste, 
is by tradition connected with many parts of Mysore. Sorab taluq is 
the Surabhi which was Jamadagni's possession. The temple of Renuka, 
existing to this day at Chandragutti, is said to mark the spot where she 
burnt herself on the funeral pyre of her husband, and that of Kolaha- 
lamma at Kolar is said to have been erected in her honour from 
Kartaviryarjuna having there been slain. The colloquy with Sagara is 
said to have been near Tirthahalli. At Hiremugalur (Kadur District) 
is a singular memorial in the temple of Parasu, the axe of the hero, and 
its ancient name of Bhargavapuri connects the town with him as being 
a descendant of Bhrigu. 

Rama.— Our history has next to do with Rama, — called, by way of 
distinction, Ramachandra, — the hero of the Ramayana and the seventh 
avatar of ^'ishnu. On his way home after winning Sita by breaking 
the bow of Siva, he is, strangely enough, said to have been encountered 
by Parasu Rama, who required him to break a bow of Vishnu which 
he produced. This Rama did, and at the same time destroyed Parasu 
Rama's celestial abode. The story of Rama, — a Kshatriya, but 
obedient to the Brahmans ; of the solar line, the son of Dasaratha, king 
of Ayodhya (Oudh) — and of the abduction, during their wanderings in 
the Dandaka forest, of his wife the fair Sita, by Ravana, the rakshasa 
king of Lanka in Ceylon, is too well known to need repetition here. 
To this day not an incident therein has abated in interest to the 
millions of India, and few parts of the land but claim to be the scene 
of one or other of its adventures. Without stopping to dwell on the 

^ The audacity of the conception is sublime. The explanation given is that Parasu 
Rama being guilty of homicide could not be allowed to reside in Brahman territory. 

- Sagara, the ocean, was so named from Sagara (previously mentioned) through 
Bhagiratha. The tradition will be found in the Vishnu Purana, &c. The taluq 
adjoining Sorab is also called Sagar. 

3 According to some accounts he stood on the jiromontory of Dilli, and shot his 
arrows to the south, over the site of Kerala. It seems likely that we have proof of the 
local legend being at least as old as the Christian era, as the Mons Pyrrhus of Ptolemy 
is, probably, the mountain of Parasu or Parasu Rama. — Wilson, fish. Pur. Bk. iv, ch. 7. 

* These were Karata, Virata, Mahdrata, Konkana, Haiga, Tulava and Kerala. 



J? A MA 277 

romantic episode, wliich will be found in the history of the Kadur I )is- 
trict. of Rishya Sringa, to whon) indirectly the birth of the hero is 
ascribed, it is evident that Rama's route from Panchavati or Nasik, at 
the source of the Godavari, to Ramesvara, on the south-eastern coast 
opposite Ceylon, would naturally lead him across the table-land of 
Mysore.^ 

All accounts agree in stating that the first news Rama received that 
Ravana had carried off his wife to Ceylon, was conveyed to him while 
at the court of Sugriva, the king of Kishkindha ; and that with the 
forces here obtained he accomplished his expedition and the recovery 
of Sita. He first met with Sugriva, then dispossessed of his kingdom, 
at the sources of the Pampa or Tungabhadra, and assisted him in 
recovering his throne. The former region therefore would be in the 
Western Ghats, in Kadur District ; and the situation of Kishkindha is 
generally acknowledged to be on the Tungabhadra, north of the 
Mysore," near the village of Hampe, where in modern times arose the 
cities of Anegundi and Vijayanagar. The Brahmanical version of the 
Ramayana, as contained in ^'almiki's famous poem, describes the races 
of this region as vanaras and kapis, or monkeys. But the Jain 
Ramayana, previously referred to, calls Kishkindha the vdnara dhvaja 
kingdom, or kingdom of the monkey flag. This simple device on the 
national standard, therefore, may have led to the forces being called the 
monkey army,'' and thence easily sprung all the other embellishments 
of the story as popularly received.'' We shall follow the Jain version 
in giving the previous history of the kings of Kishkindha. ' 

Kishkindha. — By the conquests of Sagara, here made a descendant 
of Puru,'' a [)rince named Toyada Vahana (the same as Megha \'ahana, or 
Jimiita \'ahanaj, who had thought to marry a princess whom Sagara 

^ The papers concerning Mysore (in the Mackenzie collection) seem to agree in 
stating that Rama went by way of the Mysore country to Lanka. — Taylor, Cat. Rais. 
Or. MSS. Ill, 693. 

- Wilson, Utt. Ram. Char. Act I, Sc. 2 ; Monier Williams, Ind. Ep. Po. 76 ; 
Talboys Wheeler, Hist. Ind. II, 318. 

•' This is nothing but what we often do in speaking of the military array of the 
British lion, the Russian bear, <S:c. 

•* Kapi-dhvaja (monkey flag) was one of the names of Arjuna, the most popular of 
the Pandu brothers. The monkey ensign was also one of the insignia of the Kadamba 
kings of Banavasi and Hanagal, and is still a cherished emblem of the Balagai or 
right-hand castes {see above, p. 224). 

* An attempt has been made in N'almiki's Ramayana to supply some of these 
jiarticulars in the Uttara Kanda or supplementary chapter, but the accounts are 
meagre and much altered. 

® The progenitor of one branch of the lunar line, and, from the similarity of 
names, sometimes conjectured to i)e the I'orvis who was defeated by Alexaniler 
the Great. 



2 78 HISTORY 

appropriates, is driven to take refuge with Jihinia rakshasa of Lanka; 
and the latter, being without heirs, leaves to him that kingdom, as well 
as Patala Lanka. After many generations, Dhavala Kirtti arises in that 
line, whose wife's brother, Srikantha Kumara, being desirous of 
establishing a principality for himself, sets out for the vdnara dvipa, or 
monkey island, where the accounts he receives of the Kishkindha hill 
induce him to select it as the site of his capital. He accordingly founds 
there the city of Kishkindha, and is the progenitor of the line of kings 
of the monkey flag. 

The successors of Srikantha Kumara, in regular descent, were 
Vajrakantha, Indrayudha, Amara Prabhu (who marries a princess of 
Lanka), and Kapi Ketu. After several more kings, whose names are 
not mentioned, the line is continued by Mahodadhi, and his son 
Pratibindu. The latter has two sons, Kishkindha and Andhraka. A 
svayainvara being proclaimed for Mandara Mali, princess of Aditya- 
nagara on the Vijayartha parvata, these two princes attend, as well as 
Vijaya Simha, son of Asanivega the Vidyadhara chakravarti, and 
Sukesha, the young king of Lanka. The lady's choice falling on 
Kishkindha, Vijaya Simha is indignant and attacks him, but is killed 
by Andhraka. Asanivega, to revenge his son's death, marches against 
Kishkindha and Sukesha, and takes both their kingdoms. They retire 
to Patala Lanka. After a time, Kishkmdha founds a city on Madhu 
parvata, and has there two sons, Rikshaja and Siiryaja. Sukesha, in 
Patala Lanka, has three sons — Mali, Sumali, and Malyavant, — who, on 
attaining to manhood, recover possession of Lanka. Meanwhile, in the 
Vidyadhara kingdom, Asanivega has been succeeded by Sahasrara, and 
he by Lidra.^ The Lanka princes, with the aid of Rikshaja and 
Suryaja, attack the latter, but are defeated and again lose their king- 
doms, all retiring to Patala Lanka as before. In the course of time, 
to Ratnasrava, son of Sumali, is born Ravana, the predestined champion 
of the rakshasa race. He regains Lanka and Kishkindha, and restores 
the latter to Rikshaja and Suryaja. Vali and Sugriva, the sons of the 
last, succeed to the throne. Ravana now demands their sister in 
marriage ; but Vali, being opposed to it, abdicates, and thus leaves 
Sugriva alone in the government. 

On one occasion, Sugriva, owing to some dispute with his wife 
Sutare, stays away from his capital ; and during his absence, a double 

' The Silahiiias of Karahata (Karhad), near Kolapur, claim to be not only 
Vidyadharas (as above stated, p. 273), but also to be connected with the royal race 
of Ceylon. A Chalukya inscription of a.d. 1008 says, "The Silara family of the 
Simhala kings are descended from Jimuta-vahana, son of Jimuta-ketu, the lord of the 
Vidyadharas." (See_/. Bo. Br. K. A. S. No. Y, p. 221.) 



KISHKINDHA 2 7 9 

of himself, who most closely resembles him. usurps his place and 
imposes upon all the ministers. The real Sugriva, being in a fix, 
resorts to his friend Hanuman, son of Pavanjaya, king of Hanuvara 
or Hanuruha dvipa. Then, hearing about Rama, he visits him at 
Patala Lanka, and undertakes to discover Sita's place of confinement 
in return for Rama's assistance in regaining his throne. Kishkindha is 
accordingly attacked, the false or Maya Sugriva is killed, and Sugriva 
restored. News having been received from a neighbouring chief that 
he saw Ravana bearing Sita to Lanka,' a council is now held, at which 
it is resolved to send to Hanuvara dvipa for Hanuman, as being of 
rakshasa descent. The latter arrives, and undertakes to go to Lanka 
as a spy and discover the truth of the report. He sets out by way of 
Mahendra parvata^ and 1 )adhi-mukha parvata and brings back tokens 
from Sita. Forces are at once mustered for the expedition to Lanka 
for her recovery. The march of the army to the southern sea leads 
them to Velandha-pura, ruled over by Samudra ; to Suvelachala, ruled 
over by Suvela ; and lastly to Hamsa dvipa, whose king was Dvipa- 
radana. 

The identity of the places mentioned in the foregoing account it is 
perhaps difficult to establish. But it seems not unlikely that Patala 
Lanka, evidently, from the name, a city below the Ghats, and belong- 
ing to the rakshasa kingdom of Ceylon, was some place in Canara ; for 
the dominions of Ravana are said to have extended to Trichinopoly 
on the east, and to Gokarna on the west of the peninsula. Honuvara 
or Honuruha dvipa again is no doubt one of the islands in the large 
lake of Honavar or Honore" in the Gersoppa district, near the mouth 
of the Sharavati, which forms the Gersoppa Falls. The principal 
island in the outer bay was fortified by Sivappa Nayak of Ikkeri, and 
is now called Basava Rdja durga. The north-west of Mysore seems 
thus pretty clearly connected with an important part of Rama's expedi- 
tion. Local traditions, less credible in character, will be found noticed 
under the several places where they are current. 

Pandavas. — We will therefore proceed to the history of the Pandus, 

' An inscription on the Jatinga-Ranies'vara hill in Molakalnuiru lahu), dated 
S'aka 883, stales that the linga there was set up when Ravana had seized Sita and 
when Jat.iyu fought and fell there in her behalf. 

^ Mahendra is a name applied to some parts of the Eastern Ghats, and also to a 
mountain near Cape Comorin. 

•* The lake is of great extent and contains many islands, some of which are culti- 
vated. It reaches almost to the Ghats, and in the dry season is quite salt ; but it 
receives many more streams, which during the rainy monsoon become torrents and 
render the whole fresh. By the natives it is connnonly calleil a river, l)Ut lake is a 
more proper term. — Buchanan, _/?«/-. II, 279. 



28o JlISrOR V 

and briefly nolice some of the more important events related in the 
Maha Bharata which tradition connects with Mysore. Arjuna, the 
third and most attractive of the five brothers, who by his skill in archery 
won Draupadi, the princess of Panchala, at her svayatm'ara, after a 
time v/ent into exile for twelve years, in order to fulfil a vow. During 
his wanderings at this period, it is related that he came to the Mahendra 
mountains, and had an interview with Parasu Rama, who gave him 
many powerful weapons. Journeying thence he came to Manipura, 
where the king's daughter, Chitrangada, fell in love with him, and he 
married her and lived there three years, and had by her a son, Babhru- 
vahana. The locality of this incident is assigned to the neighbourhood 
of Chamrajnagar in the Mysore District, where the site of Manipura, 
to which we shall have again to refer, is still pointed out.^ 

When Yudhishthira resolved to perform the royal sacrifice called the 
Rajasiiya, by which he proclaimed himself paramount sovereign, it 
was first necessary to subdue the kings who would not acknowledge 
him. Accordingly four expeditions were despatched, one towards each 
of the cardinal points. The one to the south was commanded by 
Sahadeva. After various conquests he crosses the Tungabhadra and 
encamps on the Kishkindha hill, w^here Sushena and Vrishasena, the 
chiefs of the monkey race, make friendship with him. Thence he 
goes to the Kaveri, and passing over to Mahishmati (Mahishur, 
My.sore), attacks Nila its king, whom he conquers and plunders of 
great wealth.^ After this he goes to the Sahyadri or Western Ghats, 

1 Manipur in Eastern Bengal, it appears, also lays claim to the story, but evidently 
on scanty grounds. — Wheeler, Hist. Ind. I, 149, 425, notes. 

^ The Maha Bharata in this place (Sabha Parva) makes some singular statements 
regarding the women of Mahishmati. The king Nila Raja, it is said, had a most 
lovely daughter, of whom the god Agni (Fire) became enamoured. He contrived to 
pay her many secret visits in the disguise of a Brahman. One day he was discovered 
and seized by the guards, who brought him before the king. When about to be 
condemned to punishment, he blazed forth and revealed himself as the god Agni. 
The Council hastened !o appease him, and he granted the boon that the women of 
Mahishmati should thenceforth be free from the bonds of marriage in order that no 
adultery might exist in the land, and that he would befriend the king in time of 
danger. This description of "free love" would apply to the Nairs and Xamburi 
Brahmans of Malabar, but seems misplaced in reference to Mysore. It may, how- 
ever, indicate that a chief of Malabar origin had at that time established himself in 
power in the south-west ; and possibly refer to some stratagem attempted against him 
by Jamad-agni, which ended in an alliance. Sahadeva was forced to conciliate Agni 
before he could take Mahishmati. 

It may here be stated that, according to traditions of :he Haihayas in the Central 
Provinces, Nila Dhvaja, a descendant of Sudhyumna, got the throne of Mahishmati 
(Mandla) ; Hamsa Dhvaja, another son, became monarch of Chandrapur (supposed 
to be Chanda) ; and a third received the kingdom of Ratanpur. The two former 
kingdoms, after the lapse of some generations, were overthrown by the Gonds, and 



PANDA V AS 281 

subdues many hill chiefs, and, descending to the coast, overruns 
Konkana, Gaula and Kerala. 

The fate of the great gambling match which followed the Rajasuya, 
and the exile of the Pandavas for thirteen years, during the last of 
which they were to live incognito, need not be related here, as they are 
generally well known. But an inscription at Belagami in Shikarpur 
taluq expressly says that the Pandavas came there after the performance 
of the Rajasuya. In the course of their farther wanderings, the brothers 
are related to have lived in the Kamyaka forest, and this is claimed to 
be the wild tract surrounding Kavale-durga in the Shimoga District. 
The erection of the massive fortifications on that hill is ascribed to the 
Pandus, as well as the Bhimankatte thrown across the Tunga above 
Tirthahalli. The thirteenth year of exile was spent at the court of the 
king of \'irata, in various disguises, — Bhima as a cook, Arjuna as a 
eunuch, Draupadi as a waiting-maid, &c. The varied incidents of this 
year are fully given in the published abstracts of the poem. It is only 
necessary here to state that Virata-nagara is more than once mentioned 
in the Chdlukya inscriptions, and is by tradition identified with Hanagal, 
a few miles north of the Sorab frontier.^ 

^^'e pass on to the great asvamedha, or horse sacrifice, undertaken 
by Yudhishthira, which forms the subject of one of the most admired 
Kannada poems, the Jaimini Bharata. Among the conditions of this 
regal ceremony, it was required that the horse appointed for sacrifice 
should be loosed and allowed to wander free for the period of one year. 
Wheresoever it went it was followed by an army, and if the king into 
whose territories it chanced to wander seized and refused to let it go, 
war was at once declared and his submission enforced. In accordance 
with these rules, Arjuna was appointed to command the escort which 
guarded the horse. Among the places to which it strayed, three are by 
tradition connected with Mysore. 

the Raianpur kingdom alone survived till the advent of the Mahraltas. — C. P. 
Gaz. 159. 

Sudhanva, a son of Ilamsa Dhvaja, is also said in the traditions of Mysore to have 
l)een the founder of Champaka-nagara, now represented l)y the village of Sampige, 
near Kadaha, in Gubbi taluq. 

The only actual record hitherto found of a Nila Raja in the south is in the 
Samudra Gupta inscription at Allahabad, in which he is assigned to an unknown 
country called Avamukta (signifying freed or liberated, a curious coincidence with the 
story above given), and is mentioned between \'ishnug6pa bi Kanchi and Harti- 
varman of Vengi. His period, according to this, would lie the fourtii century. (See 
Fleet's Early Gupta Kings, p. 13.) 

' Sir Walter Elliot says, " The remains of enormous fortifications, enclosing a 
great extent, are still visible. I have got a plan distinctly showing the circuit of 
seven walls and ditches on the side not covered by the river. '—Mad. J. iS, 216. 
Also see Int. Ant. V, 177. 



282 HISTORY 

'I'lu- first of these is Manipur, near Chamrajnagar, previously men- 
tioned.' Babliruvahana, the son here born to Arjuna, had now grown 
up and succeeded to the throne. His kingdom was also in a state of 
the highest prosperity. It was pre-eminently " a land of beauty, valour, 
virtue, truth : " its wealth was fabulous,'- and its happiness that of 
paradise : it was filled with people, and not a single measure of land 
was unoccui)ied or waste. A\'hen the horse came near this enchanting 
spot the Raja was informed of it ; and, on his return from the chase in 
the evening, he commanded it to be brought before him. The scene is 
thus described : — 

" Now the whole ground where the Raja held his council was covered with 
gold ; and at the entrance to the council chamber were a hundred pillars of 
gold, each forty or fifty cubits high ; and the top of each pillar was made of 
fine gold and inlaid with jewels ; and on the summits of the pillars and on 
the walls were many thousand artificial birds, made so exact that all who 
saw them thought them to be alive ; and there were precious stones that 
shone like lamps, so that there was no need of any other light in the 
assembly ; and there also were placed the figures of fishes inlaid with rubies 
and cornelians, which appeared to be alive and in motion. All round the 
council hall were sticks of sandal, wound round with fine cloth which had 
been steeped in sweet-scented oils ; and these were burnt to give light to the 
place instead of lamps, so that the whole company were perfumed with the 
odour. And before each one of the principal persons in the assembly was 
placed a vessel, ornamented with jewels, containing various perfumes ; and 
on every side and corner of the hall were beautiful damsels, who sprinkled 
rose-water and other odoriferous liquors. And when the horse was brought 

* There appear to be several reasons for accepting this as the locality in preference 
to Manipur in Eastern Bengal. In the version given by Wheeler, Vol. I, it is stated 
(396) that the horse when loosed went towards the south, and that its return was in a 
northerly direction (414) ; these directions would not lead it to and from E. Bengal, 
but to and from S. Mysore they would. It is also said (406) that sticks of sandal- 
wood were burnt in the council hall of Manipur, and also (408) that elephants were 
very excellent in that country. Now Mysore is the well-known home of the sandal- 
tree, and the region I have assigned as the site of Manipur is peculiarly the resort of 
elephants : within ten miles of that very site were made the remarkably successful 
captures of elephants described on p. 179. The sequence of places visited by the 
horse after Manipur is also, as shown in the text, consistent with the identification 
here proposed. From the notes (149, 425) it appears that the application of the stor}- 
to Manipur in Bengal is of very recent date. 

- Of Solomon in all his glory it is stated that " he made silver and gold at Jerusalem 
as plenteous as stones." So here " many thousands of chariots, elephants and horses 
were employed in bringing the revenue, in gold and silver, to a thousand treasuries ; 
and the officers sat day and night to receive it ; but so great was the treasure that the 
people who brought it had to wait ten or twelve years before their turn came to 
account for tlie money, obtain their acquittal and return home ! " One Raja confessed 
that he sent a thousand carl-loads of gold and silver every year merely for leave to 
remain quietly in his own kingdom. 



PANDA VAS 283 

into the assembly, all present were astonished at its beauty and excellence ; 
and they saw round its neck a necklace of excellent jewels, and a golden 
plate hanging upon its forehead. Then Raja Babhruvahana bade his 
minister read the writing on the plate ; and the minister rose up and read 
aloud, that Raja Yudhishthira had let loose the horse and appointed Arjuna 
to be its guardian." 

It was resolved that Babhruvahana, being Arjuna's son, should go 
forth to meet huii in a splendid procession and restore the horse ; but 
Arjuna, under some evil influence, refused to acknowledge the Raja as 
his son : he even kicked him, and taunted him with inventing a story 
because he was afraid to fight. Babhruvahana was then forced to 
change his demeanour, which he did with great dignity. A desperate 
battle ensued, in which Arjuna w-as killed, and all his chieftains were 
either slain or taken prisoners. Congratulations were showered upon 
the victor, but his mother, Chitrangada, swooned and declared her 
intention of burning herself on Arjuna's funeral pile. In this dilemma, 
Ulupi, a daughter of Vasuki, the Xaga or serpent raja, whom Arjuna 
had formerly married, and who had afterwards entered the service of 
Chitrangada, resolved to get from her father a jewel which was in the 
possession of the serpents, and which would restore Arjuna to life. 
She accordingly sent a kinsman to her father with the request. His 
council, however, being afraid of losing the jewel, refused to give it up. 
On learning this, 15abhruvahana made war upon the serpents and com- 
pelled them to give it up. Arjuna was by its means restored to life and 
reconciled to his son. 

The horse then entered the territory of Ratnapura, a city of which 
name, it will be seen, was situated near Lakvalli in Kadur District. 
The animal was here seized, but rescued by Arjuna. It next wandered 
into Kuntala, the country of Chandrahasa, whose capital we shall find 
was at Kubattur in Shimoga District. Here also the king was com- 
pelled to release it. 

The story of Chandrahdsa is a pleasing and favourite romance. He was 
the son of a king of Kerala, and was born with six toes. While an infant, 
his father was killed in battle, and his mother perished on her husband's 
funeral pile. His nurse then fled with him to Kuntala, and when she died, 
he was left destitute and forced to subsist by begging. While doing so one 
day at the house of the minister, who is appropriately named Dushta buddhi, 
or evil counsel, some astrologers noted that the boy had signs of greatness 
upon him, indicating that he would one day become ruler of the country. 
The minister, hearing of it, took secret measures to have him murdered in a 
forest ; but the assassins relented, and contented themselves with cutting 
off his sixth toe, which they produced as the evidence of having carried out 



284 mSTORY 

their instructions. Meanwhile, Kuhnda, an officer of the court, hunting 
in that direction, heard the boy's cry ; and, pleased with his appearance, 
having no son of his own, took him home to Chandan.-ivati and adopted 
him. 

He grew up to be very useful and, by defeating some rebellious chieftains, 
obtained great praise and wealth for his adopted father, which e.xcited the 
jealousy of the minister. The latter, resolved to see for himself, paid a visit 
to Kulinda, when, to his astonishment, he learnt that all this prosperity was 
due to an adopted son, Chandrahdsa, who had been picked up in the forest 
years ago bleeding from the loss of a si.xth toe. The truth at once broke 
upon him that it was the boy he had thought to murder. Resolved more 
than ever to get rid of him, he dissimulates and proposes to send him on an 
errand to court, which was gladly enough undertaken. A letter was accord- 
ingly sent by him to Madana, the minister's son, who was holding office 
during his father's absence, directing that poison {inshd) should be at 
once given to the bearer as he valued his own advancement. For the 
minister had secretly resolved, as there was no male heir to the throne, to 
marry Madana to the king's daughter and thus secure the kingdom to his 
own family. Chandrahdsa, bearing the letter, arrived near the city, where 
he saw a charming garden. Being weary, he tied his horse to a tree and lay 
down to rest, when he fell asleep. 

Now it so happened that this garden belonged to the minister, and that 
morning his daughter Vishaya (to whom, before leaving, he had jestingly 
promised to send a husband), had come there with the daughter of the Raja 
and all their maids and companions to take their pleasure ; and they all 
sported about in the garden and did not fail to jest each other about being 
married. Presently Vishaya wandered away from the others and came to 
the tank, where she saw the handsome young Chandrahasa lying asleep on 
the bank, and at once fell in love with him. She now noticed a letter half 
falling from his bosom, and, to her great surprise, saw it was in the hand- 
writing of her father, and addressed to her brother. Remembering what 
had been said about sending her a husband, she gently drew out the letter 
and, opening it, read it. One slight alteration she saw would accomplish 
her wishes ; she accordingly changed the word z//V//(ZT'(Z, poison, into vishaya, 
her own name, resealed it with a copy of her father's seal which she had 
with her, and replaced it in the young man's bosom. 

When Madana received the letter he w^as greatly surprised, but as the 
message was urgent, at once proceeded with arrangements for marrying his 
beautiful sister to the handsome stranger. The ceremony had just been 
concluded with all manner of pomp and rejoicing, when the minister 
returned. Seeing what had happened, he was struck dumb with amaze- 
ment. The production of the letter further convinced him that through 
fate the mistake must have been his own. Suffice it to say that he makes 
another attempt to get rid of Chandrahasa, but it so chances that his own 
son Madana is killed instead .: and Chandrahasa, taking the fancy of the 
king, is adopted as heir to the throne and married to the princess. Whereon 
the minister, driven to desperation, kills himself. 



/A NAME/ A YA 285 

Janamejaya. — Before quitting the legendary period, there is yet one 
tradition demanding notice. During the first twelve years' exile of 
Arjuna, before visiting Manipur, he had married Subhadra, the sister of 
Krishna. By her he had a son named Abhimanyu. When, at the 
conclusion of the thirteenth year of the second period of exile, the 
Pandavas threw ofi" their incognito at the court of Virata, the raia 
offered his daughter Uttara to Arjuna. But the latter declining her for 
himself, on the ground that he had acted as her music and dancing- 
master, and she had trusted him as a father, accepted her for his son 
Abhimanyu, from which union sprung Parikshit,^ whose son was 
Janamejaya. This is the monarch to whom the Maha Bharata is 
recited. There is a professed grant by him at Bhimankatte matha,'- 
now Tirthahalli, dated in the year 89 of the Yudhishthira era, which 
would be 3012 B.C., but, if for no other reason, it is quite discredited 
by the signature being in comparatively modern Kannada characters. 
The grant itself is in Sanskrit, and in Nagari characters. Janamejaya is 
represented in it as ruling in Kishkindha, and making a gift, in the 
presence of the god Harihara, of the place on the Tungabhadra in 
which his great-grandfather Yudhishthira had rested. 

Parikshit, according to a curse, died from the bite of a serpent f in 
revenge for which it was that Janamejaya performed his celebrated 
sat-pa ydga or serpent sacrifice. This ceremony, according to tradition, 
took place at Hiremugalur in the Kadur District, and three agraharas 
in the Shimoga District, — Gauj, Kuppagadde and Begur — possess 
inscriptions on copper plates, also written in Sanskrit, and in Nagari 
characters, professing to be grants made by Janamejaya to the officiating 
Brahmans on the occasion of the sar/>a ydi::;a. The genuineness of the 
first of these, which is the one best known,'' has been a subject of much 
controversy : but all three are almost identical in the historical portion. 
They describe the donor as the son of the emperor Parikshit ; of the 
Soma va/ns'a and Pdndava kiila ; having a golden lioar on his flag, and 
ruling in Hastinapura. The grants are made during an expedition to 
the south, in the presence of the god Harihara, at the confluence of the 
Tungabhadra and Haridra. The inscriptions are no doubt of some 
antiquity, but to accept them as dating from the commonly-received 



' He was a i)osthiini<ni.s son and still-lxirn, l)Ut Krishna pronounced some words 
over the body which instilled life into it. 

^ See Mys. Ins. 251. 

•' The Bhagavata I'urana was recited to him between the iiite and his death ! The 
supposed meaning of the legend is, that Parikshit met his death at the hands of a 
Naga tribe, and that his son exterminated the Nagas in revenge. 

* See Colebrooke, As. /^'t-s. IX, 446. 



2 86 HI STORY 

period for the ccniinicnccinent of the Kah yuga,' wlicii Janamejaya is 
said to have reigned, would be aljsurd. 

A well-known native astronomer'- worked out the calculations for me, 
and maintained that they accord with no other year hut 36 of the Kali 
yuga, or k.c. 3066. He also stated that there is an interval of twelve 
days between the first date and the other two ; and that the former 
marks the beginning, and the latter the conclusion, of the sacrifice. 
On the other hand, the eclipse mentioned in the (lauj agrahara inscrip- 
tion, is stated,' on the authority of Sir (i. Airy, to have happened in 
A.D. 1 52 1, but this seems based on a mistake. I have elsewhere"* 
published what professes to be a Chalukya inscription, dated Saka 366 
(a.d. 444), which is in the same characters, and corresponds closely in 
many of the particulars, and in the peculiar terms of these grants. I 
have also made a minute comparison between them all, and given 
reasons for assigning them to about a.d. 1194. More recent discoveries 
lead to a suspicion that these and some other unaccountable inscrip- 
tions were in some way connected with Henjeru, a Xolamba city, now 
called Hemavati, situated on the Sira border, and perhaps with 
Harihara on the Tungabhadra. 

Regarding the chronology of the events which have been mentioned 
in the foregoing account of the legendary period, it can only be stated 
generally, that the destruction of the Kshatriyas by Parasu Rama is 
said to have taken place between the Treta and Dvapara ages ; and 
that an era of Parasu Rama used in Malabar dates from 11 76 B.C. 
Rama's expedition against Lanka, assigned to the close of the Treta 
age, is supposed to have taken place about the thirteenth century b.c.^ 
and the w-ar of the Maha Bharata about fourteen centuries b.c." The 
earliest version of the two epics must have been composed before 
500 B.C.' 

' It is reckoned to have begun on the iSih of FelMuar)-, 3102 B.C., at midnight on 
the meridian of Ujjayini. 

2 The late Siddhanti Subrahmanya S'astri. ■' /. Bo. Br. K. A. S. X, 81. 

* Ind. Ant. VIII, 89 ; Mys. Ins. Ixx. » Ciriffith, Ram. Int. xv. 

^ Wilson, Vish. Pur. pref. ci. A Chalukya inscription of the sixth century makes 
the era of the war of the Maha Bharata 3146 u.c. — Ijid. Ant. V, 68 ; J. Bo. Br. 
R. A. S. IX. 

• The Kali Vuga or fourth age of the world was supposed to commence at the 
birth of Krishna. Hence the events of the Maha Bharata must have taken place 
(luring the third or Dvapara age, and those of the Ramayana at the end of the second 
or Treta age. — Monier Williams, Ind. Wis. 333, 315 ff. 



MA UR YAS 287 



HISTORICAL PERIOD 

Mauryas. — The authentic history of India begins with the invasion 
of the Greelcs under Alexander the (ireat in 327 v..c., and when the 
Sandrakottos^ of the Greek writers was identified with Chandra Gupta, 
a secure basis was established on which to found the chronology of 
events in India itself. From the little wc know of Chandra Gupta, he 
first appears as an adventurer in the camp of Alexander, from which, 
owing to some quarrel, he had to flee. Collecting bands of followers, 
he contrived to overthrow the dynasty of the Nandas' in Magadha, or 
Behar, and made himself supreme sovereign throughout northern 
India, with his capital at Pataliputra (Palimbothra in the Greek version), 
the modern Patna, on the Ganges. On the other hand, after the death 
of Alexander in 323, Baktria and (the Greek provinces in) India had 
fallen to the share of Seleukos Nikator, the founder of the Syrian 
monarchy. But it was not till he had recovered Babylon in 312 that 
the latter was at leisure to turn his attention to India. He then found 
himself unable to cope with Chanda Gupta, and therefore entered into 
alliance with him, ceding the Greek settlements in the Punjab and the 
Kabul valley in return for a present of 500 elephants, and giving him 
his daughter in marriage. He also appointed to the court at l\ataliputra 
an ambassador named Megasthenes, from whose accounts the Greeks 
obtained much of their information about India. The reign of Chandra 
Gupta lasted for twenty-four years, from about 316 to 292 B.C., and the 
line of kings originating with him are known as the Mauryas. 

The earliest event in the annals of Mysore that may be regarded as 
historical is connected with Chandra Gupta. According to the accounts 
of the Jains, Bhadrabahu, the last of the s'rutakei'alis, or hearers of 
the first masters, foretold the occurrence in Ujjayini of a dreadful 
famine which would last for twelve years. On its approach the main 
body of the Jains there forsook the northern regions and migrated to 
the south under his guidance. When they had journeyed as far as 
S'ravana JJelgola, Bhadrabahu, feeling that his end was drawing nigh, 
sent on the rest of the pilgrims, under the leadership of Vi.s'akha, to 
the Chola and Pandya countries, and remained behind at the smaller 
hill (called Katavapra in Sanskrit and Kalbappira or Kalbappu in 

1 AlheiiKus writes the name Sandrakoptus.— Wilson, Theatre of the Hindus^ II, 132. 

- In the play called Mtidra-nikshasa he is represented as having effected this with 
the aid of Chanakya (the Indian Machiavelli), who is also called Vishnu Cupta and 
Kautilya. 



288 HISTORY 

Kannacja), to die, nllcnded by only a single di.scii)lc. That disciple, it 
is alleged, was ncj other than the Maurya emperor Chandra Gupta. 

In accordance with the obligations of the Jaina faith he had abdi- 
cated towards the close of life, and renounced the world in order to 
prei)are for death by acts of penance performed under the direction of 
a spiritual guide. For this purpose he had attached himself to iJhad- 
rabahu, the most distinguished professor of the faith at that time living, 
and had accompanied him to the south. He continued to minister to 
the wants of this his guru to the last, and was the only witness of his 
death. According to tradition, Chandra Gupta survived for twelve 
years, which he spent in ascetic rites at the same place and died there, 
after welcoming the emigrants on their return journey from the south 
when the great famine was over which had driven them from their homes. 

In testimony of these events not only is Bhadrabahu's cave, in 
which he expired, pointed out on the hill at S'ravana Be]gola, but the 
hill itself is called Chandra-giri after Chandra Gupta : while on its 
summit, surrounded with temples, is the Chandra Gupta basti, the 
oldest there, having its fagade minutely sculptured with ninety scenes 
from the lives of Bhadrabahu and Chandra Gupta, though these may 
be more modern. Additional evidence is contained in the ancient rock 
inscriptions on the hill. The oldest of them relates the migration of 
the Jains and the other events above mentioned, while a second asso- 
ciates Bhadrabahu with Chandra Gupta as the two great munis who 
gave the hill its distinction.^ Similar testimony is borne by two inscrip- 
tions of about 900 A.D. found near Seringapatam.- Furthermore, stone 
inscriptions at S'ravana Belgola dated in the twelfth and fifteenth 
centuries confirm the same traditions.^ That Chandra Gupta was a 
Jain by creed may be inferred from the statements of Megasthenes, 
who, writing of the Sarmanes (or S'ravanas) distinguishing them both 
from the Brachmanes (or Brahmans) and from the followers of Boutta 
(or the Buddhists), says : — " They communicate with the kings, who 
consult them by messengers regarding the causes of things, and who 
through them worship and supplicate the deity. "•■ That Bhadrabahu 
was contemporary with Chandra Gupta is not denied. 

According to the Greek accounts Chandra Gupta was succeeded by 
Amitrachades (probably Amitraghata, one of the king's titles), and 
Deimachos was the ambassador appointed to his court. But the 
Vishnu Purana gives the following list of the Maurya kings: — 

' See my Inscriptions at Sravana Belgola, Nos. 1,17, loS, 54, 40. 

- See my Epigraphia Carnatica, Vol. I, Sr. 147, 14S. 

;t ggg McCrindle's Indika of Megastheues, Ind. Ant. W, 244 : also Thomas, The 
Early Faith of Asoka, 23 ; Colebrooke, Essays, II, 203 ; Lassen, Indische Alter- 
thumsknndc, II, 700, 710. 



MA UR YAS 289 

Chandra Gupta. Sangata. 

Bindusara. S'alis'iika. 

As'oka-vardhana. Somas'arman. 

Suyas'as. S'as'adharman. 

Das'aratha. Brihadratha. 

Bindusara reigned for twenty-eight years, say 292 to 264 B.C., but in 
Mysore the next record we have carries us to the reign of As'oka, the 
grandson of Chandra Gupta. The discovery by me (in 1892) of three 
of his inscriptions in the Molkalmuru taluq, dating perhaps from 
258 i;.c., has put it beyond doubt that the Mysore country, or at any 
rate the northern part of it, was included in his dominions. All that 
was previously known of his connection with Mysore was contained in 
the statement in the Mahawanso that after the third convocation (^244 
B.C.) he despatched missionaries to foreign parts to establish the religion 
of Buddha ; among whom " he deputed the thera Majjhantika to 
Kasmira-Gandhara, and the thera Mahadeva to Mahisa-mandala 
(Mysore). He deputed the thera Rakkhita to Vanavasi" (Banavasi 
on the Sorab frontier), &:c. These places would seem therefore to 
have been just beyond the limits of his territories. An inscription of 
the twelfth century^ describes Ivuntala as the province governed by the 
Mauryas. This, roughly speaking, would be the country between the 
rivers Bhima and Vedavati, bounded on the west by the Ghats, includ- 
ing Shimoga, Chitaldroog, Bellary, Dharwar, I'ijapur, and adjacent 
parts to the north in Bombay and the Nizam's Dominions. 

The remarkable Edicts of As'oka, engraved on rocks and pillars, are, 
as is well known, the earliest specimens of writing that have been found 
in India. \\\\h the exception of those at Mansahra and Shahbazgarhi 
in the Yusufzai country, in the extreme north-west of the Punjab, 
which are in the Baktrian-Pali characters,- written from right to left; all 
the others are in the Indo-Pali characters,'' written from left to right. 
lUit a singular circumstance about the Edicts found in Mysore is that 
although, as was to be expected, they are in the Indo-Pali characters, 
the scribe who wrote them has introduced the Baktrian-Pali at the end 
in dcscril)ing his profession. '' This character a])pears in no other 
inscriptions throughout India, except those in Yusufzai hrst mentioned. 
The inference is that the scribe may have been an official transferred 
from the extreme north to the extreme south of the empire, which 
implies a freer inter-communication than has been generally supposed 
to exist at tliat period. 

As'oka was governor of Ujjain, under his father, l)cfore he came to the 

' At Bandanikkc, Shikarpur lalucp - Also called Arian-l'ali and Kharoshli. 

•' rroperly the Brahmi lipi. * As discovered by Dr Biihler. 

U 



290 IIISrOR Y 

throne. He reigned for forty-one years, about 264 to 223 u.c, or 
thirty-seven if counted from his coronation-anointing. During those 
previous four years he was engaged in struggles with his brothers. 
That he was at first a Jain has been deduced^ from his Edicts, and also 
from the statement by Akbar's minister, Abul Fazl, in the Ain-i-Akhari, 
that As'oka introduced Jainism into Kashmir, which is confirmed by the 
Rdja-tarangini or Brahmanical history of Kashmir, recording that 
As'oka " brought in the Jina s'asana." Others, however, consider 
that he followed the Brahman creed. At any rate, he eventually 
embraced Buddhism, and made it the State religion, doing for that 
faith what the emperor Constantine at a later period did for Christianity. 
In the 13th Rock Edict he informs us that his conversion was due to 
the remorse he felt on account of the slaughter and devastation which 
attended his conquest of Kalinga, in the ninth year after his coronation. 
Henceforward he resolved to maintain peace and devote himself to 
religion. He thus gradually came to appoint officials {inahdmdtras and 
others) to watch over morality, and by teaching and persuasion alone 
to extend the knowledge of dhamma or moral duties. The slaughter of 
animals was to a great extent stopped ; he had wells dug and avenues 
of trees planted along the roads ; made arrangements for dispensing 
medical aid in all parts of the empire ; and taught that the attainment 
of future happiness was open to all classes, and dependent, not on the 
ministration of priests, but on personal right conduct and humanity. 

The Edicts in Mysore- are issued in the name of Devanam Piye 
(the beloved of the gods), a royal title of the Maurya kings, and are 
addressed by the Prince (ayaputa) and mahamatras in Tachchannugiri 
and S'ivannugiri'' to the mahamatras in Isila, places which have not 
been identified. The contents run as follows : — 

The Beloved of the gods (thus) commands : — For more than two years and 
a half, when I was an upd^aka (or lay-disciple), I did not take much trouble. 
For one year'' (I took) immense trouble ; the year that I went to the sangha 
(or assembly of clerics) I put forth great exertion. And in this time the 
men who were (considered) true in Jambudvipa (were shown to be) false, 
together with the gods.'^ This, indeed, is the result of exertion. But this 
can not be attained only by the great. For in any case, even to the lowly 

' By Ed. Thomas, y«/;/ww, or the Early Faith of Asoka. His grandson Samprati 
was certainly a Jain. 

- Translations have been published by Dr. Blihler in Epigraphia ludka. III, 140 ; 
and by M. Senart, in French, in (he Journal Asiatique for 1892. 

^ The reading of these names is not quite clear : Dr. Biihler proposes Suvannagiri 
for both. * Or, according to another version, " for one period of six years." 

* This difficult passage also reads in other versions as "The men who were really 
equal to gods in Jambudvipa (were proved to be) falsely (so regarded)." 



yiAURYAS 291 

by effort hi.?h hccaven {svarga) is possible, and may be attained. To this 
end has this exhortation been dehvered :— Both humble and great should so 
exert themselves : and the neighbouring countries should know this ; and 
this exertion should be of long continuance. Then will this matter increase ; 
it will increase greatly ; it will increase to at least as much again. And 
this exhortation has been delivered by the vyutha 256.' 

Thus says the Beloved of the gods : — Obedience should be rendered to 
mother and father. So also regard for living creatures should be made 
firm. Truth should be spoken. These and the like virtues of the dhainma 
should be practised. So also the disciple should honour his teacher. And 
due respect should be paid to kindred. This is the ancient natural way. 
This also tends to long life, and this should thus be done. Written by Pada 
the scribe. 

The above will suffice to .show the earnestness and high moral tone 
of these singular and interesting inscriptions, so unlike any others met 
with in the country. The sentence about the men who were regarded 
as gods in Jambudvipa or India is considered to refer to the Brahmans, 
and to their being now deprived of the almost divine prestige they had 
arrogated. At the same time, the duty of reverence to them and the 
bestowal of alms both upon Brahmanas and S'ramanas is more than 
once inculcated. Toleration was denied only to their false claims. 

Asoka's son Mahindo and his daughter Sanghamitta entered the holy 
order and introduced Buddhism into Ceylon, It may be noted here 
tliat Asoka never calls himself by that name in his inscriptions, but 
always Piyadasi or Devanam Piye. Of his grandson Dasaratha (in 
Prakrit called Dashalatha) some inscriptions have been found at the 
Nagarjuni hill caves.~ 

According to the Puranas the Maurya dynasty continued in power for 
137 years, and Brihadratha, the last king, was murdered by his general 
Pushyamitra, who founded the S'unga dynasty. Agnimitra is mentioned 
as the son of Pushyamitra in the play called Malavikagnimitra, and as 
reigning at Vidisa, identified with Bhilsa in Central India. An inscrip- 
tion of the time of the S'ungas was found by General Cunningham in 
the Stupa at Bharhut in Central India.'' They are said to have ruled 
for 112 years, but for the latter part of that period were superseded by 
the Kanva family, who were supreme for 45 years. These may have 
been at first subordinates, as they are called in one place S'unga- 
bhrityas. Sus'arman, the last Kanva king, was overthrown by Simuka, 
described as a servant of the race of A'ndhras,^ and he was the 

' The signification of this term and of the numerals is much dis]Duted. 
- Ind. Ant., XX, 364. 3 /^.^ xiV, 13S. 

^ The A'ndhras are described by I'tolemy as a powerful nation, under the name of 
Andane. They are also mentioned in Pliny. 

U 2 



2Q2 ///STORY 

founder of the line of kings thence called in the Puranas the 
A'ndhrabhrityas.' 

Satavahanas. -Put from iiiscrii)tion.s it seems more correct to call 
thcni the S';iiavahana dynasty, a name corrupted in Prakrit to S'aliva- 
hana. 'I'heir chief capita! appears to have been at Dhanakataka, in the 
east (Dharanikolta on the Krishna, in (iuntur taluq), but their chief 
city in the west was Paithan on the Oodavari. Inscriptions found at 
Nasik and Nanaghat'-' provide us with the following names (in their 
Prakrit form) and succession. The peculiarity that the name of his 
mother always appears with that of the king may be also remarked in 
the Sunga inscription, and is a Rajput custom due to polygamy. Thus 
we have Gotamiputra Satakani, Wisithiputra l^ulumayi, and so forth.'' 

Siiiuika. A. 1). 

Kanha (Krishna) reigned at least 

S'atakani, son of Gotami ... ... ... 24 years — I37? 

IHilumayi, son of Vasithi ... ... ... 24 ,, 

Sirisena, son of Madhari ... ... ... 8 ,, 

Chaturapana S'atakani, son of \'asithi ... 13 ,, — 182? 

Siriyana S'atakani,'' .son of Gotami ... ... 27 ,, 

Kharavela's inscription in Kalinga tells us of a Satakani in the 
2nd century e.g., but these kings are assigned to the 2nd century .\.d. 
on the dates of the contemporary Kshatrapas or Satraps of Surashtra 
in Kathiawar, and other coincidences. Thus, the first Satakani was 
victorious over Nahapana, and destroyed the dynasty of the Khaharatas 
or Khakharatas. Rudradaman, grandson of Chashtana, was the con- 
queror of a Satakani, perhaps Chaturapana.'^ Again, Ptolemy, who 
wrote his Geography soon after 150 .\.d., describes Ozene (Ujjayini) as 
the royal seat of Tiastenes, Baithan (Paithan) as that of Siri Polemaios, 
and Hippokoura, in the south of Ariake (Maharashtra), as that of 
Baleokouros.'' In these names it is not difficult to recognize Chashtana, 
Siri Pulumayi, and \'ilivayakura, who are known to us from inscrip- 
tions and coins. Chashtana was the founder of the dynasty of 
Kshatrapa Senas,' which succeeded that of the Kshaharatas, ending with 
Nahapana. Siri Pulumayi was the S'atavahana king, the son of Vasithi, 
given in the list above. 'N'ilivayakura was the viceroy of the Satava- 
hanas, governing the southern provinces.^ 

' Bhandarkar, Early Hist, of the Dc'khan. - Arch. Sun: W. Ind., iv, v. 

■^ See Dr. Buhler's explanation in Cunningham's Stiipa of Bharhuf, p. 129. These 
do not give us the actual names of the mothers, but the latter, as in the case of Rajas 
too, are called after the gotra of their family priest. 

■• In Sanskrit, S'ri Vajna Satakarni. * Senart, lud. Ant., XXI, 206. 

« McCrindle, Ptolemy s Geog., id., XIII, 359, 366. 

' The following are the early names : — Chashtana, Jayadaman, Rudradaman, 
Rudrasimha, Rudrasena. 8 Bhandarkar, o/. cit. 



SATAVAHAXAS 293 

To revert to the kingdoms which arose out of Alexanders empire. 
We know that Egypt under the Ptolemies and Syria under the 
Seleukidie were eventually conquered by Rome. But the Greek 
kingdom of Baktria was overthrown by a people from the north, called 
the Tochari (whence its name of Tocharistan), who next advanced 
westward against the kingdom of Parthia, founded in 250 B.C. by 
Arsakes, who had revolted agamst the Seleukida;. Arlabanus, king of 
Parthia, fell fighting against the Tochari, but his son Mithridates II. 
(124 i!.c.) drove them back towards Kabul and India. Meanwhile, 
Saka or Turushka tribes from Central Asia had poured into Baktria, 
and by about 24 i!.c. had firmly established themselves in the north- 
west of India. 

From coins and other sources we obtain various names of kings, 
such as Heraiis, Ciondophares and others, but the best known are the 
Saka kings Kanishka, Huvishka, and Vasudeva, or, as they are called 
on their coins, Kanerki, Ooerki, and Bazodeo. They belonged to 
the Kushana family, and Kashmir was the chief seat of their power. 
But Kanishka's empire extended from Yarkand and Khokand in 
the north to Agra and Sindh in the south. The last great Buddhist 
council was held in his reign. The best authorities are of opinion 
with Dr. Oldenberg that the Saka era, reckoned from 78 a.d., dates 
from his coronation. But the word Saka after some centuries came 
to be misunderstood as itself meaning " era," and therefore, to dis- 
tinguish it, was at length, more than a thousand years after its origin, 
called the S'alivahana S'aka, a reminiscence of the fact that it had been 
adopted by the Satavahanas. This is the era still in common use 
throughout the south of India, as well as in Bengal. ^ 

W'q may now return to the S'atavahanas. Their rule in the northern 
parts of Mysore is proved both by inscrii)tions and coins. There was a 
find of Buddhist leaden coins a few years ago- at the site of an ancient 
city whose name, according to tradition, was Chandravali, situated 
immediately to the west of Chitaldroog, and among these was one 
bearing the name of Pulomayi. Again, an inscription of Satakanni, 
son of Hariti, was found some time ago'' at Banavasi on the Sorab 
frontier. And recently I have found one also of Satakanni, son of 
Hariti, at Malavalli in Shikarpur taluq. Both the Satakarnis above 
mentioned are described as "joy of the \'inhuka(jdavutu family,"' but the 

• The era of \'ikram;ulilya, recUoneil from 56 B.C., seems to he ecjuallya misnomer. 
No instance of its use with such a name has Ijeen found for 500 years after thai dale. 
Hut Dr. Fleet identifies it with the Malava era.^/;w. of the Early Gupta Kings. 

"■' By Mr. Mervyn Smith, a mining engineer, prospecting for gold. 

^ By Dr. Burgess : for Dr. Biihler's translation see Iiid. Ant., XI\', 331. 



294 



irrsTOR Y 



Banavasi inscription is in characters which appear to be of a somewhat 
earlier type than those of Malavalli, and corresponding with the alphabet 
of Siriyana Satakarni's inscription at Nasik. On this ground, and also 
on account of the dates, though they are both in the same Pali or 
Prakrit language, it is possible that they may belong to the time of 
different kings of the same name. Their relationship to the S'atava- 
hanas before mentioned does not appear, but they probably represent 
a branch of the dynasty.' At Malavalli, Satakarni is called king of 
Vaijayanti, or Banavasi, and the inscription at the latter place implies 
the same. 

The Banavasi inscription is dated in the twelfth year, the first day 
of the seventh winter fortnight, and records a gift by the king's daughter, 
the Mahabhoji Sivakhada-Nagasiri. The Malavalli inscription begins 
with ascriptions of victory to the holy Mattapatti deva, evidently the 
god of Malavalli. At the present time this is a most ordinary linga, 
called Kalles'vara, in a most insignificant village temple, nor are there 
any indications about the place of former grandeur except the inscrip- 
tion. It is dated in the first year, and the first day of the second 
summer fortnight. In it the king Satakarni issues an order to the 
Mahavalabham S'ungakam. If the reading of this last name be corrects 
it looks like an interesting link with the S'ungas, previously mentioned. 
The grant consists of certain villages for the Mattapatti god. There is 
a second inscription on the same stone pillar, in similar characters and 
language. It is dated in the fourth year, on the second day of the first 
autumn fortnight, and records a fresh grant for the same god by a 
Kadamba king, name defaced, and was engraved by Vis'vakamma. 
A fine Kadamba inscription at Talgunda also names Satakarni as one 
of the great kings who had visited the temple there. 

The Satakarnis were undoubtedly succeeded by the Kadambas in the 
north-west of Mysore. From this time, the third century, we enter 
upon a period more amply elucidated by authentic records. 

While the north-west was, as stated, in the possession of the 
Kadambas, part of the north was under the rule of the Rashtrakutas, 
or Rattas. The east was held by the Mahavalis and the Pallavas, and 
the centre and south came to be occupied by the Gangas, who partially 
subdued the Mahavalis. In the fifth century the Chalukyas from the 
north reduced the Rattas and the Kadambas to the condition of 
feudatories and prevailed against the Pallavas, who were also attacked 
by the Gangas. Early in the ninth century the Rattas regained power 

' Similar])-, in the Jaggayyapeta stupa was found an inscription of another branch, 
of the time of Turisadatta, son of Madhari, in which he is said to be of the Ikhaku 
Ikshvalivi) family. — Arch. Stiti: S. Iiid., No. 3, p. 56. 



SA TA VAHANAS 2 9 5 

over the Chalukyas, and for a short time took possession of the Ganga 
kingdom, but restored it and formed an aUiance with the Gangas, with 
whom also were allied the Nolambas, a branch of the Pallavas, 
established in the north-east of Mysore. In the tenth century the 
Rattas with the Gangas gained great success over the Cholas, but the 
close of that century saw the Chalukyas once more in the ascendant, 
bringing the rule of the Rattas to a final end, while the Nolambas 
were uprooted by the Gangas. The eleventh century began with a 
powerful invasion of the Cholas from the south, in which the Gangas 
and the Pallavas were overthrown ; but from the ruins of the Ganga 
empire arose the Hoysalas, who drove out the Cholas from Mysore and 
established a firm dominion. In the twelfth century the Chalukya 
power was subverted by the Kalachuryas, in whom the Haihayas 
reappear ; and they, in their turn, were shortly dispossessed on the north 
by the Yadavas and in the south by the Hoysalas, who also before long 
subdued the Cholas. But both Yadavas and Hoysalas were overthrown 
in the middle of the fourteenth century by the Musalmans. The 
Vijayanagar empire, however, then arose, which held sway over the 
whole of South India till the latter half of the sixteenth century, when 
It was subverted by a confederacy of Musalman powers. Of these, 
Bijapur secured a great part of Mysore, but was overcome in the 
seventeenth century by the Mughals, who took possession of the north 
and east of the country. Meanwhile the Mysore Rajas gained power 
in the south, during the contests which raged between the Mahrattas 
and the Mughals, and between rival claimants on the death of 
Aurangzeb. Haidar Ah extended the Mysore dominion over the 
Mughal provinces in the east and north, and over Bednur in the west, 
usurping supreme power in 1761. On the capture of Seringapatam by 
the British and the downfall of Tipu Sultan in 1799, the country 
included within the present limits was granted to the representative of the 
Hindu Rajas. In 1S32 it was placed under British Commissioners, but 
restored to native rule in 1881. Such is an outline of the changes of 
seventeen centuries, the details of which we may now proceed to fill in. 

Kadambas. — The dommions of the Kadambas embraced all the 
west of Mysore, together with Haiga (N. Kanara) and Tulava (S. 
Kanara). Their original capital was Banavasi (Jayantii)ura or 
Vaijayantipura), situated on the river Varada on the western frontier of 
the Sorab taluq. It is mentioned by Ptolemy. Also in the Mahawanso, 
which names it as one of the places to which a i/iero was sent in the 
time of Asoka. 

The origin of the Kadambas is thus related. Some years after 
Parasu Rama had recovered Haiga and Tulava from the sea, Siva and 



296 jiJsroR V 

Parvati came to the Sahyddri mountains, the Western Ghats, in order 
to look at this new country ; and in consequence of their pastimes a 
boy was born under a kadamba tree, whence the name of the dynasty. 
According to another version, he was born from the drops of sweat 
which flowed from Siva's forehead to the root of the kadamba tree in 
consequence of his exertion in conrjuering the asura Tripura. A more 
realistic account, given in an inscription, is that a kadamba tree grew 
in front of the family residence, and that by cultivation of it they 
acquired its name and qualities.' In any case they appear to have 
been an indigenous race. 

The people of the country, being at the time without a monarch, had 
recourse to the State elephant, which, being turned loose carrying a 
wreath, presented it to the youth whose birth was so miraculous, and he 
was consequently proclaimed king. He is variously styled Jayanta, 
Trilochana Kadamba, and Trinetra Kadamba. The royal line thus 
founded, in about the second century, continued independent till the 
sixth century, and during this period they claim to have performed 
many as'vamedhas or horse sacrifices, indications of supreme authority. 
Their family deity was Madhukes'vara of Banavasi. 

After Trinetra the kings in regular succession ascribed to this line 
were Madhukesvara, Mallinatha and Chandravarma. The last had two 
sons, named Chandravarma or Chandavarma and Purandara, the elder 
of whom was the father of Mayiiravarma. Of these early kings it is 
not improbable that the first Chandravarma may be the Chandrahasa 
whose romantic story has already been given above (p. 282). The 
second Chandravarma, again, may be the prince of that name who was 
the progenitor of the Kodaga or Coorg race. Of him it is related that he 
rescued from a forest fire a serpent named Manjista, which, entering his 
mouth, took up its abode in his stomach. He was forced to wander 
about, with his wife Pushpavati, in search of a cure, which was eventually 
effected at Valabhi by a woman- whom he was obliged in return to 
marry, and desert his wife, then with child. The truth probably is that 
his kingdom was usurped by some Naga chief, such as we know were 

' The tree itself is said to have been produced by a drop of nectar which fell upon 
the earth from the churning slick, the Mandara mountain, at the churning of the 
ocean. The tall and handsome trees bearing this name are species of naiiclea, of the 
natural order ciuchoniacem, and grow in many parts of India. A spirit is said to be 
distilled from the flowers. {See Wilson's Vishtm Piirana, Bk. v, ch. xxv.) In 
Watt's Dictionary the tree is described as an aiithocephalus, belonging to tlie 
riihiacea:, and the flowers are said to be sacred to Siva. According to the Phaniia- 
cographia Iiidica it is the arbor generation is of the Mahratta Kunbis, and a branch 
of it is brought into the house at the time of their marriage ceremonies. 
* She was the attendant at the chatrani in which he lodged, and advised him to 



KADAMBAS 297 

special enemies of the Kadambas.^ According to the Kaveri Purana, 
Chandravarma was a son of Siddhartha, king of Matsya (Virata's 
capital, Hangal in Dharwar, one of the Kadamba chief cities). He 
left his country, it is said, and went on a pilgrimage to all the holy 
bathing-places, until Parvati appeared and offered him a boon, in con- 
sequence of which he received a kingdom at the source of the Kaveri, 
and a Sudra wife, from whom he, as a Kshatriya, should beget a valiant 
race called Ugras. P'or the eleven sons he had l)y her the hundred 
daughters of the king of Vidarbha (Berar) by Sudra mothers were 
obtained as wives. Each of these bore more than a hundred sons, 
who, to provide accommodation for their growing numbers, levelled the 
hill slopes and settled over a district five yojanas in extent at the sources 
of the Kaveri river in Coorg. 

Mayiiravarma seems to have restored the authority of the Kadambas, 
and is sometimes represented as the founder of the line. He was 
the son of whom Chandravarma's wife was delivered at Valabhi after 
she had been deserted. The following is the legend of the manner in 
which he acquired the throne : — One night some robbers got into the 
house of a Brahman at Valabhi, and at the same time a peacock in the 
yard screamed. They then overheard the Brahman laughing and 
telling his wife the story of the peacock. He said that a Brahman of 
Banavasi once performed various penances with the view of becoming 
a king, but a voice from heaven informed him that he was destined to 
be born again as a peacock, and whoever should eat the head of the 
peacock would be king. On this he went to Benares to die, and was 
re-born as the peacock now in the yard. Hearing this the robbers 
made off with the peacock, but immediately fell disputing as to who 
.should have the head. To decide the matter they resolved to ask the 
woman staying in the chatram to cook the bird for them, and see to 
whom she gave the head. But while she was getting the meal ready, 
her little son suddenly snatched U]) the head and ate it. Being thus 
clearly indicated as heir to the throne, the robbers conveyed him and 
his mother to Banavasi, and had just arrived at the outskirts of the 
town when they met the State elephant carrying a wreath, which it at 

worshi]) llic gocldcss Kdlika and the efl'igy of a scrpcnl carved on a slone at the l)ack 
of her temple. On liis doing so another serpent apj^eared out of an ant-hill, and 
tried to persuade Manjista to come forth, ])ut without success. The woman, over- 
hearing the dispute between the two, speedily possessed herself of certain plants they 
had threatened to use against each other, — vishaiitardi and .wr/rt///*///, growing at 
liie foot of an ant-hill, and ahiiidra hart, a creeper spreading over the as7ui////a tree. 
Manjista was expelleil and died by virtue of the juice of the former, and the other 
serpent was got rid of by that of the latter. 
' Sec Ind. AitL, XIV, 13. 



298 n/sroR Y 

once ])rcsciitcd to the boy. Mis origin being revealed, he was forth- 
with recognized as king of Banavasi, under the name of Mayuravarma, 
from mayi/ra, i)eacock. He there obtained "the sword of sharpness, 
the shoes of swiftness, and the garment of invisibility." He is said to 
have rescued Sasiprabhe, the wife of Raja Vallabha, prince of Kalyana, 
from a Yaksha named Kandarpa Bhilshana, living in Gomanta-guhe, 
who had carried her off. He received in consequence a large accession of 
territory, together with the Kalyana princess S'as'ankamudre in marriage. 

He is also stated to have introduced Brahman colonists from 
Ahichchatra (in Rohilkand), and distributed the country below the 
Ghats into sixty-four portions, which he bestowed upon them. In the 
reign of his son Kshetravarma, Chandrangada or Trinetra, these Ikah- 
mans attempted to leave the province, but they were brought back ; 
and in order to prevent a repetition of the attempt were compelled to 
leave unshorn a lock of hair on the forehead as a distinguishing mark. 
From these are descended the Haiga or Havika Erahmans of the north- 
west of Mysore. They would appear on this occasion to have been 
settled by Mukanna, that is, Trinetra, above the Ghats, at Sthana- 
gundiir (Talgunda in Shikarpur talu([). During his reign, a kinsman 
named Chandrasena ruled the south of Tulava, and the Brahmans were 
spread into those parts. Lokaditya or Lokadipya, the son of Chandra- 
sena, married Kanakavati, the sister of Trinetra, and had by her a 
daughter, whom Hubasiga, the king of the mountain Chandalas, sought 
as a wife for his son. In pretended compliance, he was invited to 
Tripura and there treacherously murdered. The authority of the 
Kadambas was extended in consequence above those Ghats, and the 
Brahmans followed this accession of territory. Lokadipya is said to 
have reigned fifty years. 

These traditions no doubt include much that is entitled to credit. 
But a fine stone inscription at Talgunda gives a different version, which 
seems to refer to the same period, or to a time when the Pallavas were 
supreme from west to east. In it we are informed that a Brahman 
named Mayilras'arma of the Kadamba family, who are described as very 
devout Brahmans, went with his guru Viras'arma to the Pallava capital 
(Kanchi) to study, ^^'hile there a sharp quarrel arose between him and 
the Pallavas, and he became so enraged that he resolved, although a 
Brahman, to become a Kshatriya in order to revenge himself. Arming 
himself and overcoming the Pallava guards at the frontier, he escaped 
to the inaccessible forests at Sriparvata (in Karnul district, near 
the junction of the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers), and there attained 
such power that he levied tribute from the great Bana and other sur- 
rounding kings. The Pallavas thereupon led an army against him, but 



KADAMBAS 299 

he swooped down upon them Hke a hawk nnd completely defeated them. 
They therefore resolved to make peace with him, and invested him with 
a territory extending from the Amara ocean to the borders of the 
Premara country.^ His son was Kangavarma, whose son was 
Bhagiratha, sole ruler of the Kadamba territories. His son was 
Raghuparthiva, whose brother was Kakustha or Kakusthavarma. The 
latter was a powerful ruler, and his daughters were given in marriage to 
the Gupta and other kings. His son was S'antivarma. 

The two last names occur in other inscriptions, but the rest are new. 
Several more early Kadamba inscriptions are available, but unfortunately 
they are dated only in the year of the reign, or by the ancient system 
of the seasons, and the succession of the kings cannot on this account 
be definitely determined. One series gives us Krishnavarma ; his son 
Yishnuvarma, by the daughter of Kaikeya ; his son Simhavarma ; and 
his son Krishnavarma.- Another gives us Krishnavarma and his son 
Devavarma.'' We have also Mandhatrivarma, whose grant was com- 
posed by Damodara-datta,"' and there is a separate rock inscription by 
Damodara.^ We havealso the series Kakustha or Kakusthavarma, his son 
S'antivarma ; his son Mriges'avarma ; his three sons Ravivarma, Bhanu- 
varma, and Sivaratha ; and the son of the first of these, Harivarma." 

All these records, relating to at least sixteen generations, undoubtedly 
belong to some time between the third and sixth centuries. One stone 
inscri])tion in Prakrit, immediately following a grant by Satakarni, and 
another in Sanskrit, are engraved in small Cave characters. The re- 
mainder, all in Sanskrit, are engraved in bold characters called box- 
headed, which in certain specimens present a very elegant appearance. 
Many of the grants are to Jains, but a few are to Brahmans, one to an 
Atharvani Brahman. 

The historical facts deduced from them are that the Kadambas claim 
to be lords of ^'aijayanti or Banavasi, though certain grants are issued 
from Triparvata, from Palasika (Halsi in Belgaum district), and from 
Uchchas'ringi. Like the Satakarni who preceded them at Banavasi, 
they are stated to be of the Manavya gotra and sons of Hariti. Their 
crest was a lion, and they bore the monkey flag. They seem to have 
had enemies in a Naga race, represented later probably by the Sindas 
of Erambarige (Yelburga in the Nizam's Dominions),' and Krishna- 

' rerhaps the I'ranidra kingili)in of Malwa in Central India is meant. Anianirnava, 
the other limit, is difllcult to determine, unless it means the Western Ocean. 

- Grant at Halehid, Heliir taluq. =* Ind. Ant., VII, t,^. 

■• Grant at Kudagere, Shikarpur taluq. * Iiid. Ant., XXI, 93. ^ il>., \l, 22ff. 

' These deduce their genealogy from Sinda, king of the Sindhu country, who was 
horn in Ahichchhatra, and married a Kadamha princess. Fleet, A'aii. Pyn., 97. 
.Vd'6' also .£■/. Ind., Ill, 231. 



300 JUSTOR Y 

vaniKi, fiUhcr of Dcvavarnia, claims to be in possession of a heritage 
not to l)e attained by the Nrigas. Hut their great rivals were the 
Pallavas. We have seen evidence of this in the Talgunda inscription 
above, and from an independent stone inscription of Krishnavarma it 
appears that in one severe battle with the Pallavas his army was so 
completely destroyed that he gave up his life to save his honour. The 
sister of a Kadamba king, Krishnavarma, was (according to (langa 
grants) married to the Ganga king Madhava II. Mriges'avarma claims 
to have uprooted the lofty Ganga family and to be a fire of destruction 
to the Pallavas. Ravivarma, again, slew Vishnuvarma, probably a 
Palla\a, and uprooted Chandadanda, lord of Kanchi, and thence a 
I'allava, thereby establishing himself at Palasika. 

The Kadambas lost their independence on being conquered by the 
Chalukyas under Kirtivarnia, whose reign began in 566. But they 
continued to act as viceroys and governors under the Chalukya and 
other dynasties, and the name does not disappear from history till the 
rise of Vijayanagar in 1336. Among the later inscriptions, one at 
Kargudari (Hangal taluq)\ dating in 1 108, gives the following traditional 
list of the kings, each being the son of his predecessor. After seventy- 
seven ancestors, of whom we know no more, there came Mayuravarma, 
Krishna (add varma to each), Naga, Vishnu, Mriga, Satya, Vijaya, 
Jaya, Naga, S'anti, Kirtti, A'ditya, Chattaya, Jaya. The last had 
five sons, Taila and S'antivarma being the most important. The 
latter's son was Taila, whose son was Tailama, whose sons were Kirtti 
and Kama. But though this includes some of the genuine names, and 
allowing for kings often having more than one name, the list as a 
whole is of doubtful credit, except in the last stages. There is no 
question, however, that the Kadambas became more prominent at the 
end of the eleventh century, when their alliance seems to have been 
sought by the Chalukya Vikrama in his plans against his brother, and 
on his success they were advanced in honour. A separate branch had 
its capital at Gopaka or (ioa, but all the Kadambas were absorbed 
into the conquests of the founders of the Vijayanagar empire. 

Mahavalis. — The Mahavali kings were of great antiquity, and, 
according to their inscriptions, ruled over a seven and a half lakh 
country, containing 12,000 villages, situated in the west of the Andhra 
or Telugu country. They were in possession of the east of Mysore, 
where several of their inscriptions are found, especially in Mulbagal 
taluq, and their kingdom was evidently to the east and north of the 
Palar river. They claim to be descended from Bali or Maha Bali, and 
his son Bana, whence they are also styled the Bdna kings. According 

' /;/(/. Ant., X, 249. 



< 

Z 
< 



f 



1-c 



MA£[|VVJALIS 




MA HA VA LIS 301 

to Hindu mythology Bali was an Asura emperor, who through his 
devotion and penance defeated Indra, humbled the gods and extended 
his authority over the three worlds. In order to restrain him, Vishnu, 
who was appealed to by the gods for protection, assumed his fifth 
incarnation, the form of the Brahman dwarf, the vdmana avatdra, and 
appearing before Bali, asked for only three paces of ground as a boon, 
which was granted. As the water conveying the gift fell into his hand, 
the dwarfs form expanded till it filled the world ; and Vishnu, now 
manifesting himself, deprived Bali in two strides of heaven and earth, 
but on account of the virtues the latter possessed, left Pdtdla or the 
infernal regions still in his dominion. 

The ancient ruined city of Mahdbalipura or Mdmallapura, generally 
known as the Seven Pagodas, situated on the east coast, thirty miles 
south of Madras, was perhaps their original capital. According to 
legend' it was founded by Bali. His son was Bdndsura, who is repre- 
sented as a giant with a thousand hands ; Aniruddha, the son (or grand- 
son) of Krishna, came to Bdna's court in disguise and seduced his 
daughter ; which produced a war, in the course of which Aniruddha 
was taken prisoner and brought to Mahdbalipur : upon which Krishna 
came in person from his capital Dvdraka and laid siege to the place. 
Siva guarded the gates and fought for Bdndsura, who worshipped him 
with his thousand hands, but Krishna found means to overthrow .Siva, 
and having taken the city, cut off Banasura's hands, e.xcept two, with 
which he obliged him to do homage. He continued in subjection to 
Krishna till his death, after which a long period ensued in which no 
mention is anywhere made of this place. It seems to have been 
subsequently destroyed by an inundation of the sea. The inscriptions 
now found there appear to be all Pallava, of about the seventh century, 
or Chola, of later date than that.- 

The oldest Mahdvali inscrii)tion bearing a date is one professing to 
be of 339 A.i)., found by mc at Mudiyanur (Mulbagal taluq).' But 
from the one which contains the fullest genealogy of the line, jiublished 
by the Rev. T. Foulkes,'* there were several generations before that. 
As aids towards fixing the period of the kings we have the statements 
that the early Kadamba outlaw of S'riparvata levied tribute from 
the great Bdna; that the first Ganga king, assigned to the second 
century, conquered the Bdna country ; that the Chalukya king 
Vikramdditya I., ruling in the seventh century, subdued Rdjamalla 
of the Mahdmalla family ; that the Chola king, \'ira Ndrdyana, 

' See Captain Carr's Sez'cit Paij^odas, 13 ; Asiatic Kescarcfies, I, 156. 

■' Hultzsch, So. Imi. Ins., I, ift'. ^ /,„f_ _./„/._^ x\", 172. 

* lb., XIII, 6 ; Ep. Itid., Ill, 74. 



30 2 IIISTOR Y 

ui)rooted llic Banas about tlic end of the ninth century ; but that they 
were replaced soon after by the Oangas in the person of Hastimalla.' 
The genealogy as derived from inscriptions is as follows : — 

Bali, Mahdbali ; his son 
Bana, in whose hnc was Iwrn 
Banadhiraja. 

After he and many other Bana kings had passed away, there were : — 

Xandivarma, Jayanandivarma, 

Vijayaditya I. 

Malladeva Nandivarma, Jagadekamalla, Vadhuvalla1:)ha. 

Bana Vidyadhara. 

Prabhumeru. 

Vikramaditya I. 

Vija)'aditya II. 

Vikramaditya II, Vijayabahu. 

Each of these eight kings was the son of his predecessor. The 
Mudiyanur inscription is of the twenty-third year of No. 3. 
Stone inscriptions exist in Mysore of Nos. 4 and 5. There are 
also inscriptions of a Bejeyitta Banarasa, one dating in 899. He 
may be identified with Vijayaditya II. Vikramaditya II. is said 
to have been the friend of Krishna Raja, no doubt the Rashtra- 
kuta king, ruling in about 940 to 956. Then an inscription dating in 
971 presents to us Sambayya, who, though invested with all the 
Mahavali titles, was ruling as a governor subordinate to the Pallavas. 
The line must therefore have lost its independence in the latter half of 
the tenth century. Extracts are given by Mr. Foulkes- from literature 
indicating a recognition of the power of the Bana kings in the thirteenth 
and fifteenth centuries. Moreover, at the end of this latter period, in- 
scriptions at Srivilliputtur in Tinnivelly district show that two kings named 
Sundara Tol and Muttarasa Tirumala, calling themselves ■Mahavali 
Banadhiraja even obtained possession of the Pandya throne. Except 
these and the Salem inscriptions, which are in Grantha and Tamil 
characters, all the other inscriptions of this line are in the ancient 
Kannada characters and in the Sanskrit and Kannada languages. 
Some of their later inscriptions indicate Paduvipuri as their capital, 
which may possibly be identified with Padavidu in North Arcot 
district, south of Vellore, where there are extensive ruins, the ancient 
city having been destroyed apparently by a volcanic eruption. Their 
crest was the recumbent bull Nandi, and they had a black flag. 

' See Iiid. Aiit., XIII, 6, 187. '•' Loc. cit. 



PALLA FAS :yOs 

Yaidumbas. — Inscriptions of these kings are met with in Chintaniani 
taliuj. The Kah'nga Ganga king \'ajrahastu \'. married a Vaidumba 
princess ; and the Chela king Parantaka subdued a Vaidumba king. 

Pallavas. — The Pallavas were a powerful dynasty who succeeded to 
the dominions of the Andhrabhritya or S'atavahana family throughout 
the region in which the Telugu language prevails. They seem at first 
to have had a chief city at Vatapi (Badami in Bijapur district), from 
which they were expelled by the Chalukyas in the fifth century, and 
also at Vengi, between the Krishna and the Godavari, which was taken 
from them by the Chalukyas in the seventh century, liut from an early 
part of their history their capital was Kanchi (Conjeveram, near 
Madras^. Their grants are also issued from Palakkada and Dasana- 
pura, the latter name being perhaps a translation of the former. This 
place has not been identified, but may be the Palakka of the Samudra 
Gupta inscription at Allahabad. Trichinopoly seems to be the southern- 
most point in which Pallava inscriptions have been found. Stone inscrip- 
tions in the Kolar, Chitaldroog, Tumkur and Bangalore Districts bear 
evidence that the Pallavas in the ninth and tenth centuries exercised 
dominion throughout the north and east of Mysore. Here they frequently 
had the cognomen No!amba,and their territory came to be known as 
Nolambavadi or Nonambavadi, a Thirty-two Thousand province, the 
subjects of which are represented by the Nonabas of the present day. 

The origin of the Pallavas is uncertain, though they profess in some 
grants to be of the Bharadvaja gotra. They are mentioned in the Puranas 
along with the Haihayas, S'akas, Yavanas, &c., as Pahlavas, which would 
imply a Persian source. But Professor ^Veber says^ : — " As the name of 
a people this word Pahlav became early foreign to the Persians, learned 
reminiscences excepted : in the Pahlav texts themselves, for instance, it 
does not occur. The period when it passed over to the Indians, there- 
fore, would have to be fixed for about the second to the fourth century 
A.I)., and we should have to understand by it, not directly the Persians, 
who are called Parasikas rather, but specially Arsacidan Parthians.-' 
Pallava may possibly be derived from Parthava (Parthian). 

According to tradition, from Salivahana, that is S'atavdhana, who 
ruled at Pratishthana (now Paithan, on the Godavari), were descended 
Madhavavarma, Kulaketana, Nilakantha, and Mukunti Pallava. The 
last appears as the founder of the Pallava line, and is said to have been 

> JltsL Iiid. Lit., 1 88. 

- The I'arthians revolted from the Seleucidiv al)out li.c. 150. uinler a cliief named 
Arsakes (Askh), who founded an independent monarchy. The I'arthians sub- 
sequently overran the provinces east of the Euphrates, and about H.c. 130 overthrew 
the kinjjdom of Baclria, so that their empire extended from the Euphrates to the 
Indus, and from the Indian Ocean to the Paropamisus, or even to the 0.\us. The 



304 



JIISTOR Y 



a son of Mahadcva (Siva) by a girl of the mountain tribe called 
Chcnsuars (( 'hensabara).' He is also stated to have introduced 
Brahmans into his country in the third century. 

Trilochana, Trinetra, or Trinayana Pallava, was ruling in the fourth 
century when jayasimha, surnamed Vijayaditya, of the Cahlukya 
family, invaded his territories. But the latter lost his life in the attempt, 
and his (jueen, then pregnant, fled and took refuge with a Brahman 
named \'ishnu Somayaji, in whose house she gave birth to a son named 
Rajasimha. On attaining to man's estate the latter renewed the contest 
with the Pallavas, in which he was finally successful, and eventually 
married a princess of that race.'^ 

Resorting to inscriptions, one at Nasik says that Satakarni, son of 
(iotami, destroyed the Pahlavas, with the Sakas and Yavanasf and one at 
Junagadh that a Pallava named Suvis'akha, son of Kulaipa, was minister 
to the Kshatrapa Rudradaman.^ But in the east we obtain the names 
of several series of Pallava kings, whose period seems sufficiently 
certain, although their exact dates are for the most part not known, 
nor in several cases their relationship and order : — 



Chandavarma, ? Chandadanda 300 

Nandivarma 

Skandavarma to 

Buddhavarma 

S'ivaskandavarma 400 

Skandavarma 4°° 

Viravarma 

Skantlavarma to 

Simhavarma 

Vishnugopavarma S°° 

Simhavishnu 

Ugradanda, Lokaditya 

Rajasimha, ? Jayasimha, Simha- 
vishnu, Narasimhavishnu, 
Atyantakama, ? Atiranachanda c.550 

IMahendravarma I. 

Narasimhavarnia, Narasimhapota- 

varma I. c. 620 

Mahendravarma II. 

I'arames'varavarma I, Is'varapota- 

raja c. 670 



Narasimhavarma, Narasimhapota- 

varma II. c. 675 

Parames'varavarma II. 

Nandivarma 

Pallavamalla Nandivarma, Nandi- 

potavarma c. 733 

(Skandavarma) 

(Simhavarma) Hemasitala 788 

(Skandavarma) Dantiga 804 

Nandivarma c. 810 

Nolambadhiraja, Mangala 

Simhapota 

Chdru Ponnera, Pallavadhiraja 

Polalchora Nolamba, Nolambadhi- 
raja 88 1 

Mahendra, Bira Mahendra 

Ayyapa, Nanniga 919 

Anniga, Bira Nolamba, Annayya 

Dilipayya, Iriva Nolamba, 

Nolapayya 943-974 

Nanni Nolamba 975~977 



memorable wars between the Parthians and the Romans eventually weakened the 
former, and gave the Persians the opportunity of throwing off the Parthian yoke. 
Led by Artaxerxes (Ardashir), they put an end to the Parthian kingdom of the 
Arsacidne, after it had lasted 476 years, and established the Persian dynasty of 
the Sassanidte, a.d. 226. 

' Wilson, McK. Coll., I, cxx, cxxiv. - Sir Walter Elliot, Mad. /., I\", 78. 

» Arch. Surv. W. Ltd., IV', 108. * Ind. Ant., VII., 257. 



PALLA FAS 305 

The grants of the first fivc,^ made to Ikahmans, are in Prakrit, and 
issued from Vengi, except the last, which is from Kanchi. Chanda- 
varma might be the Chandadanda who was defeated by the Kadamba 
king Ravivarma. Nandivarma was his son. They claim to be of the 
Salankayana family. The next two were father and son, and are expressly 
called Pallavas, but in what relation they stood to the foregoing is not 
known. Sivaskandavarma, again, refers to his bappa^ or father, without 
naming him : it is uncertain therefore who he was. The next series of 
six' appear in grants in Sanskrit, also to Brahmans, issued from Palakkad 
and Dasanapura. Simhavarma and A^'ishnugopa were probably brothers, 
otherwise the succession was from father to son. In the Samudra (jupta 
inscription on the Asoka pillar at Allahabad, assigned to the fourth 
century,'' we have mention among the southern kings of Vishnugopa of 
Kanchi, Hastivarma of Vengi and Ugrasena of Palakka, as well as a 
Chandravarma in the north. It seems very probable that these may 
have been some of the above. 

With Ugradanda we come to a period of somewhat greater certainty, 
and the list of kings"* admits of arrangement based on their points of 
contact with the Chalukya and other contemporary kings whose dates 
are known.'' Several of the names are alternately Saiva and Vaishnava, 
while the designation Pota seems to be Buddhist. The remarkable 
buildings and sculptures at Mamallapura, or Seven Pagodas, also relate 
to these three faiths. Numerous Pallava inscriptions furnish us with 
details of the history of this period. Those at Mamallapura, Saluvan- 
kuppa, and Kanchi are in Sanskrit, and inscribed in four different 
alphabets, one of which is of an extremely florid character.'' 

Ugradanda claims to have destroyed the town and army of Rana- 
rasika, that is, the Chalukya king Ranaraga. Rajasimha married 
Rangapataka, and built the Rajasimhes'vara temple at Kanchi, now 
known as the Kailasanatha. The Ganga king Durvinfta, reigning at 
about this time, is said to have taken Kaduvetti (Karveti nagara, North 
Arcot) from the king of Kanchi called Jayasimha, and placed the son 
of his own daughter upon the throne. A series of wars, attended with 
varying fortune, took place in succeeding reigns between the Pallavas 
and the Chalukyas, who describe the former as being by nature hostile, 
as if there were some radical cause of animosity between the two. 
Narasimhavarma I. is said to have repeatedly defeated Vallabharaja, 
that is, the (Chalukya king Pulikesi II., and destroyed Vatapi, while on 

' Ind. Ant., \, 176 ; I.\, 100 : Ep. Ind., I, 5. - IinL Jii/., \, 50, 154. 

3 Fleet's Ins. of the Early Gupta Kings, No. I. ' Iml. Ant., \'l\\, 273. 

^ See llultzsch, So. Ind. Ins., I, 11, 145 : I have made a few alterations in the 
ariantjement, which seem lo me ie<|uiieil. " Op.cit., I. ; Scz\ rag.,\\. 14, 15, 18. 

X 



3o6 HISTOR V 

the other hand I'uHkesi claims to have made the leader of the Pallavas 
hide his prowess behind the ramparts of Kanchi. It is pleasant to turn 
aside from tliese scenes of violence to the account of the Chinese pilgrim 
Hiuen Tsiang, who visited Kanchipura (Kin-chi-pu-lo) in 640. He 
says it was about thirty li, or five miles, round. The soil was fertile and 
regularly cultivated. The climate was hot ; the character of the people 
courageous. They were deeply attached to the principles of honesty 
and truth, and highly esteemed learning. There were 10,000 Buddhist 
priests, some eighty Brahman temples, and many Nirgranthas (or Jains).^ 
Paramesvaravarma I. is said to have put to flight Pulikesi"s son 
Vikramaditya I., who, on the other hand, says that he conquered 
Is'varapotaraja and took Kanchi. The Chalukyas admit that the 
Pallavas had been until this unconquered, for the important ^'okkaleri 
inscription' says that the king of Kanchi, " who had never bowed to 
any man," was forced to kiss the feet of the conqueror with his crown. 
Vinayaditya, the next Chalukya, is also said to have captured the army 
of the Pallava king, here called Trairajya. Narasimhapotavarma II. 
was killed in a battle at Velanda with the Clanga king Bhuvikrama, 
being trampled under the elephants. Two grandsons of his were 
apparently brought up by the Gangas. But the greatest disaster of all 
was that which befell Nandipotavarma. The Chalukya king Vikrama- 
ditya II., soon after his coronation in 733, by a rapid movement 
penetrated to the Tundaka province (Tonda-mandala),' and in a 
pitched battle completely routed the Pallavas, capturing as trophies 
their war-trumpet, their big drum called " roar of the sea," their great 
Siva banner, many elephants, and heaps of splendid rubies. The victor 
marched to Kanchi, which was at his mercy, and, refraining from 
destroying it, made donations of gold to the Raiasimhes'vara and other 
temples, a statement which is confirmed by an inscription at the former. 
His queen Loka-mahadevi afterwards caused a temple to be erected at 
Pattadkal (Bijapur district) to celebrate the victory."* This eventful 
defeat seems to have broken the power of the Pallavas, and the king, 
unable to face another Chalukya force, under the crown prince Kirti- 
varma, fled for refuge to a hill fort. The Ganga king S'ripurusha now 
retook Kaduvetti, which the Pallavas had recovered, and seized the 
Pallava umbrella, assuming at the same time the title of Permanadi, 
which he took from the lord of Kanchi. 

The location of the next four names"' is somewhat doubtful, but the 
Rashtrakata kings about this time gained the ascendancy over the 
Chalukyas, and overcame the Gangas and Pallavas. ^Ve accordingly 

' Beal's Si-yu-ki, II, 292. * Iiid. Ant., MIX. 23. s So. hid. Ins., I, 146. 
* Ind. Ant., VI, 85. * ib. VIII, 167 ; Ep. Tnd., Ill, 142. 



NOLAMBAS 307 

find Nirupama claiming to have conquered the Pallavas in about 760. 
In 804, again, we find Govinda levying tribute from the ruler of 
Kanchi, called Dantiga. Also a Pallavadhirdja acting as governor 
under the same, over the Nolambalige 1,000, the Nirgunda 300, &c. 
A Pallava king Nandivarma was moreover associated with Govinda in 
replacing on his throne the Ganga king Sivamara, in about 810. It was 
during this period, too, or in 788 according to Wilson, that the great 
religious discussion between the Buddhists and the Jains took i)lace at 
Kanchi before the king Hemasitala, who was a Puddhist. The Jains 
were victorious, and the Puddhists, in lieu of being ground in oil-mills 
according to the conditions of the contest, were banished to Kandy in 
Ceylon, the king embracing the Jaina faith. 

AVith Nolambadhiraja, whose relation to the preceding is not known, 
begin the series of Pallava kings who more directly ruled in Mysore, 
and they are indiscriminately called Pallavadhiraja and Nolambadhiraja. 
Their chief city above the Ghats seems to have been Penjeru or 
Henjeru, now Hemavati, on the Sira border. There was also a 
Nolamba-pattana, of which only the name remains, to the east of 
Chitaldroog, near Aymangala, properly xVyyapamangala. There is 
indeed a grant by Vira Nonamba, made from Henjeru,^ but as it pro- 
fesses to date from 444, and he is described as a Chalukya, in these 
respects it must be a forgery. The real genealogy of the Nolamba 
kings is given on a fine stone at Hemavati, confirmed by many other 
inscriptions in various parts. 

They claim descent from the Is'vara-vams'a (Siva), through 
Trinayana, and Pallava the master of Kc4nchi. In his line was born 
Nolambadhiraja, named Mangala, praised by the Karnatas, victor in 
war over the Kirata king, and worshipper of Chandika. His son was 
Simhapota, whose son was Charu Ponnera, the Pallavadhiraja whose 
daughter was married to the Ganga king Rachamalla. Polal Chora 
Nolamba was her elder brother, the Nolambadhiraja who married 
Jayabbe, the younger sister of the (ianga king Nitimarga. Their son 
was Bira Mahendra, who was contemporary with the Ganga king 
Ereyappa. Mahendra's queen was 1 )ivabbarasi or Divdmbika, of the 
Kadamba family, 'llieir son was Ayyapa Deva or Nanniga-nripa, who 
had two wives, Nagiyabbe and Hcleyabbe. Two sons were born to 
him, perhaps one by each of these mothers, — Anniga or Bira Nolamba, 
and Dilipayya or Iriva Nolamba, who reigned in turn. The latter 
ruled till 974, and had a son Nanni Nolamba, whose inscriptions date 
from 975 to 977. But the Ganga king Mdrasimha (963-974) is 
specially styled Nolambakulantaka, or death to the Nolamba race, and 

' Ind. Ant., VIII, 94 ; Mys. Ins., 296. 

X 2 



3o8 lUSl'OR Y 

it seems probal)lc that they now lost their independence and were 
finally absorbed in the great wave of Chola conquest which overspread 
the east of the peninsula at the close of the tenth century. 

Notices of Pallavas and Nolambas in a subordinate capacity as 
governors under the Cholas and Chalukyas continue to be met with 
long after : and the Chalukya king Somes'vara or A'havamalla (1040- 
1069) must have had a Pallava wife, as his younger son Jayasimha 
professes to be of both Chalukya and Pallava descent, and, among 
other titles, calls himself Vira Nolamba Pallava. 

Gangas. — The Gangas were a line of kings who ruled over the 
greater part of the Mysore country, and of the Kaveri river basin 
(excepting the delta of Tanjore), from early in the Christian era till about 
1004. They may be described as the principal Jaina dynasty of the 
South. The name Ganga is not an ordinary one, and how it came to 
be their designation, Avhence their kingdom was called Gangavadi and 
its subjects Gangadikaras, is not accounted for. It is impossible to 
avoid noticing that the only other occurrence of such a name 
in history is in the Greek accounts of Chandra Gupta, who is 
described as ruling over the Prasii and the Gangaridce.^ Ptolemy 
locates the Gangaridai in all the country about the mouths of the 
Ganges, with their capital at Gange (not identified). They are also 
mentioned by Virgil, Valerius Flaccus and Curtius. Pliny, on the 
other hand, calls them Gangaridre Calingte.- That there was an im- 
portant line of Ganga kings in Kalinga in the seventh and eighth 
centuries we know from inscriptions, and there was another of the 
same name in that region at a later period. The connection of the 
Kalinga (jangas with the Mysore Gangas, who were earlier, is admitted, 
but there is nothing to show that the name originated with the 
Gangaridae Calingai. The Hindu traditions, as might be expected, 
also refer the appellation to the sacred river Ganga or Ganges, but in 
stories (see below) which are apparently only invented from the name. 

Of the origin of the Gangas the following account is extracted from 
inscriptions (of the eleventh century) at Purale, Humcha and Kallur 
Gudda. In the Ikshvaku-vams'a arose Dhananjaya, who slew the king 
of Kanyakubja. His wife was Gandhari-devi, by whom he had a son 
Haris'chandra, born in Ayodhya-pura. His wife was Rohini-devi, and 
their son was Bharata, whose wife, Mjaya-mahadevi, having bathed in 

' The Bandanikke record of the rule of Nanda, Gupta and Maurja kings over 
Kuntala has already been referred to (p. 289). Another inscription of the same 
period, at Kupatur, close by, says that Xagakhandaka (of which Bandanikke was the 
chief city) was protected by the wise Chandra Gupta, an abode of the good usages of 
eminent Kshatriyas. - See Pfole/iiys Geog. by McCrindle, /;/(/. Ant., XIII, 365. 



GAuVGAS 309 

the Ganga at the time of conception, the son she bore was called 
Gangadatta (the gift of Ganga), and his posterity were the Gangas.^ From 
him was descended Vishnu Gupta, who ruled in Ahichchhatrapura,- to 
whom Indra, pleased with his performance of the Aindra-dhvaja-piija, 
presented his or an elephant. Vishnu Gupta, by his wife Prithuvimati, 
had two sons, Bhagadatta and S'ridatta. On Bhagadatta was bestowed 
the government of Kalinga, whence he became known as Kalinga Ganga : 
while to S'ridatta was given the ancestral kingdom, together with the 
elephant, which thenceforward became the crest of the (iangas. Subse- 
quently a king named Priyabandhuvarma was born in that line, to whom 
Indra appeared and presented him with five royal tokens or ornaments, 
at the same time uttering a warning that if any king of the line should 
prove an apostate they would vanish. Giving to Vijayapura'' the name 
of Ahichchhatra, Indra departed. 

The Ganga line continuing to prosper, there was born in it Kampa, 
whose son was Padmanabha. Being in great distress on account of 
his childless condition, he supplicated the sasana devati of Padma- 
prabha and obtained two sons, whom he named Rama and Lakshmana. 
Mahipala, the ruler of Ujjeni, now made a demand for the delivery to 
him of the five royal tokens presented by Indra. Padmandbha in- 
dignantly replied that they could not be given up, and would be of no 
use to another : also that if the demand were persisted in, it would be 
met by force. At the same time he held a consultation with his 
ministers, and as the result, resolved to quit the country. Taking his 
two sons, whose names he changed to Dadiga and Madhava, and 
accompanied by his daughter, his younger sister, and forty-eight chosen 
followers of Brahman descent, he set out for the south. On arriving 
at Perur, Dadiga and Madhava there met with the great muni Simha- 
nandi, of the Kanur'*-gana, and explained to him their circumstances. 
He took up their cause, gave them instruction, and obtained for them 
a boon from the goddess Padmavati, confirmed by the gift of a sword 
and the promise of a kingdom. Madhava, with a shout, at once laid 
hold of the sword and struck with all his might at a stone pillar, when 
the pillar fell in two.' The muni recognized this as a good omen, 

' The account given in tlie Kalinga Ganga inscrij)lions is thai Turvasu, the son of 
A'ayati, being without sons, practised self-restraint and propitiated the river Ganga, 
llie hestower of boons, by which means he oljtained a son, the unconciueral)le 
Cjangeya, whose descendants were victorious in the world as the Ganga line. — /it(/. 
Jut., XIII, 275. - Either in Rohilkand or in Malwa. — il>. 361. 

•' Vijayapura apj)ears as the place from which a Chalukya grant of the 5th century 
was issued, and was probably in Gujarat {see Iiui. Jut , \'II, 241). * Or Kranur. 

'^ What this pillar [s'ilii stambha) was it is difiicull to understand, but in one place 
it is described as the chief obstacle in the way of his securing the throne. 



3IO 



irisroRY 



made a crown from the petals of the karnikdra blossom, and placed it 
on the heads of the brothers, giving them his peacock fan as a banner, 
and in due course, providing them with an army, invested them with 
all kingly powers. He also impressed upon them the following 
counsel : — If you fail in what you promise, if you dissent from the 
Jina sasana, if you take the wives of others, if you are addicted to 
spirits or flesh, if you associate with the base, if you give not to the 
needy, if you flee in battle ; — your race will go to ruin. 

Thus, with Nandagiri as their fort, Kuvalala as their city, the Ninety- six 
Thousand country as their kingdom, Victory as their companion in the 
battle-field, Jinendra as their god, the Jina mata as their faith, — Dadiga 
and Madhava ruled over the earth. The north, touching Madarkale ; 
the east, Tonda-nad : the west, the ocean in the direction of Chera ; 
the south, Kongu ; — within these limits of the Gangavadi Ninety-six 
Thousand did the Gangas undertake the subjection of all enemies. 

Most of this is no doubt legendary, but some truth may perhaps 
underlie the narrative, and with the arrival of Dadiga and Madhava at 
Perur we seem to be on solid ground. For Perur must be the place in 
Kadapa district still distinguished as Ganga-Perur; Simhanandi is 
known from literature,^ and is expressly stated in various inscriptions to 
have helped to found the Ganga kingdom ; moreover, the succession 
of kings as given from this point is in general accordance with numerous 
records found in all parts of Mysore. Several inscriptions, however, 
carry the foundation of the line back to Kanva, and the Gangas are 
described as of the Kanvayana gotra. A dynasty of Kanvas, we have 
already seen (p. 291), preceded the Satavahanas. Of the places men- 
tioned in connection with the Ganga possessions, Nandagiri can only 
be Nandi-durga, Kuvalala is Kolar : but though the Gangas are called 
lords of Kuvalala-pura, we know that from an early period their capital 
was at Talavana-pura (Talakad on the Kaveri). The place given as 
the northern limit of Gangavadi I have been unable to identify,- but 
the other limits are well-known places. Tonda-nad, a Forty-eight 
Thousand province, is Tonda-mandala, the Madras country to the east 
of Mysore ; the ocean for the western boundary seems to be a stretch 
of the imagination, as Gangavadi, so far as we know, did not extend 
below the ^\'estern Ghats ; Chera corresponds with Cochin and 
Travancore ; Kongu, with Salem and Coimbatore. 

The following is a table of the Ganga kings of ]\Iysore ; the dates 
before the seventh century, though taken from inscriptions, are not 
certain : — 

• Named by Indrabhiiti in his Saiiiayahhushaiia {see Ind. Ant., XII, 2o). 

^ One or two names something like it are found in the north of the Kolar District. 



GANGAS 



3" 



Kongunivarma (Madhava) 
Kiriya Madhava 
llarivarma 
Vishnu-gopa 
Tadangala Madhava 
Avinita, Kongani 
Durvinita, Kongani 
Mushkara, ]\Iokkara 
S'rivikraraa 

Bhi'ivikrama, S'rivallabha 
S'ivamara (I), Nava Kama, 

Prithuvi Kongani 
Prithuvipati, Prithuyas'as 



247, 266 

350 
425-478 

47S-513 



679 

679-713 
726 



S'ripurusha, Muttarasa, 726-777 

Permanadi, Prithuvi Kongani 

S'ivamara (11), Saigotta c. 780-S14 

Vijayaditya c. 814-S69 

Rachamalla (I), Satyavakya 869-893 
Nitimarga (I), ? Marula, 

Nanniya Ganga 893-915 

Ereyappa, Mahendrantaka 921 

Bi'ituga, (janga Gangeya 930-963 
Marasimha, Nolambakulantaka 963-974 

Rachamalla (II}. 974-984 

Rakkasa Ganga, Govindara 9S4 

Ganga Rcija 996-1004 



Konguni-varma was the first king, and this is a special title of all the 
Ganga kings to the end.^ To him is invariably ascribed the feat of 
cutting through the stone pillar with a single stroke of his sword : he is 
therefore the Madhava of the narrative before given, and in one place 
is described as but a boy at that time. The succession of kings, on the 
other hand, was through Dadiga, of whom it is said that with the 
Kaurava army he stopped the army of the Matsya king. Supposing the 
founders of the Ganga dynasty to have come from Central India, and 
matured their plans at Perur, in Kadapa district, for the acquisition of 
Kolar and the midland and southern parts of Mysore, they would soon 
encounter the opposition of the Mahavali or Bana kings, whose western 
boundary was probably the Palar, which is close to Kolar on the east. 
A\'e accordingly find Konguni-varma described as consecrated to con- 
quer the Bana mandala, and as a wild-fire in consuming the stubble of 
the forest called Bana. From the east the Ganga princes marched to the 
west, and are represented as engaged in leading an expedition to the 
Konkan or western coast, when they came to Man(_\ali, near Shimoga, 
where, by the advice of Simhanandi, they established a chaityalaya. 
Probably there was a considerable Jain element in the population of 
Mysore at the time, over whom Simhanandi exerted his influence to 
gain their acceptance of the Ganga rule. 

Dadiga's son, Kiriya Madhava, or the younger Madhava, succeeded 
to the throne.'- He is described as inclined to learning and skilled in 
polity. He wrote a commentary on the dattaka suira or law of adop- 
tion. His son was Harivarma, who made use of elephants in war, and 
established the capital at Talakdd. Previous to this, according to an 
old chronicle, the capital was at Skandapura, which Lassen locates at 



' Kunguni is also writlcn Kongani, Konguji, and Knngini. For the dale assigned 
to him sec my Ep. Cam., Mysore I, Nj. IIO. 

- Dadiga's brother woukl therefi)re l)e properly distinguished as lliri)a Mcidhava. 



312 ni STORY 

Gajalluitti, near Satyamangalam, on the old ghat road from Mysore to 
Trichinopoly. But no reference to such a place is contained in the 
inscriptions. Two grants of the time of Harivarma have been found, 
both open to doubt. One^ records a gift at Orekod, in the Maisur-nad 
Seventy, to a Brahman for overcoming in discussion a Bauddha who 
had affixed a challenge to the gate of the palace at Talakad, boasting of 
his learning, and maintaining the doctrine that annihilation was the 
highest happiness. The other'" is a grant in some neighbouring part 
for an act of bravery in the battle of Henjeru. Harivarma's son 
Vishnugopa is described as devoted to the worship of gurus, cows and 
Brahmans. His change of faith caused the five royal tokens given by 
Indra to vanish, as foretold in the original warning. He must have 
lived to a great age, as he is said to have retained his mental energy 
unimpaired to the end of life. His son was Tadangala Madhava, whose 
arms were grown stout and hard with athletic exercises. He married a 
sister of the Kadamba king Krishnavarma, and is described as the 
reviver of donations for long-ceased festivals of the gods and Brahman 
endowments. A grant of his in an extraordinary jumble of alphabets'* 
also records a gift for bravery at Henjeru. This, and the similar grant 
above, point to encounters with the Pallavas. 

Tadangala Madhava's son, by the Kadamba princess, was Avini'ta, 
who was crowned while an infant in his mother's lap. He married the 
daughter of Skandavarma, Raja of Punnad, who chose him, though 
betrothed by her father to another from her birth on the advice of his 
guru. Of him it is related that on coming to the Kaveri he heard a 
voice say s'ata-j'ivi (a prediction that he would live for a hundred years), 
on which, to the consternation of his attendants, he plunged into the 
river and crossed over in safety, though it was in full flood, thus 
acquiring the name of Churchuvayda Ganga. Both he and his son are 
said to have been like Manu in maintaining the castes and religious 
orders of the south. Two grants of his reign have been found, one of 
the twenty-ninth year,"* making a grant to a Brahman, and one"' record- 
ing a gift to Jainas in the Punnad Ten Thousand, by the minister 
of Akalavarsha (a Rashtrakata king). The Punnad Ten Thousand 
formed the southern portion of Mysore, and seems to correspond with 
the Padi-nad or Ten nad country of later inscriptions.'^ Also with the 

> lud. Ant., VIII, 212. 2 j^p_ Cam., Mysore I, Nj. 122. 

■'' Ind. Ant., VII, 172. " ib. V, 136. * ib. I, 363 ; Coorg Ins. No. i. 

^ A grant of the Punnacl Rajas, the date of which cannot be determined, has been 
found, from which their capital seems to have been Kitthipura. It gives the following 
succession of kings : — Rashtravarma ; his son Nagadatta ; his son Bhujaga, who 
married the daughter of Singavarma ; their son Skandavarma ; his son the Punnata 
Raja Ravidatta.— /;/t/. Ant., XII, 13 ; XVIII, 366. 



GAXGAS 313 

Pounnuta of Ptolemy, where beryl was found.^ Avinita's son was 
Durvinita. He had for his preceptor the author of the S'abda%-atara, 
that is, the celebrated Jaina grammarian Piijyapada. He thus acquired 
a literary taste which led him to write a commentary on part of the 
Kiratarjuniya, a well-known poem by Bharavi. He is probably, as 
the name is a very uncommon one, the 1 Jurvinita named by Nripatunga 
among the early Kannada authors. He seems to have extended the 
Ganga dominion to the south and ^st, for he is said to have waged 
sanguinary wars for the possession of Andari, A'lattur (perhaps the one 
in Coimbatore district), Porulare, Pennagara (in Salem district), and 
other places, and is described as ruler over the whole of Pannad and 
Punnad, as if he had annexed them. He is also said to have wrested 
Kaduvetti (Karveti-nagara, North Arcot district) from Jayasimha, the 
king of Kanchi, and made the son of his own daughter the governor. 
Two grants of his reign have been found, one of the third year^ and 
the other of the thirty-fifth,'* both recording gifts to Brahmans. 

His son was Mushkara or Mokkara, who married the daughter of the 
Sindhu Raja. His son was S'rivikrama, who had two sons, Bhiivik- 
rama and S'ivamara. Bhiivikrama, in a great battle at Vilanda, de- 
feated the Pallava king Narasimhapotavarma II., trodden to death in 
the charge of elephants, and subdued the whole of the Pallava 
dominions, acquiring the title of S'rivallabha. According to the old 
chronicle he and his brother made their residence at Mukunda, 
apparently the present Mankunda, near Channapatna. The younger 
brother, S'ivamara or Nava Kama, had under his guardianship the two 
grandsons of the Pallava king, no doubt the one above mentioned. 
Their father, therefore, may have been taken prisoner and died in 
captivity. In a grant made in his thirty-fourth year,"* this king signs 
himself s'ishta-priyak, beloved of the good. 

rsiost of the (ianga grants omit mention of his son and pass on to 
his grandson. From the only grant that gives an account of him,' the 
reason appears to be that the son was engaged in distant expeditions in 
which he was unfortunate and lost his life, or there may have been a 
split in the family. He is called Prithuvipati and Prithuyas'as, but 
these can hardly be his names. He gave protection to certain chiefs, 
one of whom was a refugee from Amoghavarsha. He cut a piece of 
bone out of his body from a wound received in the battle of Vaim- 
balguli and sent it to the waters of the Ganges. He defeated the 

' Col. Yule's Map of Ancient India (Dr. 'smi\.\\?,.4f/as 0/ .liicuiit Gcvj;.). I'adiyur 
in Coimbatore district produced beryl (see Ind. Ant., V, 237). 
- Itid. Ant., VII, 174. 3 ib. V, 138. 

* Ep. Cam., Mysore I, Mil. 113. * Salem Manual, II, 369. 



314 Iff STORY 

IMiidya kinj^^ \'aragun;v in a battle at S'ri Purarnbiyam, (jr 'I'iru I'uram- 
biyam (near Kumbhakonam), but lost his life in saving a friend. He 
a{)pearsto have had a son Marasimha, of whom we hear no more. 

S'ripurusha, whose name was Muttarasa, was the grandson (or 
perhaps great grandson) of Sivamara, and had a long and prosperous 
reign. His kingdom was called the S'ri-rajya. Numerous grants of his 
time have been found, both on stone slabs and on copper plates, rang- 
ing from the first to the fiftieth year of his reign.i He seems at some 
time to have made Miinyapura (Manne in Nelamangalataluq) the royal 
residence. He is stated to have again conquered Kaduvetti, which had 
been recovered by the Pallavas, at the same time capturing the Pallava 
umbrella and assuming the title of Permanadi, which he took away 
from the king of Kanchi. This title is used of all subsequent Ganga 
kings, sometimes alone, without any distinguishing name. He also rein- 
stated the Bana kingdom by placing Hastimalla on the throne. He is 
said, moreover, to have written a work on elephants called Gajas'astra. 
His sons Sivamara and Duggamara appear as governors under him, also 
one named Lokaditya, apparently the youngest. 

He was succeeded by his son S'ivamara, surnamed Saigotta, and the 
latter had a son, Marasimha, who made a grant in 797 as yuva-raja, 
but is not again heard of. S'ivamara is said to have been the author of 
Gajashtaka, a treatise on elephants, in which he improved upon his 
father's system. Serious reverses befell the Ganga kingdom in this 
reign. The Rashtrakutas had gained a great accession of po\ver, and 
Nirupama or Dharavarsha is said to have defeated and imprisoned the 
impetuous Ganga, who had never been conquered before. The next 
king, Govinda or Prabhiitavarsha, on coming to the throne in about 
784, released Ganga from his long and painful captivity, but had to 
confine him again on account of his hostility.- As he is represented as 
having defeated the combined royal army, commanded by Rashtrakuta, 
Chalukya and Haihaya chiefs, at Murugundur (perhaps Mudugundur in 
Mandya taluq), this attack may have led to his being again seized. 
During the interregnum the Rashtrakutas appointed their own viceroys 
to govern the Ganga territories. In 802 Dharavarsha's son Kambha or 
Ranavaloka was the viceroy, and there are three inscriptions of his time.'' 
In 813 we find Chaki Raja in that office."* Eventually S'ivamara either 
made his peace with Govinda or, as seems more likely, the latter was in 
need of allies, for that monarch, assisted by the Pallava king Nandi- 
varma, replaced him on the throne, the two binding the diadem on his 
brow with their own hands. A long war now took place between the 

> Mys. Ins. and Ep. Cam. - I mi. Ant., ^"I, 69 ; XI, 161. 

* Ins. at Sr. Be/., No. 24 : the others unpublished. ■* Ind. Ant., XII, 18. 







< 

z 
z 

a. 



t3 



;- o 
o 
o 
o 






0) -Q 



li^"'4 i^ 



.*■* 



^ 



GANG AS 315 

Eastern Chalukyas and the allied Gangas and Rattas, in which 108 
battles were fought in twelve years. S'ivamara's successor on the 
throne was apparently his brother Vijayaditya. 

With the accession of Rdchamalla Satyavakya the Gangas seem to 
have taken a fresh start in power, and these names form titles of all the 
subsequent kings. He is said to have recovered from the Rashtrakiitas 
the whole of the territory which they had seized and held too long. 
His yuva-raja in 870 was Butarasa, and he had a son Rana Vikramayya, 
who may be the same. But the son that was his successor is called 
Nitimarga, who had a prosperous reign, and there are numerous in- 
scriptions of his time. His sister was married to Nolambadhiraja, 
who was ruling under him. His son Ereyappa was apparently asso- 
ciated with him in the government towards the close of his life. An 
interesting sculptured bas-relief of his death-bed scene has been dis- 
covered."^ Ereyappa is called Mahendrantaka, or death to Mahendra, 
the Nolamba king. 

Wixh Butuga considerable changes occurred in the Ganga dominions. 
Ereyappa's eldest son Rachamalla was the proper heir to the throne. 
But Butuga, another son, perhaps by a different mother, resolved to 
possess himself of the crown, and defeated and slew Rachamalla. The 
Rashtrakuta king Baddega or Amoghavarsha gave him his daughter in 
marriage, and he appears to have secured the kingdom for his brother-in- 
law Krishna or Kannara, though on Baddega's death it had been seized 
by Lalliya. Kannara was soon after engaged in a war with the ("hola 
king Rajaditya, when Butuga by some treachery killed the latter at a 
place called Takkola, following it up by laying siege to the Chola 
capital Tanjapuri (Tanjore) and burning Nalkote. For this important 
service Kannara made over to him the Banavase Twelve Thousand 
(Shimoga and North Kanara districts), in addition to his wife's 
dowry, the Belvola Three Hundred, the Purigere Three Hundred, 
the Kisukad Seventy, and the Baginad Seventy (all in Dharwar 
and neighbouring districts).'- Butuga also subdued the Seven Malavas, 
and putting up boundary stones, gave the country the name of 
(ianga Malava. His elder sister Pambabbe, widow of Dorapayya, 
died in 971, after leading an ascetic life for thirty years. His son 
Marula Deva is said to have married a daughter of Kannara. But his 
successor on the throne was his son Marasimha, called Nolambakulan- 
taka, from his having slain all the Nolambas. By direction of Kannara 
he made an expedition against Gurjjara or Gujarat, and is said to have 
been a terror to the Chalukya prince Rajaditya. From several in- 

' Ep. Cant., Mysore I, TX. 91. * Ibid. Ill, Iml. 41 : Ep. liui.. Ill, 175. 



3i6 HISTORY 

scriptions towards the end of this reign it appears that the ( langas had 
then become feudatories of the Rashtrakutas. 

But the latter were now finally overcome by the Chalukyas, and 
Marasimha's son Rachamalla, who succeeded, was independent. This 
king's minister and general was Chamunda Raya, who caused the 
colossal image of Gomata to be erected at S'ravana Belgola. The 
king's younger brother Rakkasa was a governor in Coorg, and finally 
succeeded to the throne. With Ganga Raja we come to the end of the 
independent Ganga rule. The Cholas, advancing in overwhelming 
force, invaded the Ganga territories, under the command of Rajendra 
Chola, son of the reigning king Rajaraja, and in about 1004 
captured Talakad and overran all the south and east of Mysore. The 
(iangas, driven from their kingdom, took refuge with the Chalukyas 
and with the Hoysalas, who were destined to succeed to their dominion 
in Mysore, attaining to positions of the highest honour under both. 

But the principal revival of their power as independent rulers was in 
Orissa, or rather in Ganjam and Vizagapatam districts, in alliance with 
the Cholas. ^^'e have already had occasion to mention the Kalinga 
Gangas. Several of their earlier inscriptions have been found,^ mostly 
issued from Kalinga-nagara (Ganjam district), and dated in the years of 
the Ganga family {Gdfigeya-vafus'a-sa?>ivatsnra), an era not yet deter- 
mined. The kings profess to be worshippers of the god Gokarna-svami 
on the Mahendra mountain (in Ganjam district), and rulers over the 
whole of Kalinga. Arranging the grants conjecturally, guided by the 
years and relationships given, we obtain the following list : — 

Anantavarma 

Devendravarma 254 

Rajendravarma 

Anantavarma 304 

Vajrahasta 

On the other hand a very full and circumstantial genealogy of 
Kalinga Gangas is given in a later grant'- of 11 18, in which quite 
different names appear (except Vajrahasta), but of course it is possible 
they may be the same kings under other titles. The line is here traced 
from the god Vishnu through Yayati and Turvasu, who is said to have 
obtained from the Ganga the son Gangeya who was the progenitor of 
the Ganga kings {see above, p. 309). A list of sixteen kings follows, 
whose names seem purely mythical, down to Kolahala, who is said to 

' Lid. Ant., XIII, XIV, XVIII ; Ej>. Ltd., Ill, 17, 220. The grant of Devendra, son 
of Rajendra, is in my possession, not yet published. The year 128 has been supposed 
to be about 658 a.d. ; 254 about 774 (/. A., XIII, 274). - Lid. Ant., XVIII, 165. 



Anantavarma 








Devendravarma 






51 


Satyavarma 






51 


Indravarma 


91. 


1 28, 


146 


Rajendravarma 








Devendravarma 









GANG AS 317 

have built the cily of Kolahala (Kolar) in the great Gangavacji country. 
After his son Virochana and eighty more kings, not named and pro- 
bably imaginary, had held Kolahala, there arose in that line \"irasimha, 
who had five sons, Kamarnava, Danarnava, Ciunarnava, Marasimha, and 
Vajrahasta. The first of these, giving the kingdom to his maternal 
uncle, set out with his brothers to conquer the earth, and coming to the 
Mahendra mountain, worshipped Gokarnasvami, and obtained the crest 
of a bull and the symbols of sovereignty. He and his brothers subdued 
Baladitya, who had grown sick of war, and took possession of the 
(three) Kalingas. Giving Ambavadi to the third brother, S6da or Seda 
to the fourth, and Kantaka to the fifth, Kamarnava, with his capital at 
Jantavura, ruled over the Kalingas, nominating his brother Danarnava 
as his successor. After these two, fifteen kings ruled, ending with 
Vajrahasta V, who married Vinaya-mahadevi of the Vaidumba family. 
His son was Rajaraja, who is said to have defeated the Dramilas, 
wedded Rajasundari, daughter of the Chola king Rajendra Chola, and 
saved the aged Vijayaditya from falling into the power of the Cholas, by 
upholding his authority in the west. Rajaraja's son Anantavarma or 
Chola-Ganga was anointed king of Trikalinga in 1078, and re-instated 
the fallen lord of Utkala (Orissa) in the east, and the sinking lord of 
Vengi in the west. Grants of his have been found dating in 1081, 
1 1 18, and 1 135.' 

The total of the years assigned to the reigns of these kings comes to 
about 350, which, deducted from 1078, the date of Chola-Ganga's 
accession, brings us to 728, and this is near about the period estimated 
for the later of the early kings previously mentioned. It is also the 
period in the annals of the Mysore Gangas where we find a break in 
the list, filled up by an alleged Prithuvipati, a word merely meaning 
king, who had a son Marasimha, of whom nothing more is heard. 
Putting these coincidences together, we are tempted to suppose that 
Kamarnava, with his brother Marasimha and the others, who gave up 
their kingdom in Mysore to a relative and went forth from Kolar to 
found another in Kalinga, where a branch of the family had already 
been ruling for centuries, may possibly have been sons of the missing 
king who died in battle. 

Two inscriptions in Chiknayakanhalli taUui i"^'*""-''" to Chola-Ganga as 
the Odu-rayindra, or great king of Orissa, and state that he was born in 
the Hejjaji Twelve of the Kadanur Seventy (both in ])od Ballapur 
talu(i). The Ganga kings of Orissa or Kalinga, also called Gajapatis or 
elephant lords, beginning with Chola-Ganga, held the sovereignty of 
that country down to 1534, soon after which it fell a prey to the Muham- 
madans. Of these kings Ananga Bhima Deva (i 175-1202) was a great 

' Loc. cii. 



3i8 ///STORY 

ruler, and made a survey of his whole kingdom, measuring it with reeds. 
He also built the present temple of Jaganndth. Another king of 
interest was Purushottama Deva (1479-1504). He sought in marriage 
the daughter of the king of Kanchi, famed for her beauty. But on the 
ground of his performing the ofifice of sweeper to Jagannath his suit 
was rejected. He therefore attacked Kanchi, and was at first repulsed. 
At length he captured it, and took the princess prisoner, whom he 
vowed in revenge should be married to a sweeper. The minister 
charged with the execution of this order kept the girl in concealment 
until the festival of Jagannath, at which the king was accustomed to 
sweep the ground before the god ; and while he was engaged in that 
act placed her beside him, and they were married. The reign of 
Pratapa Rudra (1504-153 2) is remarkable for the reformation of the 
Vaishnava religion by the preaching of Chaitanya, w^hose views the 
king finally adopted; and Buddhism, to which he had previously 
inclined, was banished the country. Pratapa Rudra is said to have 
extended his conquests southwards as far as Cape Comorin, and his 
name occurs in many local traditions in the east of Mysore. We also 
find that his son Virabhadra was invested with the government of Male 
Bennur (Davangere taluq) by Krishna Raya of Vijayanagar. 

Certain other references to kings of the same connection may here 
be pointed out. The existence of constant intercourse between 
Kalinga and Ceylon from the earliest times is well known, and we find 
a Chola-Ganga from Kalinga ruling in Ceylon in 1196.^ There 
was also a line of Chola-Gangas in the east of Mysore in the thirteenth 
century. But it is not a little singular that we find a Karnataka dynasty 
set up in distant Nepal, apparently in 1097, which may have been of 
Ganga origin. The founder, Nanya Deva (perhaps Nanniya Deva), 
came from the south. He was succeeded by Ganga Deva and four 
others, the last of whom removed the capital to Katmandu, where the 
line came to an end.~ 

Not yet, however, have we done with the Gangas, for at about the 
time that their Orissa sovereignty came to an end, or the first part of the 
sixteenth century, a Ganga Raja returned to the scene of their former 
dominion, and established a principality at S'ivasamudram, the island 
at the Falls of the Kaveri, not far from Talakad. Ganga Raja, after a 
prosperous reign, was succeeded by his son Nandi Raja, who, to atone 
for some ceremonial offence, leaped into the cataract at Gagana Chukki 
on horseback with his wife. His son, Ganga Raja II, enlarged the 
city greatly, and lived with much splendour. His two daughters were 
married, one to the chief of Kilimale, near Satyagala, the other to the 
chief of Nagarakere, near Maddur. These marriages were very 

' Rhys Davids, Nitinisiiiata Orienialia. * Sec Ins. front N'epal, Ijy Dr. G. Biihler. 



CHALUKYAS 319 

unhappy, for the pride of the ladies gave their husbands constant dis- 
gust, and they were continually upbraided for not living in equal 
splendour with their father-in-law. They therefore united to attack 
Sivasamudra and humble (ianga Raja. The siege had lasted twelve 
years without their having been able to penetrate to the island, when they 
found means to corrupt the Dalavayi, or minister, of Ganga Raja. This 
traitor removed the guards from the only ford, and thus permitted the 
enemy to surprise the place, while he endeavoured to engage his 
master's attention at a game of chess. The shouts of the soldiery at 
length reaching their ears, the prince started up from the game. The 
Dalavayi, who wished him to fall alive into the hands of his sons-in-law, 
endeavoured to persuade him that the noise arose merely from children 
at play, but the Raja, having drawn his sword, first killed all his women 
and children, and then, rushing into the midst of his enemies, fought 
until he procured an honourable death. The sons-in-law, on seeing 
this, were struck with horror, and immediately threw themselves into 
the cataract at (xagana Chukki ; and their example was followed by their 
wives, whose arrogance had been the cause of such disasters. 

Jagadeva Rayal of Channapatna, and S'riranga Raja of Talakad, the 
two most powerful of the neighbouring Palegars, then came and 
removed all the people and wealth of the place. 

Chalukyas. — This powerful line of kings was in the ascendant 
throughout the north-west of Mysore, and the Bombay and Haidarabad 
districts beyond, from the fifth to the eighth century, and from the 
latter part of the tenth to that of the twelfth. Their first appearance 
south of the Nerbudda was in the fourth century, previous to which 
they are said to have had fifty-nine predecessors on the throne of 
Ayodhya, but of these nothing is known. On their entering the 
Dekhan they overcame the Rashtrakutas, but the Pallavas effectually 
opposed them and the invader was slain, as previously related. His 
successor, however, defeated the Pallavas and then formed an alliance 
with them, confirmed by his marriage with a Pallava princess. In the 
sixth century, Pulikes'i, whose chief city was apparently Indukanta 
(supposed to be Ajanta or some neighbouring place), wrested Vatapi 
(the modern Badami in Bijapur district) from the Pallavas and made it 
his capital. His son Ki'rtivarma subdued the Mauryas (descendants of 
the ancient Mauryas of Pataliputra), ruling in the Konkan, and the 
Kadambas of Banavasi. Another son, Mangales'a, conquered the 
Kalachuryas. The A'lupas or A'luvas, who ruled in Tulava or South 
Kanara, were also at some time overcome,^ and the next king, Pulikes'i 
H, came into contact with the Gangas, possibly in the time of Mush- 

^ There are inscriptions of theirs at Kig in the Western IJhats in Koppa taluq, 
and at Mansjalore. 



320 mSTOR Y 

kara, as there appears to Iiave been a Jain temple erected in his name 
at Puligere (Lakshmes'vara in ] )har\var district). In about 617 the 
Chalukyas separated into two branches, of which the Eastern Chalukyas 
made Vengi (near El lore in the Oodavari district), taken from the 
Pallavas,and subsequently Rajamahendri, their capital, while the Western 
Chalukyas, with whom Mysore is chiefly concerned, continued to rule 
from Vatapi and eventually from Kalyana (in the Nizam's Dominions, 
about 100 miles west by north of Haidarabad). 

The Chalukyas were of the Soma-vams'a or lunar line, and the 
Manavya-gotra. They claim to be sons of Hariii, nourished by the 
seven mothers. The boar was the principal emblem on their signet, 
obtained from Bhagavan Narayana (Vishnu), but their insignia included 
a peacock fan, an ankus'a or elephant goad, a golden sceptre, and 
other symbols. The ^Vestern Chalukyas are styled the Satyds raya 
kula, from the name of the first king of this branch. The titles on 
their inscriptions, which are very numerous in Mysore, especially in 
the north-west, are nearly invariably as follows — Saftiastabhuvands'raya, 
Sri-prithvi-vallabha, Mahdrdjddhirdja, Parames'vara, Parama-bhattd- 
raka, Satyds ray a-kula-tilakci, Chdlukydbharana. 

Although the above details are very circumstantial, the account of 
the origin of the Chalukyas is evidendy puranic,i and the real source 
from which they sprang is far from clear. The name Chalukya bears a 
suggestive resemblance to the Greek name Seleukeia, and if the Pallavas 
were really of Parthian connection, as their name would imply, we 
have a plausible explanation of the inveterate hatred which inscriptions 
admit to have existed between the two, and their prolonged struggles 
may have been but a sequel of the contests between Seleucidffi and 
Arsacidte on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates. 

The succession of the Early and Western Chalukya kings, during the 
period of their first ascendancy, is as follows- : — 

Chandraditya, 655 

Mkramaditya I, Ranarasika 655-680 
Vinayaditya, Rajas' raya 6S0-696 



fayasimha, ? A'ijayaditya 

Rajasimha, Ranaraga, ? Mshnuvaidhana 

Pulikes'i I, Satyas'raya, Ranavikrama 550 

Kirtivarma I, Ranaparakrama 566-597 

Mangales'a, Ranavikranta 597-60S 

Pulikes'i II, Satyas'raya 609-642 

\'dityavarma 



Mjayaditya, Samastabhuvanas'raya 

696-733 
^'ikramaditya II 733-746 

Kirtivarma II, Xripasimha 746-757 



Jayasimha is said to have defeated and destroyed Indra, the son of 
Ivrishna, the Rashtrakilta or Ratta king. He himself, however, was 

> They are stated to have nuraculously sprung from the moisture or water in the 
lollowed pahn {chuliika, chitlaka) of Hariti's hand. According to another account 
Vom the libation to the gods poured from his goblet {chitlka, chuluka, chaluka), by 
■ lariti. These stories seem evidently invented from the name. 

- Cf.Ep. Iiid., Ill, 2. 



CHALUKYAS 321 

slain in an encounter with Trilochana Pallava. His queen, then 
pregnant, fled and took refuge with a Brahman called Vishnu Somayaji, 
in whose house she gave birth to Rajasimha. On growing up to man's 
estate he renewed the contest with the Pallavas, in which he was 
successful, and married a princess of that race. Pulikes'i was the 
most powerful of the early kings and performed the horse sacrifice. 
His eldest son, Kirtivarma I, subdued the Nalas, of whom we know 
MO more, the Mauryas ajid the Kadambas. Mangales'a, his younger 
brother conquered the island called Revati-dvipa, and the Matangas : 
also the Kalachurya king Buddha, son of Sankaragana, the spoils 
taken from whom he gave to the temple of Makutes'vara, near 
Badami. He attempted to establish his own son in the succession, 
but Satyas'raya or I'ulikes'i H, the elder son of Kirtivarma, obtained 
the throne. 

Pulikes'i's younger brother ^"ishnuvardhana, surnamed Kubja, on the 
capture of Ax'ngi from the Pallavas, there founded the sei)arate line of 
Eastern Chalukyas, who remained in i)ower in the V'engi and Raja- 
mahendri country till the eleventh century, when they were absorbed 
into the Chola family.^ 

Satyas'raya or Pulikes'i H. the first of the Western Chalukya line, 
was a great concjueror and subdued all the neighbouring nations. His 
most notable victory was over Harshavardhana or S'iladitya, king of 
Kanyakubja or Kanoj, the most powerful monarch in northern India. 
By this conquest he obtained the title of Parames'vara or supreme lord, 

' For convenience of further reference the list of Eastern Chalukyas is here inserted, 
as given by Dr. Fleet {In({. An/., XX, 283), who has gone very fully into details in 
the preceding articles : — 



Kuhja \'ishnuvardhana I 

615-633 
Jayasimha -663 

Indra Bhattaraka (seven 

days) 663 

Vishnuvardhana II -672 
Mangi \'uvaraja -696 
Jayasinilia II -7^9 

Kokkili (six months) 709 
N'ishnuvardhana III -746 
\'ijaya(Utya Hhallaraka 

-764 
Vishnuvardhana I\' -799 
\'ijayaditya II, Nar- 

endramrigaraja -843 
Kali \'ishnuvardhana \' 
-S44 



Gunaka \'ijayaditya III 
-888 
Chalukya Bhima I -918 
Kollahhiganda \'i- 

jayaditya I\' (six 

months) m. Me- 

1am ha 
Anima I, \'ishnu- 

vardhanaX'I, I\.;ija 

Mahendra 
Beta Vijayaditya \' 

(fifteen days) 
Tadapa (one month) 925 
Vikramaditya II 

(eleven months) - 926 

Bhima II (eight months) 

-927 



918 

925 
925 



Yuddhamalla -934 

Chalukya Bhima III, 
^'ishnuvardhalla \ II, 
(junda Mahendra, 
m. Lokamahiidevi -945 
Amma II, \'ijaya- 
ditya \'I, Raja 
?klahendra -97° 

Danarnava -973 

(Interregnum of thirty 

years. ) 

Saktivarma 1003-1015 

\'imaladilya, m. Kun- 

dava-mahadevi of 

theChola family -1022 



322 J /I STORY 

ever after borne by tlic Chalukyas. The C'liinese pilgrim Iliuen 
Tsiang has given interesting aeeounts of l)Olh Harshavardhana and 
Pulikes'i, and of their times. Of l-*ulikcs'i's kingdom he says : — 
"The disposition of the people is honest and simple; they are tall 
of stature, and of a stern vindictive character. To their bene- 
factors they are grateful, to their enemies relentless. If they are 
insulted they will risk their life to avenge themselves. If they are 
asked to help one in distress they will forget themselves in their 
haste to render assistance. If they are going to seek revenge they 
first give their enemy warning ; then, each being armed, they attack 
each other with spears. When one turns to flee the other pursues 
him, but they do not kill a man who is down (or submits). If a 
general loses a battle they do not inflict punishment but present him 
with woman's clothes, and so he is driven to seek death for himself. 
The country provides for a band of champions to the number of several 
hundreds. Each time they are about to engage in conflict they 
intoxicate themselves with wine, and then one man with lance in hand 
will meet ten thousand and challenge them in fight. If one of these 
champions meets a man and kills him, the laws of the country do not 
punish him. Every time they go forth they beat drums before them. 
Moreover they inebriate many hundred heads of elephants, and taking 
them out to fight, they themselves first drink their wine, and then, rushing 
forward in mass, they trample everything down, so that no enemy can 
stand before them. The king, in consequence of his possessing these 
men and elephants, treats his neighbours with contempt. He is of the 
Kshattriya caste and his name is Pulakes'i (Pu-lo-ki-she). His plans 
and undertakings are widespread, and his beneficent actions are felt 
over a great distance. His subjects obey him with perfect submission. 
At the present time S'iladitya Maharaja has conquered the nations 
from east to west and carried his arms to remote districts, but the 
people of this country alone have not submitted to him. He has 
gathered troops from the five Indies, and summoned the best leaders 
from all countries, and himself gone at the head of his army to punish 
and subdue this people, but he has not yet conquered their troops. So 
much for their habits. The men are fond of learning'." .... 

The city he calls Konkanapura, which he visited, may probably be 
Kopana (now Kopal) in the extreme south-west of the Nizam's 
dominions, or Kokanur close to it. Of its people he says : — "They 
love learning, and esteem virtue and talent." Arab annals, moreover, 
as pointed out by Dr. Fergusson," state that Pulikes'i exchanged 
presents and letters with Khosru II of Persia, and the Persian 

' Beal's Si-yit-ki, II, 256. 2 j j^ j_ s., XI, 155. 



CHALUKYAS 323 

embassy is supposed to be represented in one of the paintings in the 
Ajanta caves. The exact date of the end of his reign is not known, 
and the history is not very clear until the accession of Vikramaditya. 
Before him there were his brothers A'dityavarma and Chandraditya. 
One inscription of the former is known, ^ but the latter is represented 
only by grants made by his queen, Vijaya-mahadevi or Vijaya-bhatta- 
rika.- She may therefore have been a widow at the time and regent 
for a son who did not survive. I have also found a grant in 
Goribidnur taluq by Ambera, a son or daughter of Satyas'raya/' It 
seems certain that after the death of Pulikes'i II. the Pallavas attacked 
and inflicted severe losses on the Chalukyas, driving them out of some 
of their recently acquired possessions in the south. 

Vikramaditya restored the power of the Chalukyas. Riding to 
battle on his splendid charger Chitrakantha, he was victorious over 
Pandya, Ch61a, Kerala, and Kalabhra (perhaps the Kalabhurvas or 
Kalachuryas), all of whom may have aided the Pallavas in their late 
hostilities. But his greatest achievement was the capture of Kanchi 
and forcing the Pallava king, " who had never bowed to any other 
man,"' to kiss his feet with his crown. \'inayaditya, his son, captured 
and destroyed the army of Trairajya Pallava, the king of Kanchi, was 
served by the Pallava, Kalabhra, Kerala, Haihaya, Vila, Malava, Chola 
and Pandya kings, as well as by the A'luvas and Gangas ; and levying 
tribute from the rulers of Kavera, Parasika, Simhala (Ceylon) and other 
islands, churned the king of all the north and seized the Pali dhvaja."* 
His son Vijayaditya completed the conquests of the two preceding 
reigns, both in the south and the north, and in addition to the Pali 
dhvaja gained the Ganga and "V'amuna dhvajas, which had been 
possessions of the Guptas. His son Vikramaditya II gained an 
important victory in the Tundaka province (Tonda-mandala) over the 
I'allava king Nandipotavarma, whom he put to flight and, capturing all 
the royal insignia, made a triumphal entry into Kanchi, which he 
refrained from plundering, but presented gifts of gold to the Raja- 
simhes'vara and other temples. He then, after withering up Pandya, 
Chola, Kerala, Kalabhra and other kings, set up a pillar of victory on 
the shore of the southern ocean. His queen, Lokamahadevi, of the 
Haihaya family, caused a temple at Pattadkal to be erected in com- 
memoration of his having three times defeated the Pallavas. His son 
Kirtivarma II, while yet yuvaraja under his father, obtained permis- 
sion to make another expedition against the Pallava king, whom he 

> hid. Ant., XI, 66. ^ //'. VII. 163 : Mil, 273. ^ to. VIII, 89 ; IX, 304. 

■* An arrangement of flags which seems m lui\r I'een a recognized Jaina symhul of 
supreme sovereignty [see Iiid. Ant., XI\', 1041. 

\ 2 



324 HISTORY 

drove to take refuge in a liill fort, and dispersing his army, plundered 
his treasures. 

While the Western Chalukyas had thus been engaged at a distance, 
in the direction of Kanchi, in destroying the power of the Pallavas, 
their other old enemies, the Rashtrakiitas, nearer home, had been 
watching for the opportunity to free themselves. In this they were 
successful, under the kings Dantidurga and Krishna. The Western 
Chalukyas for about two centuries from this time disappear from view. 
Kings of their line named Kirtivarma, Tailapa, Bhi'ma and Ayyana, who 
is said to have married a daughter of the Rashtrakiita king Krishna, are 
named as rulin;^ in succession, but the accounts are doubtful. 

Rashtrakutas. — Meanwhile our attention must be directed to the 
power which superseded them and which played an important part in 
Mysore during their eclipse, as testified by inscriptions throughout the 
northern and midland parts. ^ This was the Rashtrakutas or Rattas, 
connected perhaps with the Rajput Rathors, and supposed to be 
represented by the modern Reddis. They may have existed in the 
Dekhan from very early times. Their territory at the period of which 
we are writing is often referred to as Rattavadi, and their capital, at 
first Mayurakhandi (Morkhand in Nasik district) was, early in the ninth 
century, at Manyakheta (Malkhed in the Nizam's Dominions, about 
ninety miles west by south of Haidarabad). The earliest decided 
mention of them describes Indra, the son of Krishna, as overcome by 
the early Chalukya king, Jayasimha, and coins supposed to belong to 
this Krishna have been found on the Bombay side. Then we have a 
Govinda repulsed by Pulikes'i I. But the connected list of kmgs is as 
follows'" : — • 

Dantivarma I j Krishna II, Kannara, 

Indra I Akalavarsha, S'ubhatunga 8S4-913 

Govinda I | Jagattunga, Prabhutavarsha, 

Karka or Kakka I 1 Pratapavaloka 

Indra II Indra III, Nityavarsha, 

Dantidurga, Dantivarma I, m. Vijamba 9 1 5-9 1 7 

Khadgavaloka 754 Govinda V, Prabhutavarsha, 

Krishna I, Kannara, Akalavarsha, Suvarnavarsha 91S-9.33 

S'ubhatunga Baddiga, Amoghavarsha, 

Dhruva, Nirupama, Dharavarsha m. Kundakadevi 

(jQvinda III, Prabhutavarsha, Krishna III, Kannara, 

Jagattunga, Atis'aya-dhavala, Akalavarsha 939-968 

m. Gamundabbe 7S2-814 , Khottiga, Nityavarsha 96S-971 

Sarva, Nripatunga, Amoghavarsha j Kakka II, Kakkala 

815-877 I Amoghavarsha, Nripatunga 972-973 

' Their inscriptions are often on cruciform stones, very artistic in appearance, and 
quite different from any others. The upper arm is deeply bevelled, and a larr'e 
plough engraved from one end to the other of the cross tree. - cf. Ep. Ind., Ill, 54, 



RASHTRAKUTAS 325 

These kings very commonly had the title \'allabha, taken from the 
Chalukyas. In its Prakrit form of Ballaha, which is often used alone 
in their inscriptions in ^lysore, without any name, it furnishes the key 
by which to identify the powerful dynasty called Balhards by Arab 
travellers of the tenth century, and described by them as ruling from 
Mankir (Manyakheta). 

Indra II is said to have married a Chalukya princess, but Danti- 
durga, who died without issue, and Krishna I, his maternal uncle, who 
therefore came to the throne after him, were successful in overcoming 
the Chalukyas and establishing the supremacy of the Rashtrakiitas. 
The beautiful Kailasa temple of Elura was probably erected by 
Krishna. Dhruva, Dhora, Dharavarsha or Nirupama, though the 
younger son, superseded his brother Govinda and was a brave and 
warlike prince. He humbled the Pallava king of Kanchi and took 
from him a tribute of elephants. He also defeated and imprisoned 
the impetuous Ganga, who had never been conquered before. In the 
north he drove the king of the ^'atsas into the desert of Marvad. 
Govinda or Prabhutavarsha, his son, was one of the most powerful 
kings of his line. He conquered the Keralas, Malavas, S'autas, 
Gurjaras and the kings of Chitrakuta (in Bandalkhand) and took away 
from his enemies (the Chalukyas) the emblems of the (ianga and 
Yamuna. He released Ganga from his long and painful captivity, but 
had to imprison him again on account of his hostility, and took tribute 
from Dantiga, the ruler of Kanchi. On this latter expedition, in 804, 
he halted at the tb'tha of Rames'vara, on an island in the Tungabhadra 
(Kuruva, about five miles south of Honnali), and had some sport with 
wild boars there. The kings of Anga, Vanga, Magadha, Malava and 
\'engi did homage to him, and the latter, probably the Eastern Chalukya 
king Vijayaditya Narendramrigaraja, was compelled to build the walls of 
his fortress, apparently at Manyakheta. The newly acquired province 
of Lata (in Gujarat) he gave to his younger brother Indra. Eventually 
Govinda once more released the Ganga king (Sivamara), and in con- 
junction with the Pallava king Nandivarma, replaced him on his throne. 

During the time the Ganga king was a prisoner, Mysore was governed 
by viceroys appointed by the Rashtrakiitas. The first of whom we 
have any record is Kambharasa, Kambhaiya, or S'aucha Kambha, 
surnamed Ranavaloka, who was apparently the son of Dharavarsha 
and brother of Govinda. Of his time there are three inscriptions,^ one 
dated in 802. At a later date, 813, we have Chaki Raja as viceroy,- 
whose sister was married to a Chalukya prince named Vas'ovarma. 

1 At Mattakere (Heggadadevankolc laliuj), Manne (Xelamangala taluq), and 
S'ravana Belgola (No. 24). - Ind. Jut., XII, 18. 



326 J [[STORY 

Nripatunga or z\moghavarslia, his son, succeeded to the throne. He 
defeated the Chalukyas, who made peace with him at VinguvulH. He 
presented the Konkan to Kapardi of the Silahara family, and after a 
prolonged reign of over sixty years, voluntarily retired from the throne. 
The celebrated Jinasenacharya, author of the A'di Purana, was his 
preceptor. Nripatunga evidently took a great interest in the Kannada 
country and literature, for to him we owe the Kavirajamarga, the 
earliest known work on metrical composition in that language. It is 
written in Kannacla verse, and in it he gives a glowing account of the 
country and of the culture of the people, as the following quotations 
will show : — " The region which extends from the Kaveri to the 
(jodavari is the country in which Kannatja is spoken, the most 
beautiful land in the circle of the earth. . . , Apt are the people of that 
land in speaking as if accustomed to verse, and in understanding it 
when spoken : clever in truth are they, for they are ripely skilled in 
the usages of poetry without giving themselves up to its study. Not only 
students but others are all skilful in their speech, and know how to 
teach wisdom to young children and words to the deaf" 

Krishna or Kannara II, Akalavarsha, married a Haihaya princess 
belonging to the Kalachuri family, daughter of the king of Chedi. 
He seems to have been engaged in constant wars with the Eastern 
Chalukyas. Of his son Jagattunga Prabhiitavarsha, there is an inscrip- 
tion in Chellakere taluq, undated, in which a Pallavadhiraja is repre- 
sented as governor under him. Of the succeeding kings, Govinda 
had an elder brother, Amoghavarsha, from whom he seems to have 
usurped the crown. Govinda was so liberal with his donations that he 
w^as called Suvarnavarsha (raining gold). Owing to failure of heirs he 
was succeeded by his uncle Baddiga, and he by his son Krishna HI 
Kannara or Akalavarsha. It was the latter who was assisted by the 
Ganga king Biituga, his brother-in-law, in securing the throne, as 
previou.sly related. He, too, by the aid of Biituga, was victorious over 
the Cholas,and in return for this service made over the north-western 
parts of Mysore and districts beyond to the Ganga king.^ It is not 
clear that some of these had not been occupied by the Gangas 
before, and several formed the dowry assigned to his bride. The 
dominions of the Rashtrakutas were in this reign at their utmost 
extension, the Chola territories in the south and Gujarat in the north 
being in their power. Krishna Raja's daughter was married to a son of 
Butuga. But the relations between the Rattas and Gangas must have 
changed in the time of Nityavarsha, the brother who next came to the 
throne, as there are inscriptions of the Ganga king Marasimha Nolamba- 
' See A'takur Inscription, Mandya taluq No. 41, Ep. Cam., Mysore I. 



CHALUKYAS 327 

kulantaka in which he appears as a feudatory of Nityavarsha. But 
the Ratta supremacy was now drawing to a close. In 973 Kakka or 
Kakkala was defeated, and probably slain, by Taila of the Western 
Chalukya family, and the Rashtrakuta empire came to an end. Taila 
married Kakkala's daughter, but the last representative of the 
Rdshtrakutas was Indra, a grandson of Krishna III, who died at 
S'ravana Belgola in 982.1 

Chalukyas {continued). — We left the Chalukyas, on their being 
superseded by the Rashtrakiitas, in order to follow the history of the 
latter dynasty. Its downfall, however, restored the supremacy of the 
Chalukyas, and we may resume the annals relating to this line of 
kings. It was in the time of Kirtivarma II that the Chalukyas lost 
their power. He may have been succeeded by another Kirtivarma, but 
this is doufjtful. The names of the subsequent kings of the intervening 
period are more reliable, namely, Taila, Vikramaditya, Bhima, Ayyana 
(who married a daughter of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna), and 
Vikramaditya IV (who married Bontha-devi, daughter v.f Lakshmana, 
of the Chedi or Kalachurya family). One Chalukya, named Jayasimha, 
fled to Anhalvara in Gujarat, the court of Bh6ja Raja, the last of the 
Sauras. Here his son Miila Raja married the daughter of Bh6ja 
Raja, and in 931 succeeded the latter on the throne, the Salic law 
being set aside in his favour. He ruled at Anhalvara for fifty-eight 
years, and his descendants occupied the throne of that country with 
great glory till 1145. 

Meanwhile Tailapa, the son of Vikramaditya above mentioned, 
defeated the Rashtrakiitas in the person of the king Kakkala, and 
retrieved the Chalukya fortunes. He succeeded to the throne in 973, 
and transmitted to his posterity a kingdom which increased in 
splendour and prosperity under each succeeding reign for nearly 200 
years. The following is a list of the kings for this period' : — 



Tailapa, Ni'irmadi Taila II, 

A'havamalla 973^997 

Satyas'raya, Irivahedeiiga 997-1009 

\'ikraniadilya \ , Triljhuvana- 

nialla 1009-1018 

Jayasimha II, Jagadekamalla 101S-1042 
Somes'vara I, Trailokyamalla, 



Vikramaditya \T, Trililiuvana- 

malla, I'ermadi 1076-1126 

Somes'vara III, Bhuluka- 

malla 1126 113S 

Jagadekamalla, I'erma 1138-I150 

Tailapa, Nurmadi Taila III, 

Trailokyamalla 1150-11S2 



A'havamalla 1042-1068 , Somes'vara I\', Trihhuvaiia- 

Somes'vara II, Bhuvanaika- I malla I1S2 I1S9 

malla 1068-1076 

The former kings of the ^^'estern Chalukya line had been largely 
occupied in the south in wars against the Pallavas, whose power they 

' Ins. at Sr. Bel. No. 57. - </. Ep. Imi., Ill, 230. 



328 IflSTORY 

ultimately broke. The kings of the present period we shall find were 
equally engaged in that quarter in struggles with the Cholas. The 
thirty years' period of 973 to 1003, during which the Eastern Chalukya 
kingdom of Vengi was w-ithout a ruler, seems to have been a time when 
the Cholas had overrun the country, having first acquired the territories 
of the Pallavas, including the city of Kanchi. We accordingly find 
Tailapa described as full of desire to fight with the Chola Raja, and as 
being a destroying fire to the Cholas. He married Jakabbe, the 
daughter of Kakkala, the Rashtrakiita king whom he had subverted, 
and their son was Satyas'raya, who succeeded him, and against whom 
the Chola king Rajaraja fought. Satyas'raya, by his wife Ambikadevi, 
had two sons, Vikrama and Das'avarma. He also, it is said, had a 
daughter, who was married to the Pallava king Iriva Nolambadhiraja. 
Vikrama came to the throne after his father's death, but, dying without 
issue, was succeeded by Jayasimha, the son of Das'avarma and 
Bhagala-devi. He is described as a lion to Rajendra Chola, who was 
the son and successor of Rajaraja, during whose reign he had over- 
thrown the Ganga kingdom, in about 1004, and established the 
authority of the Cholas throughout the south and east of Mysore. 
Jayasimha, or Jagadekamalla, in 1019, is said to have driven Chola into 
the sea. On the other hand, in 102 1, he is said in Chola inscriptions 
to have turned his back at Mus'angi (possibly Uchchangi, in the south- 
west of the Bellary district'), and by 1026 Rajendra Chola is said to 
have taken the 7I lakh country of Irattapadi (Rattavadi) from 
Jayasimha. By 1039 the Cholas, under Rajadhiraja, are said to have 
burnt the palace of the Chalukyas at Kampili (on the Tungabhadra, 
in Bellary district). Jayasimha was succeeded by his son Somes'vara, 
Trailokyamalla, or A'havamalla, who was exposed to a formidable 
invasion by the Cholas, in which they burnt Pulikaranagara 
(Lakshmes'vara in Dhawrar district), and destroyed its famous Jain 
temples erected by Permadi Ganga. But he seems to have defeated 
them at Kakkaragond on the Tungabhadra, and driven them south- 
wards, though they claim a victory over him at Koppa on the Perar 
(possibly Kuppam on the Palar, in Kangundi, North Arcot'-), and the 
plundering of his camp. This must have stopped his pursuit of them, 
on return from which he halted at Puliyar-pattana (perhaps Huliyar, 
Chiknayakanhalli taluq). It was he who first made Kalyana the 
capital. His chief queen was j\Iailala-devi, a Ganga princess, by 
whom he had two sons, who succeeded him, and who assume all the 
Ganga titles of Kongunivarma Satyavakya Permadi. He must also 
have had a Pallava wife, his son by whom, Jayasimha, takes the 
' See So. Ind. Ins., 11, 94. - zb. I, 134. 



CHALUKYAS 329 

Pallava and Nolamba titles. He also had a wife of the Hoysala 
family, though no issue of this marriage is recorded. But he had 
another son, ^■ishnuvardhana Vijayaditya, who is styled the lord of 
Vengi, and whose mother must have been of the Eastern Chalukya 
family. This is the prince described as about to sink into the ocean of 
the Cholas, whom Rajaraja and Chola-Ganga of the Kalinga (langas 
maintained in power and caused to enjoy prosperity for a long time in 
the western region. We accordingly find him in 1064 and 1066 
ruling over the Nolambavadi Thirty-two Thousand country (the 
Bellary and Chitaldroog districts), with the seat of his government at 
Kampili (before mentioned). \Mien the Cholas were driven out of the 
north of Mysore, therefore, this province formed a harrier against their 
future encroachments. A'havamalla died in 1068 at Kuruvatti (on the 
Tungabhadra, in Bellary district, not far from Harpanhalli), and was 
succeeded by his son Somes'vara II or Bhuvanaikamalla. He was 
apparently a weak prince and did not long retain possession of the 
crown. But he had a powerful minister and general in Udayaditya of 
the (ianga family, who is said before 1071 to have defeated a secret 
conspiracy against the throne and against the guru. 

Vikrama in 1076 expelled his brother, seized the throne and 
became one of the most powerful of the Chalukya monarchs. He set 
aside' the S'aka era, and from his accession established the Chalukya 
Vikrama era. which continued in use as long as the Chalukyas were in 
power. Many interesting particulars regarding him are contained in 
Bilhana's poem on his history.- Previous to his accession to the 
throne he had gained so many important victories, chiefly against the 
Cholas and other powers south of the Tungabhadra, that his brother, 
moved by jealousy, sent forces into the Banavasi country (the Shimoga 
district) to seize him, but Vikrama destroyed them. He seems, 
however, to have taken the precaution of strengthening himself by 
alliances, for he married his daughter to Jayakes'i, king of the 
Kadambas, whose capital was then at Goa ; and formed a friendship 
with his former enemy, the Chola Raja, receiving a Chola princess in 
marriage. The Chola king died soon after and his kingdom was 
thrown into a state of anarchy. On hearing this, \'ikrama, who was 
still tarrying on the Tungabhadra, at once started for the south, in order 
to place his wife's brother on the throne. He entered Kanchi and put 
down the rebels there; then did the same at Gangakunda (Gangai- 
kondas'olapuram in the north-east of Trichinopoly district) and 
re-established the Chola ]Jowcr. But nut long after his return he 

' Literally rubbed it out, as schoolboys rub out the figures they write in the s;iinl. 
- Vikraiinxuka-deva Charita, published by Dr. ('i. Hiihler in Bombay. 



330 IIISTORY 

learned tliat his hrothcr-in-law had lost his life in a fresh rebellion, and 
that Rajiga, the lord of Vengi, had taken possession of the throne of 
Kanchi. \ikrama at once prepared to march himself against the 
usurper ; hut the latter opened negotiations with Somes'vara, who, 
thinking a favourable opportunity had offered itself for the destruction 
of his hated brother, eagerly entered into the alliance. He followed so 
closely on Vikrama's march to the south, that when the latter came up 
with Rajiga's army, Somes'vara's forces were encamped not far off in 
his rear. A terrible battle ensued, in which victory declared for 
Vikrama ; Rajiga fled and Somes'vara was taken prisoner. Vikrama 
placed his younger brother, Jayasimha, in the government of Banavase 
and repaired to Kalyana. He there heard that a svayamvara was 
proclaimed for Chandralekha or Chandala-devi, daughter of the 
Silahara prince of Karahata, and possessed of marvellous beauty. He 
also ascertained that the lady, on hearing of his valiant exploits, had 
fallen in love with him, and therefore hastened to the festival, where he 
was chosen as the bridegroom from among the assembled princes of 
Ayodhya, Chedi, Kanyakubja, Kalinjara, Malava, Gurjara, &c., who, 
though filled with anger at the result, were restrained from violence 
through fear of the great Chalukya.^ Next year his brother Jayasimha 
rebelled, and collecting a large army advanced to the Krishna. 
Vikrama, being forced in self-defence to take the field against him, a 
battle was fought, in which Jayasimha was defeated and taken prisoner. 
The remainder of Vikrama's reign seems to have been peaceful, with 
the exception of an expedition in loSi against Kanchi and the 
Pallavas, and one north of the Narmada in 1083. But towards the 
close he was invaded by the Hoysala king, who was driven back by his 
general, Achyugi Deva. In his celebrated law book, the Mi'takshara, 
A'ijnanes'vara, who lived at Kalyana at this period, says, "There has 
not been, there is not, and there will not be, on the surface of the 
earth, a city like Kalyana ; and never was a monarch like the prosperous 
\'ikramarka seen or heard of - 

Soma, called Bhiilokamalla, ^'ikrama's son, succeeded in 11 26 to a 
kingdom powerful and prosperous on every hand. To him all kings 
applied the name Sarvajna (all-wise), and he appears to have been of 
literary tastes, as he was the author of ManasoUasa, on the policy and 
recreations of kings, in Sanskrit. Jagadekamalla, whose real name 
does not appear, is described as having taken possession of the Pallava 
territories. He also repulsed an invasion by the Hoysalas. 

Under Nurmadi Taila or Trailokyamalla, the Chalukya dynasty, 

^ The names of five other wives of his occur in inscriptions. 
- Bhandarkar's Early Hist, of the Dekhan. 



KALA CRURIS 3 3 r 

which had reached its zenith with the last Vikramaditya, began rapidly 
to decHne. A powerful noble named Bijjala, of the Kalachurya race, 
had been appointed general of the Chalukya armies, and the influence 
which he thereby obtained he turned against his sovereign and expelled 
him from the throne. This event occurred in 1157. The Chalukya 
king retired south and maintained himself in the Banavase country. 
The religious feuds which raged at Kalyana in connection with the 
establishment of the Lingayit creed kept the hands of the Kalachuryas 
fully occupied. The Chalukya influence, therefore, was not extin- 
guished, and Somes'vara, the last of his race, succeeded to the fallen 
fortunes of his house in 1182. He seems to have had his residence 
at Annigeri in Dharwad, and later at Kurgod, to the north of Bellary. 
What ultimately became of him does not appear, but the Hoysalas of 
Dorasamudra from the south, and the Yadavas of Devagiri from the 
north, soon closed in upon the disputed dominions ; and the great and 
powerful Chalukya name disappears from history as that of a dominant 
power, though certain descendants of the line appear to have ruled in 
some parts of the Konkan till the middle of the thirteenth century. 

Kalachuris. — The Kalachuris, or Kalabhuris, were one of the 
royal houses subjected by the Chalukyas on their first arrival in the 
south. They were apparently connected with the Haihayas in descent. 
The founder of the line was named Krishna, and is said to have been 
born of a Brahmani girl by Siva. Professing to be a barber, " he slew 
in Kalanjara an evil spirit of a king who was a cannibal, and taking 
possession of his kingdom, reduced the Nine-lakh country of Dahala 
(Chedi or Bandelkhand) to obedience and ruled in peace." A Chedi 
or Kalachuri era, dating from 249 a.d.,^ is used in their inscriptions in 
the north, and is evidence of the antiquity of the family. Among the 
titles in their inscriptions in Mysore, of which there are many in the 
north of the country, are the following : — Lord of the city of Kalanjara 
(the well-known fortress in Bandelkhand), having the flag of a golden 
bull, S'anivara-siddhi, (liridurgamalla. 

Our history is concerned with the Kalachuris from the lime of Bijjala, 
who supplanted the Chalukyas in 1151, to 1182, when the line became 
extinct. The period, though short, is of considerable importance and 
interest from having seen the birth of the Lingayit religion, which so 
largely [)revails throughout the Kannada-spcaking countries. 

The following is the list of these kings : — 

]!ijjala, 15ijjana, Nissanka- Sankania, Nissankamalla 1 176 liSl 

malla, Tribhiivanamalla 1156-1167 j A'havaiiialla, .\imuimalla iiSi 11S3 

Kayamurari Sovi, Somes'vara, | Sintrhana 11S3 

Hhuvanaikanialla I167-1176 | 

• As ilelermined hy rrofessor Kielhoni (.VfV /;'/. /W. , 11, 299). 



332 HISTORY 

I'ijjala was a Jain. As has been related, he took advantage of his 
position as general of the Chalukya armies to usurj) the throne, liut 
for several years he did not assume the royal titles. It was not till the 
sixth year of his usurpation, or 1162 that he marched to the south, 
whither the Chalukya prince had retired, and then proclaimed himself 
supreme. During his reign, Basava, the son of an A'radhya, came to 
settle in Kaly;ina, where he became the son-in-law of the chief 
minister. He had a very beautiful sister named J'admavati, whom 
Eijjala having seen, became enamoured of and married. Basava thus 
in course of time was api)ointed chief minister and general. The 
Raja gave himself up to the charms of his beautiful bride and left all 
power in the hands of Basava, who employed the opportunity thus 
afforded him to strengthen his own influence, displacing the old 
officers of state and putting in adherents of his own, while at the same 
time he sedulously cultivated the favour of the prince. By these 
means, and the promulgation of a new faith, as will be elsewhere 
described, he increased rapidly in power. At length Bijjala's fears were 
roused, and he made an attempt to seize Basava ; but the latter 
escaped, and afterwards dispersed the party sent in pursuit. His 
adherents flocked to him, and Bijjala, advancing in person to quell the 
insurrection, was defeated and compelled to reinstate the minister in 
all his dignities. Basava not only resumed his former power and 
authority, but formed a plot against the life of the king, probably in 
the hope of becoming supreme in the state as regent during the 
minority of his nephew, the son of Bijjala and Padmavati. Accounts 
differ as to the mode in which the king was killed. According to 
the Jain account, in the Bijjalanka Kdvya, he was poisoned on the 
banks of the Bhima when returning from a successful expedition 
against the Silahara chief of Kolhapur : while the Basava Piirdiia 
of the Lingayits states that he was assassinated by three of Basava's 
followers. 

Rayamurari Sovi, the son of Bijjala, resolved to revenge his father's 
death, and Basava fled to Ulive or Vrishabhapura on the Malabar 
coast. Thither the king pursued him and laid siege to the place. It 
was reduced to extremity, and Basava in despair threw himself into a 
well and was drowned. But according to the Lingayits he disappeared 
into the linga at Sangames'vara, at the junction of the Malprabha 
and Krishna. The other three kings were brothers of Sovi, and 
during this period the last Chalukya regained a certain portion of his 
kingdom, but the territories of both towards the south were absorbed 
into the dominions of the Hoysalas, who had by this time risen to 
power in Mysore. 



CHOLAS 333 

Cholas. — The Cholas^ were one of the most ancient dynasties known 
in the south, being mentioned along with the Pandyas in the edicts of 
As'oka. They were of the Surya-vams'a or Solar line. In the second 
century their capital was at Uraiyiir (^^'arriore near Trichinopoly), but 
from the tenth century it was at Tanjore. They appear first to have 
come into contact with Mysore at about that time, and, strange to say, 
there arc hardly any earlier annals of the line. The following list 
contains nearly all that is known of the kings who reigned at the time of 
their greatest power. They have a great number of titles, but as these 
apply to more than one king it is difficult to assign each to the right 
one. 

l';u;iiUaka Rajciulra, Rajadhiraja 1016-1064 

Rajaditya - 950 KuloUuiiga I (1064) 1071-III2 

950- Vikrama III2-1127 

Rajaraja 984-1016 Kulottunga II II27- 

Parantaka, who was perhaps preceded by Vijayalaya and A'dityavarma, 

had the titles Madiraikonda (capturer of Madura) and Koparakesari- 

varma, and is said to have married the daughter of the king of Kerala. 

He conquered the Bana, Vaidumba, Lanka and Pandya kings, the 

latter being named Rajasimha. Rajaditya it appears was Parantaka's 

son. As before related (p. 315) he was killed at Takkola by the Ganga 

king Biltuga, the brother-in-law of the Rashtrakiita king Kannara, who 

had marched into the Mysore country to repel this invasion by the 

Cholas. Kannara thus victorious, assumes in some Tamil inscriptions 

the titles Kachchiyun-Tanjaiyun-konda- (the capturer of Kanchi and 

Tanjore), and seems to have established his power for a time over these 

territories. The Chola succession for the period following Rajaditya's 

death is not clear until Rajaraja, in whose time the Cholas successfully 

invaded all the south, up to Kalinga on the east and the Tungabhadra 

on the west. The Vengi territory was without a ruler, probably as the 

consequence of their incursions, from 973 to 1003. In the end, the 

Chola king's daughter Kundava was married to the Eastern Chalukya 

king ^^imaladitya and the Vengi territory virtually annexed. Meanwhile, 

the king's son Rajendra Chola captured Talakad in about 1004 and 

overthrew the Canga dynasty, taking in consequence the name of 

(iangaikonda-Chola. The whole of Mysore, south of the Kaveri from 

Coorg, and east of a line from about Seringapatam to Nandidroog, was 

overrun and annexed. The policy of the Cholas seems to have been 

to impose their names upon all their conquests. The south of (langa- 

vadi, or that part of the Mysore district, thus acquired the name of 

' In Us Tamil forni the name is more properly S'oya ; in the Tehigu cuunti)-, Choda. 
* See paper by Venkayya, C/n: Coll. Mag:, April 1S92. 



334 IT/S7VA' V 

MudikoiKjachola-maivjala ; ihc nfjrlh-wcst of the IJangalore district was 
the Vikramachola-mandala ; the Kolar district was the Nikarilichola- 
maivlala ; more to the north, and extending beyond Mysore, was the 
Irattap-idikondachola-mandala. The subdivisions of these larger pro- 
vinces were called valanad, that is, olanad, or included district. Thus 
the southern portion of the first above named was the (langaikonda- 
chola-valanad, while that of the third was the J^y'inkondachola- 
valanad. Towns were treated in the same way, so that Talakad 
became Rdjanijapura ; Manalur (Makirpatna near Channapatna) 
became Nikarilicholapura, but Kolar seems to have retained its original 
name of Kuvalala. The list of Rajaraja's conquests, that is, those made 
in his reign, as given in his inscriptions, are Gangavadi, Rattavadi, 
Malenad, Nolambavadi, Andhra, Kongu, Kalinga, and Pandya, as well 
as Vengai, Tadikaipadi, Kollam (Quilon) and Ila (Ceylon). But of 
course only portions of some of these were subdued. This king had 
the title K6virajakesarivarma. 

He was succeeded by his son Rajendra Chola, who had been his 
father's principal general, aided by a brother, perhaps Rajadhiraja, 
unless this was a name assumed by himself in the latter part of his 
reign. The conquests he claims to have made are : Yedatore, Vanavasi, 
Kollipaki, and Manne (Nelamangala taluq). He also seized the crown 
of the king and queen of Ila, together with a celebrated crown and 
necklace which the Pandya king had given up to theni; and also took 
possession of a crown and necklace which were heirlooms worn by the 
Kerala kings, and another crown of pure gold which Paras'urama had 
placed in one of the islands of the western coast. He boasts of having 
put to flight the Western Chalukya king Jayasimha at Mus'angi, 
as previously related. His daughter Anmianga was married to the 
Eastern Chalukya king Rajaraja,^ who was the son of his sister. 
Later on, another daughter, Rajasundari, was married to the Kalinga 
Ganga king Rajaraja,' but this was not accompanied with submission 
to the Chola power, though their son was called Chola-Ganga. 
Rajendra Chola had, among others, the title Koparakesarivarma and 
Madhurantaka. 

The next king was Kulottunga Chola. He was the son of the 
Eastern Chalukya king Rajaraja and Ammanga, and was called 
Rajendra Chola' before coming to the throne. He ruled at Vengi at 
first, and did not take possession of the Chola throne till 107 1. He 
may possibly be the Rajiga whose name is prominent in connection 
with the expeditions of the Western Chalukya prince ^'ikramaditya, as 

1 Great confusion has arisen from the repetition of these same names in different 
families. 




# 



HOYS A LAS 335 

having attempted to estai)li.sh himself at Kanchi. If so, other claimants 
to the Chola throne must have existed, who eventually were remo\ed 
and the way opened for his peaceful coronation. He married 
Madhurantaki, daughter of the ("hola king Rajendra. Most of his 
inscriptions in Mysore begin thus : — "The goddess Fame shining upon 
him, the goddess Victory desiring him, the goddess Earth abiding with 
him, the goddess Fortune wedded to him ; the wearer of the diamond 
crown, having destroyed the Villavas (the Cheras), swaying his sceptre, 
having made a victorious coronation, seated on his throne together 
with his queen consort," expressions betokening a firmly established 
and peaceful sovereignty, which in this reign reached its zenith. 

His eldest son Vikrama Chola next came to the throne, but the 
younger sons had, in imitation of his own beginning, been appointed 
viceroys of Vengi. The second son Rajaraja thus ruled there in 
succession to Vijayaditya for only one year, 1077 to 1078, as he did 
not like it and returned to the south. The third son \'\x\x Chola was 
then appointed and remained there till at least iioo. It was during 
the time of ^'ikrama Chola, or before i 1 1 7, that the Hoysalas recovered 
Talakad, driving out the Cholas from the Mysore country. Kulottunga 
Chola II, son of \'ikrama, came to the throne in 1127, but we are no 
further concerned with this line, whose power, indeed, now greatly 
declined and was never again what it had been. 

Hoysalas. — This dynasty, like that of the Kadambas, was essentially 
Mysorean, and ruled this country with great glory from the nth to the 
14th century. Their native place was Soseviir, or Sasaka])ura, which 
1 have identified with Angadi in the Western Chats, in the Manjarabad 
country (now in the south of Mudgere taluq). The earlier kings were 
fains. They claim to be Yadavas, and therefore of the Lunar line. 
The founder of the family was Sala, and the exploit which raised him 
to a throne is related in numerous inscriptions, doing one day to 
worship Vasantika, his family goddes.s, whose temple was in the forest 
near Sasakapura, his devotions were interrupted by a tiger, which 
bounded out of the jungle glaring with rage. The yati or priest of the 
temple, snatching up a saldki (a slender iron rod), gave it to the chief, 
saying in the Karnataka language Iioy Sala (strike, Sala I), on which 
the latter discharged the weapon with such force at the tiger as to kill 
him on the spot. From this circumstance he adopted the name 
Hoysala,^ formed from the words of the yati's exclamation, and the 
dynasty so called, descended from him, had a tiger {.uinfula) as the 
device on their flag. The following is the list of the kings, with their 
dates, as determined by me from inscriptions : 

' The older form is I'o\->ala. whicti is the s-inu' woid. 



Narasimha II 1220 1235 

Somes' vara 1 233-1 254 

Narasimha III 1254-1291 

Ballala III 1 291- 1342 

Ballala I\', Vin'ipaksha 

Ballala 1343 



336 HISTORY 

Sala, I'.iysala, Hoysala 1007 ! Ballala II I172-1219 

Mnayadilya, Trihiiuvana- 

nialla 1047 i lOO 

Ballala I iioi 1104 

liilti Dcva, Vishnuvardliana, 

Vira (iaiiga, Trihhuvaiia- 

malla 1 104 1 141 

Narasimha I 1136-1171 

Of the reign of Sala we have no very reh'able records, except that 
Hoysala-mahadevi, probably a daughter of his, was in 1047 the queen 
of the Chalukya king Trailokyamalla. We also know that the Hoysalas 
were at first feudatories of the Chalukyas. Pmt a narrative in the 
Mackenzie MSS. states that the tiger Sala killed had committed such 
ravages in the neighbourhood that the people were afraid to assemble 
for the annual festival of Vasantika. Being now freed from the scourge 
by the valour of Sala, they gladly agreed, at the instance of the yati, to 
pay a contribution to their deliverer of one fanam (4 as. 8 p.) a year 
for each family. This seemed so trifling a reward for the important 
service rendered, that the second year it was doubled, the third year 
trebled, and so on for five years. Hoysala had faithfully placed what 
he received each year at the yati's feet, and in the second year had been 
ordered to use the money in raising a small force. This having been 
increased by the end of the fifth year to a respectable number, Hoysala 
was directed to rebuild the ruined city of Devarapuri (? Dvarapuri), and 
was informed that he would discover a large treasure for the purpose 
among the ruins, to be applied to fortifying it. This may have been the 
I )varasamudra, Dorasamudra, or Dvaravati (now Halebid, Belur taluq), 
which became the Hoysala capital. 

^'inayaditya, Hoysala's son, succeeded to the throne, and having 
conquered the Malapas, ruled over a territory bounded by Konkana, 
A'lvakheda, Bayalnad, Talakad and Sdvimale.^ The title Malaparol- 
ganda is assumed by all the Hoysalas and used alone on some of their 
coins. These Malapas or hill-chiefs may have been the Danayaks of 
tradition, who, after the overthrow of the Ganga power, sought to 
establish a kingdom of their own in the south and west of ]\Iysore. 
There were nine brothers, the Nava Danayak, and their stronghold was 
Bettadakote on the Gopalswdmi hill. Bhima Danayak, one of four of 
the brothers, the chief of whom was named Perumal Danayak, and who 

' The original is Konkanadalvakhedadabayalmida^ &c. If, as is natural to suppose, 
four boundaries are meant, two, those of the east and west, must be found in these 
words. They may be- east, Konkana and the A'lva tableland, i.e., the tableland of 
South Kanara ; west, the plain country, i.e., of Mysore. The hill Savimale, which 
continued for a long time to be the Hoysala boundary on the north, has not been 
identified. Possibly it had some connection with Savanur. 



HO YSALAS 337 

had quarrelled with the other five, gained possession of Nagarapura 
(Nanjangud) and Ratnapuri (Hedatale) and set up a separate govern- 
ment. After a time they returned to attack Bettadakote, which, after 
a siege of three years, was taken by stratagem. Mancha Danayak, who 
conducted the defence, seeing the citadel taken, leaped from the hill 
on horseback and was killed.^ The four victorious Danayaks, placing 
a junior member of the family in the government of 15ettadak6te, set 
forth on expeditions of conquest, in the course of which it is said that 
they penetrated as far as Goa on the north ; to Davasi-betta (the 
southern limit of Coorg) on the south ; to the Bisale Cihat (in the north- 
west of Coorg) on the west ; and to the pass of Satyamangala (north-east 
of the Nilagiris) on the east. Vinayaditya is said to have taken 
pleasure in constructing tanks and buildings, and in forming populous 
towns. The temples he built were on so large a scale that the pits dug 
for making bricks became tanks, mountains quarried for stone became 
level with the ground, the paths by which the mortar carts went to and 
fro became ravines. This calls to mind the splendidly carved temples 
of Halebid, the principal one still remaining being the Hoysales'vara, a 
memorial of the founder of the family. Vinayaditya's wife was 
Keleyabbe or Keleyala Devi, and they had a son, Ereyanga. 

The latter was appointed Yuvaraja in 1062, but seems to have held that 
position for thirty-three years and never to have come to the throne, as 
his father outlived him. Ereyanga is described as a right hand to the 
Chalukya king, and must have been a principal commander in the 
Chalukya army, for he is said to have burnt Dhara, the city of the 
Malava king ; struck terror into Chola, who was eager for war ; laid 
waste Chakragotta, and broken the king of Kalinga. Ereyanga's wife 
was Echala Devi, by whom he had three sons, Ballala, Bitti Deva, and 
Udayaditya. Ballala succeeded his grandfather Vinayaditya, but did 
not live long, and Udayaditya died in 1123. Ereyanga's second son, 
Bitti Deva, came to the throne in 1 104 on the death of his elder 
brother, and proved to be one of the most powerful rulers of his time. 

His capacity had been early discerned by the valiant Chalukya 
prince Vikramaditya, who is said to have remarked to his attendants, 
" Know the Hoysala alone to be invincible among all the princes." 
He soon set out on an extensive range of conquests over all the 
neighbouring countries. His general Ganga Raja, having captured 
Talakad, the former capital of the Gangas, he drove out the Cholas 
and took possession of the Ganga kingdom, assuming the title of Vira 
Ganga. Southwards, he subdued Kongu (Salem), Koyatiir (Coimba- 
tore), and Nilddri (the Nilagiris) ; westwards, the Male and Tulu 

' The site of this leap is still pointed out. 

Z 



338 HISTORY 

countries (Malabar and South Kanara) ; eastwards, Kolalapura, 
Nangali and Kanchipura ; northwards, Vengiri, Uchchangi, Virata, 
Polalu, Bankapura, and Banavase. In short, he is described as burning 
to emulate the Sauvi'ra kings, as having " trodden the earth to dust with 
the squadrons of his Kamboja horse," and "overwhelmed his enemies 
as if the great deep had been broken up, the coursers of the sun being 
borne away in the deluge, and all the points of the compass filled with 
the sounds of their neighing." The boundaries of his kingdom in 
1 1 1 7 are thus stated, — the lower ghat of Nangali on the east ; Kongu, 
Cheram, A'namale on the south ; the Barkaniir ghat road of Konkana 
on the west ; and Savimale on the north. The provinces over which 
he ruled, as named in numerous inscriptions, were Talakad, Kongu, 
Nangali, Gangavadi, Nolambavadi, Masavadi (perhaps Morasavadi), 
Huligere, Halasige, Banavase and Hanungal. This includes the whole 
of Mysore, with most of Salem, Coimbatore, Bellary and Dharwar. 
Coins of his have been found bearing on the reverse the legends 
s ri-Talakddu-goiida and s' ri-Nonambavddi-gonda. He virtually made 
himself independent, but in the north of their territory the Hoysalas 
continued to acknowledge the Chalukya sovereignty in their inscrip- 
tions until the time of Ballala II. 

An important event in his career was his conversion from the Jain 
faith to that of Vishnu by the apostle Ramanujacharya, who had taken 
refuge in the Hoysala territory from the persecutions of the Chola 
king, an uncompromising S'aiva. This step, accompanied by a 
change of his name to Vishnuvardhana, by which he is principally 
known, was probably taken in about in 7. Different reasons are 
given for it. One is that he had a daughter who was possessed : the 
Jains being unable to effect her cure, it was undertaken by Ramanuja, 
who cast out the evil spirit, and further, in eighteen days of public 
disputation, refuted the Jains and convicted them of heresy ; those 
who after this would not submit being ground in oil-mills. Another 
version is, that the king had a Vaishnava wife who, by instigation of 
Ramanuja, hinted to him that the Jain priests were so haughty they 
would not even accept food at his hands. He was indignant at the idea 
and resolved to put it to the proof. Now the king had lost a finger, 
a mutilation that would prevent the Jain priests from eating with him. 
When, therefore, he found himself dishonoured by a refusal of his 
invitation, he went over in resentment to the other side, and abandoned 
the Jains to persecution. Ramanuja demolished nearly all tne Jain 
temples at the capital, said to have been 720 in number, and used the 
stones in embanking the large tank. The succeeding kings professed 
both the Vaishnava and the S'aiva creeds ; but there was much religious 



HO YSALAS 339 

toleration and the Jains were often recipients of the royal favour. 
They were probably too numerous and influential to be ignored. 

The character of the times and the government is illustrated by the 
following story : — Siva, it is said, appeared to a poor but holy Brahman, 
named Vishnus'arma, who was performing penance in the Chandradrona 
(Baba Budan) mountains, and presented him with a vessel containing 
siddarasa (mercury), explaining to him how it would convert iron into gold. 
The poor man, delighted, went to the capital with his treasure tied up in a 
bundle, which he placed for safety in a blacksmith's shop while preparing 
his meal. But the heat of the forge caused the substance to melt, and a 
drop or two falling out on some iron converted it at once to gold. The 
blacksmith and his family thereupon examined the bundle, and discovering 
what it contained secretly removed it and set fire to the hut. When the 
Brahman returned to claim his bundle he was informed that everything had 
been burnt. But on his making the matter known to the king, the black- 
smith was ordered to be produced. He was beaten and tortured, but 
without effect, when the person in whose house the bundle had been con- 
cealed brought and laid it before the king, who ordered it to be at once 
restored to the owner. The Brahman, astonished at such generosity, 
made a present of it to the king, who in return gave him a valuable estate. 
Vishnuvardhana, deeming himself now provided with the means of obtain- 
ing wealth to any extent, sent for all the farmers and informed them that 
instead of the usual assessment he should require them in future to deliver 
up to him annually their old ploughshares, and on this condition they 
might cultivate to any extent. (The well, it is said, may be pointed out 
into which the ploughshares used to be cast I) 

I cannot help considering the story to have some reference to gold- 
mining. Though traces of this industry exist in so many parts, as 
previously described under Geology, and although we know that vast 
sums of gold must have been obtained by the old governments, yet 
no mention of it is met with in the thousands of inscriptions that I 
have examined. It was, therefore, no doubt a royal monopoly and 
kept secret. 

Vishnuvardhana's first wife was S'antala Devi, a Jain, who died in 
1 131, apparently without any surviving male issue. He subsequently 
married Lakuma or Lakshmi Devi, who was the mother of Narasimha, 
the son who succeeded him. His death occurred at Bankapura in 
1 141. Narasimha, born apparently in 1136, seems to have been 
considered as on the throne from the time of his birth. He inherited 
a secure and peaceful kingdom, and except that some expedition may 
have been made in the direction of Devagiri, not much is said of 
events in his reign. On the other hand he is described as being like a 
god, enjoying the pleasures of the gods. His queen was Echala Devi, 
and they had a son Vira Ballala, who became one of the most 



340 /f /STORY 

distinguislicd of Uic Hoysala kings, and after whom they are sometimes 
called the Ballala kings. 

Vi'ra Ballala came to the throne in 1172. He gained important 
victories to the north over the Kalachurya and Yadava forces, and 
carried the Hoysala kingdom up to and V)eyond the Peddore or 
Krishna, establishing his residence at Lokkigundi (Lakkundi in 
Dharwar). On the defeat of the Kalachuryas he assumed their titles 
of S'anivarasiddhi and (liridurgamalla. He also defeated Jaitugi, son of 
the Yadava king, at Lokkigundi, and thus acquired the sovereignty of 
Kuntala. He moreover gained a great victory at Soratur over Sevuna. 
the general of Jaitugi, and pursuing him to the banks of the Krishna, 
there slew him. He further reduced all the hill forts about the 
Tungabhadra, and subduing the Pandya who was ruling at Uchchangi, 
restored to him his power. Ballala's wife was Padmala Devi, by whom 
he had a son, Narasimha, born in 1183, who succeeded him in 1220. 
The events of his reign are the overthrow of Pandya, who had taken 
refuge with the Kadava (that is, the Pallava) army, and the subjuga- 
tion of the Kadava and Makara kings, with the setting on his throne 
of Chola, who had been covered up under the clouds of dust raised by 
his enemies : also the erection of a pillar of victory at Setu (Adam's 
Bridge). Whatever the transactions referred to were, the Hoysalas 
always after this call themselves upsetters of the Pandya kingdom and 
setters up of the Chola kingdom. The conquests of the previous 
reign beyond the Tungabhadra seem to have reverted to the Yadavas. 
Narasimha's wife was Lokambika, and their son was Somes'vara. He 
is said to have fought against Krishna-Kandhara, who was a Yadava 
king, and whose general claims to have acquired the territory of the 
turbulent Hoysalas and to have set up pillars of victory as far as the 
Kaveri. But Somes' vara's power was absolute to the south, where he 
took up his residence at Kannanur or Vikramapura in the Chola 
country, a place that has been identified as being close to Srirangam 
near Trichinopoly.^ The boundaries of his kingdom in 1237 are given 
as Kanchi in the east, Yelavura (Belur) in the west, the Peddore in the 
north, and Chalas'eravi (probably in the south of the Malabar district) 
on the south. By the Peddore is generally understood the Krishna, 
but as the name literally means only Big River, we must suppose it to 
be used here ambiguously and to refer to the Tungabhadra. His chief 
queen was Bijjala Devi, but he had a wife named Somala Devi when he 
went to live at Vikramapura, and also a wife Devala-mahadevi, a 
Chalukya princess.- 

He had two sons, between whom his territories seem to have been 
» By Dr. Hultzsch, Ep. fiid.. Ill, 9. * loc. at. 



HOYS A LAS 341 

divided, probably by mutual agreement subsequent to his death. 
Narasimha III, his son by Bijjali, continued in the ancestral kingdom 
with his capital at Dorasamudra, while Ramanna or Ramandtha (who 
ruled from 1255 to 1294), his son by Devala-mahadevi, obtained 
the Tamil country on the south, together with the Kolar and part of 
the Bangalore districts in the east of the Mysore country. His 
inscriptions are generally in Grantha and Tamil characters.^ The reigns 
of the two kings seem to have been peaceful, but it was the lull before 
the storm. In the reign of Ballala III, son of Narasimha, the Hoysala 
power was brought to an end. The whole kingdom seems to have 
been united again under him, as he is credited with certain 
conquests, including Perundurai (which is in the Coimbatore district). 
To account for the destruction which shortly befell the Hoysalas, the 
following story is related : — 

The king's sister, married to the .S'enji raja, was now a widow. She there- 
fore came on a visit to her brother, accompanied by her two sons, Lakkana 
and Virana, who were very handsome young men. One of the king's wives 
conceived a guilty passion for them, but her advances being alike repelled 
by each in turn, her love changed to hate, and she denounced them to the 
king as having made overtures to her. The king, justly enraged, ordered 
them to be at once impaled, and their bodies exposed like those of common 
malefactors at one of the city gates. Hearing what had happened, their 
unfortunate mother hastened to the palace lo demand an inquiry and 
justice. But it was too late, the fatal order had been executed, and she 
was not only put out of the palace, but the inhabitants were forbidden to 
give her any assistance. In the agony of despair she wandered from street 
to street, invoking the vengeance of the Almighty on her brother, and 
predicting the speedy downfall of his empire. Arriving at the potters' 
street, worn with fatigue and sorrow, she requested and received a draught 
of water, in return for which act of kindness she declared that in the 
destruction of the capital that street should be spared. It is the only one 
that has survived. 

In 1 3 10 the Hoysala dominions were invaded by a Muhammadan 
army under Kafur, the general of Ald-udT)in, the second king of the 
house of Khilji or second Pathan dynasty. A great battle was fought, in 
which the Hoysala king was defeated and taken prisoner. Dorasamudra 
was sacked, and the enemy returned to Delhi literally laden with gold. 

From an inscription of 1316 it appears that Narasimha rebuilt the 
capital, having taken up his residence meanwhile at Belur. But in 
1326, another expedition, sent by Muhammad III, of the house of 
Toghlak, completely demolished the city. The king then retired to 

' Ranianalha's wife was Kamala-tlcvi, daughter of Ariya-I'illai, and she had a 
sister, Chikka Somala-devi. Raniandtha's own sister was Ponnambala-mahadevi. 
/:■/. /W., Ill, 9. 



342 IlIsrORY 

'I'ondanur ('roninir), north of Scringapatani, at the foot of the Yadava 
liills. In 1329, however, we find him residing at Unnamale (Tiruvanna- 
malai, Trinomalce, South Arcot district). There is a record of a son 
of his, Vira Virilpaksha ]}allala, said to have been crowned in 1343, 
l>ut as the Vijayanagar power arose in 1336, the Hoysalas now 
disappear from history. 

Yadavas. — This Hne of kings claim descent from Krishna, tiirough 
Subdhu, a universal monarch, who divided his empire between his 
four sons. The second son, Dridhaprahara, obtained the south, and 
his descendants ruled over the Seuna or Sevuna country, extending 
from Nasik to Devagiri. He was succeeded by twenty-two kings of 
his line, down to Bhillama,' who was contemporary with the Hoysala 
king Vira Ballala II., and from whose time alone the history of Mysore 
is concerned with the dynasty. They style themselves lords of 
Dvaravati (the capital of Krishna, not that of the Hoysalas), and their 
standard bore the device of a golden garuda. They overcame the 
Kalachuryas and became masters of all the western Dekhan, having 
their capital at Devagiri, the ancient Tagara, now known as Daulatabad. 
The following is the list of the kings : — 

Bhillama 1187-1191 | Mahadeva 1260- 127 1 



Ramachandra, Rama Deva 1 271- 1309 
S'ankara 1309-13 12 



Jaitugi, Jaitrapala 1191-1210 

Singhana 12 10-1247 

Kandhara, Kanhara, Krishna 1247- 1260 

We have already referred to the severe struggles that took place 
between the Hoysala and Yadava armies for the possession of the 
Chalukya-Kalachurya dominions, and how Vira Ballala, by a series of 
victories over the forces of Bhillama and Jaitugi, carried his conquests 
up to and beyond the Krishna. Later the Yadavas gained the advan- 
tage, and the Hoysalas were forced to retire to the south of the 
Tungabhadra. The earliest of the Yadava inscriptions in Mysore are 
of the time of Singhana, and he probably took advantage of Vira 
Ballala's death to extend his power to the south. In this and the 
succeeding reigns a portion of the north-west of Mysore was 
permanently in their possession. Kandhara was Singhana's grandson. 
He describes himself as thruster out of the Hoysala king and restorer 
of the Telunga king (Ganapati of Orangal). His general also boasts 
of subduing the Rattas, the Kadambas of the Konkana, the Pandyas 
of Gutti, and the turbulent Hoysalas, and setting up pillars of victory 
near the Kaveri. Mahadeva was Kandhara's younger brother, and 
attempted to establish his own son on the throne after him. But 
Ramachandra, son of Kandhara, secured it. In his time the seat of 
the Yadava government in Mysore was at Betur, near I^avangere. 

1 Cf. Bhandarkar's Early Hist, of the Dekhan. 



VABA VAS 343 

His general, Saluva Tikkama, professes to have captured Dorasamudra, 
and obtained a tribute from it of all manner of wealth, especially 
horses and elephants. That he made a victorious expedition to the 
south is probable, but whether it extended so far is uncertain. 

It was in the time of Ramachandra that the Muhammadans first 
appeared in the Dekhan. Ala-ud-I)in, nephew of Jalal ud-Din Khilji, 
the founder of the second Pathan dynasty, resolved in 1294 to attempt 
the conquest of the Dekhan, and in order to throw the enemy off their 
guard, pretended to leave his uncle in disgust. Suddenly changing 
his course to the west, he appeared before Devagiri. The Raja was 
quite unprepared, but hastily collected a small army, and after vainly 
trying to oppose the enemy near the city, retired to the fort, carrying 
in a great quantity of sacks belonging to passing traders, believed to 
contain grain, but really filled with salt. Ala-ud-Din plundered the 
town, levying heavy contributions on the merchants, and besieged 
the fort. He at the same time gave out that a larger army was follow- 
ing, and thus induced Rama Deva to offer 50 maunds of gold to buy 
him off. Meanwhile, the Raja's son, S'ankara Deva, arrived with a 
large force, and, contrary to his father's advice, attacked the Muham- 
madans. Though successful at first, he was defeated. Ala-ud-Din now 
raised his demands, but the contest might have been prolonged had not 
the troops in the fort discovered to their surprise that their provision 
was salt and not grain. At last it was agreed that the enemy should 
retire on receipt of 600 maunds of pearls, 2 of jewels, 1,000 of silver, 
4,000 pieces of silk, etc., besides an annual tribute to be sent to Delhi. 

How the aged J^^kil-ud-Din came forth to welcome his victorious 
nephew, and how the latter, with the basest treachery, assassinated him 
while making professions of attachment, are matters of history. Aki-ud- 
Din, seated on the throne, again sent an expedition in 1306 against 
Devagiri, which had withheld the promised tribute. It was com- 
manded by Malik Kafur, surnamed Hazar Dinari,' a eunuch. He had 
been the slave of a merchant, and taken prisoner in the conquest of 
(iujarat ; but having attracted the king's notice, was speedily raised to 
the highest offices in the state. 

Kafur overran the whole country, and Rama Deva, finding resistance 
hopeless, submitted, and offered to go to Delhi. He was there received 
with distinction and restored to his kingdom with additional honours, 
which kept him faithful during the rest of his life. In this expedition 
occurred an incident deserving to be mentioned. On the conquest of 
(iujarat, that raja's wife, Kaula Devi, had been taken captive, and being 
admitted to Ala-ud- Din's harem, by her beauty and talent gained his 

' A thousand i/iimis, tluit being the price for which he had l)een bought as a slave. 



344 msroK y 

favour. She had charged the commander during this expedition to 
recover her daughter by the Gujarat raja, who had been long sought in 
marriage by S'ankara, the son of Rama Deva, but refused, as she was a 
Raj{)ut. Now, however, the Gujarat raja in his exile had consented, 
and sent her under an escort to I )evagiri. No clue could be gained 
as to where she was, when a party from the camp going to see the 
caves of EUora, by chance fell in with the escort. They were forced to 
fight in self-defence, and captured the princess. But it was not till 
afterwards they knew the value of the prize. The girl was carried off 
to Delhi, where the king's son, Khizr Khan, being brought up with 
her, became enamoured of her and ultimately married her. Their 
loves are the subject of a celebrated Persian poem by Amir Khusru. 

In 1309, the army under Malik Kafur passed through Devagiri on 
its way to the conquest of Orangal, and was hospitably entertained by 
Rama Deva. But the following year S'ankara Deva came to the throne, 
and the army being on its way to the conquest of Dorasamudra he was 
less friendly. Soon after he withheld the tribute, on which Kafur a 
fourth time marched into the Dekhan, in 13 12, seized S'ankara Deva, 
put him to death, and took up his own residence in Devagiri. 

In 13 1 6 Haripala, the son-in-law of Rama Deva, in common with 
many of the conquered princes, raised the standard of revolt in the 
Dekhan and recovered their possessions, expelling the Muhammadan 
governors. The paroxysms of rage into which Ala-ud-Din was thrown 
by this intelligence brought on his death, hastened, it is said, by poison 
administered by Kafur. The latter attempted to place himself next on 
the throne, but he was assassinated, and Mubarak succeeded. In 1318 
he marched into the Dekhan, took Haripala prisoner, and ordered him 
to be flayed alive and his head put up over the gate of his own capital. 
Thus ended the line of the Yadavas of Devagiri, and in 1338 Muham- 
mad Toghlak removed the capital of his empire from Delhi to Devagiri, 
giving it the name of Daulatabad. 

Yijayanagar. — The last great Hindu sovereignty of the south was 
founded in 1336, and brings us back, after a lapse of more than two 
thousand five hundred years, to the site of Kishkindha, whose annals 
engaged our attention near the beginning of this historical survey. 
Though the details vary, all accounts attribute the origin of the Vijaya- 
nagar empire to two persons named Hakka and Bukka, assisted by the 
celebrated scholar Madhava, surnamed ^'idyaranya, or forest of learn- 
ing.^ Hakka and Bukka, of whom the former assumed the name of 

' The capital was apparently called Vidydnagara (city of learning) at first, in 
honour of the sage Vidyaranya, who was chiefly instrumental in its foundation ; but 
by a natural transition it passed ere lonq; into Vijayanat^ara (city of victory), the 



VIJAYANAGAR 345 

Harihara, were the sons of Sangama, described as of the Yadava line 
and the Lunar race. The earhest of the inscriptions of the Vijayanagar 
kings are found north and west of Mysore, and they were probal)ly 
Mysorean by origin and feudatories of the Hoysalas. Dorasamudra and 
Orangal, the respective capitals of Karnataka and Telingana, had fallen 
a prey at about the same time to the Muhammadans. But amid the 
general revolts occasioned by the rash measures of Muhammad 
Toghlak, the two brothers Harihara and Bukka took advantage of a 
period of public commotion to lay the foundation of a new State : to 
which they were moved by the sage Madhava or ^'idyaranya, who, 
besides experience and talent, may have brought pecuniary aid to the 
undertaking. He belonged to the school of S'ankardchdrya, and was 
the jagat guru of Sringeri (Kadur district), the members of which 
establishment, alarmed, as \\'ilson remarks, by the increasing numbers 
of the Jangamas and Jains, and the approach of the Muhammadans, 
may have contributed their wealth and influence to the aggrandisement 
of the sons of Sangama.^ 

The site selected for the new capital was a remarkable one, on the 
banks of the Pampa or Tungabhadra, where the ancient Kishkindha 
had stood. In the words of an inscription, " its rampart was 
Hemakuta, its moat the auspicious Tungabhadra, its guardian the 
world-protector Virupaksha, its ruler the great king of kings Harihara."'-' 
The Vijayanagar sovereigns adopted the vard/ia or boar as the emblem 

Bijanagar of IMuhammadan historians, and the Bisnagar of the l-iench. It is also 
commonly known as Anegundi, properly the name of a village on the other side i>l 
the river, said to have been the capital of the Yavanas, regarding whom so little is 
known. Anegundi, a Kannada name meaning "elephant pit," was translatetl into 
Sanskrit as llastinapura and Ilaslinavati, which is the designation in the Maha 

harata of the capital of the I'andus, near Delhi. 

' Madhava succeeded to the pontifical throne of Sringeri in 1331, at the age of 36, 
and lived till 1386. I lis brother Sayana was the most celebrated commentator on 
the \'edas. 

- The whole of the extensive site occupied by the ruins of Bijanagar on the soulii 
bank of the Tungabhadra, and of its suliurb Anegundi on the northern bank, is 
occupied by great bare piles and bosses of granite and granitoidal gneiss, sejiaraled 
by rocky defdes and rugged valleys, encumbered by precijiitated masses of rock. 
Some of the larger flat-bottomed valleys are irrigated by aqueducts from the river, and 
apjjear like so many verdant oases in this Arabia I'etnva of Southern India. Indeed 
some parts of the wilderness of Sinai reminded me, l)Ut on a far grander scale, of this 
huddled asseml)lage of bare granite rocks on the banks of the Tungabhadra. The 
formation is the same ; the scantiness of vegetation, the arid aspect of the bare rocks, 
and the green spots marking the presence of s])rings few and far between in the 
depths of the valleys, are features common to both localities. 

The peaks, tors and logging stones of Bijanagar and Anegundi indent the horizon 
in picturesque confusion, and are scarcely to be distinguished from the more arliticial 
ruins of the ancient Hindu metropolis of the Deccan, which are usually constructed with 



346 



JflSTORY 



on the royal signet, and their family god was Virupaksha, the name 
under which Siva was worshiped in a celebrated temple erected at the 
capital. Their grants are signed S'r'i Viri'tpdksha. Among their titles 
were, ari-raya-vibhdda^ bhdshe^e tappuva rdyara ganda, pi'trvapas' chiiiia- 
dixkshima-samudrddhipati^ Hindu-rdya-Suratrdna. 

The following is the list of the Vijayanagar kings, based upon the 
evidence of inscriptions, but some dates may require slight readjust- 
ment when our information is complete : — - 



Haiihara I, Hakka, Haii- 

yappa 1336-135" 

Bukka Raya I, TUikka Raya 

Odeyar I350-I379 

Ilarihara II, Hariyapjia 

Odeyar 1379-1405 

Deva Raya I, Bukka II, 

Pratapa Deva Raya 1406-1415 

\'ijaya Raya I 1416-1417 

Deva Raya II, Praudha Deva 

Raya, Pratapa Deva Raya 1417-1446 
Mallikarjuna, Vijaya Raya 

II, Immadi Deva Raya, 

Iinniadi Praudha Deva 

Raya 



\'irupaksha 

Narasa, Narasimha I, 

Narasimha II, Immadi \ar- 

asinga 
Krishna Raya 
iVchyula Raya 
Sadas'iva Raya (Rama Raja 

till 1565, Tirumala Raja 

from 1566) 
S'ri Ranga Raya I 
^'enkatapati Raya I 
Rama Deva 
Venkatapati Raya II 
S'ri Ranga Raya II 



I 468- I 479 
I 479- I 487 

1 488- 1 508 
1 508-1 529 
1 530- 1 542 



1542-1574 
1574-1585 
1585-1614 
1615-1625 
1626-1639 
I 639- I 664 



I 446- I 467 

Sangama, by his wife Kamambika,' had five sons, Harihara, Kanipa, 
Bukka, Marappa, and Muddapa. Harihara was the first ruler of the 
Vijayanagar State, and was succeeded by Bukka. Kampa acquired 
territory in the Nellore and Kadapa districts, and was succeeded by his 
son Sangama, whose minister was Sayana, the brother of Madhava. 
Marappa conquered the Kadamba territories, and ruled at Chandra- 
gutti (Shimoga district). What became of Muddapa does not appear. 
Harihara is said to have defeated the Sultan, a reference to his driving 
the Muhammadans out of Orangal in conjunction with a confederacy of 
Hindu chiefs who collected an immense force for the purpose. 
Bukka Raya in 1355 was ruling from Hosapattana in the Hoysana 
country (perhaps Hosur, Goribidnur taluq), said to be the capital of 
Nijagali Kataka Raya. In 1368 he reconciled some serious disputes 
between the Jainas and the Vaishnavas, " taking the hand of the 
Jainas and placing it in the hand of the Vaishnavas."- The Jains are 

blocks quarried from their sides, and vie in grotesqueness of outline and massiveness 
of character with the alternate airiness and solidity exhibited by nature in the nicely 
poised logging stones and columnar piles, and in the walls of prodigious cuboidal 
blocks of granite, which often crest and top her massive domes and ridges in natural 
Cyclopean masonry. — Newbold,y. A. S. B., xiv. 

* One inscription says he had five sons by S'arada. Tliis is the name under whic 
Sarasvati is worshipped as the tutelary goddess of Sringeri. 

■■^ Ins. at Sr. Be/., No. 136. 



VI/AYANAGAR 347 

described as occupying the country lying between Anegundi, Hosa- 
pattana, Penagonda and Kalleha (Kalya, Magadi taluq), and possibly 
these were the boundaries at that time of his kingdom. He married 
(iaurambika,and had a son Harihara, who succeeded him on the throne ; 
but he also had a son, Chikka Kampana, governing in the south of 
Mysore, and one Mallinatha, governing in the east of Mysore. 
Harihara II. is principally praised for his liberality in gifts at various 
sacred places, localities which show that his territories extended from 
the Krishna at Karnul to Kumbhakona, or even further south. His 
queen was Mela Devi, of the family of Rama Dcva, probably the 
Yadava king. The son who succeeded him was Deva Raya, or 
Pratapa Deva Raya, who at first apparently called himself Bukka 
Raya. There were also two sons, Chikka Raya Odeyar, perhaps the 
same prince before he came to the throne, governing at A'raga 
(Tirthahalli taluq), the chief city of the Male-rajya or hill kingdom ; 
and Virupaksha, who professes to have conquered all the eastern 
countries down to and including Ceylon. Deva Raya's son Vijaya 
Raya, by Demambika, was governing at Muluvagil (Mulbagal) and 
seems to have come next to the throne, but there is some confusion 
in the history here. Deva Raya also had a son Mallanna Odeyar, by 
Mallayavve, who was governing in the west, at Honavar. 

During the two last reigns the greater part of Karnata and Telin- 
gana, with the coast of Kanara, had come under the \'ijayanagar sway. 
To the north, the simultaneous origin of the Bahmani kingdom pre- 
vented an extension of territory in that direction. The rivalry between 
the Bahmani and Vijayanagar kingdoms led to a continual succession 
of wars and alliances between the two, many interesting details of 
which are recorded by Ferishta, but perhaps with too favourable a 
colouring, as might be expected, to the Muhammadan side of the 
picture.' Among the earliest incidents that passed between them the 
following is characteristic : — 

' Vox convenience of reference the list of Bahmani Sultans is here given : — • 



Hiisan Oangii, Ala-ucl-Din 


- 1347 


P'iroz Shah 




•• 1397 


Muhammad Shah... 


... 1358 


Ahmad Shah, Khan 


Khanan 


1422 


-Mujahicl Shah 


••• 1375 


Ala-ud-Din Shah ... 




• 1435 


Daud Shah 


... 1378 i 


Ilumayun Shah ... 




• 1457 


Mahmud Shah 


... 1378 


Nizam Shah 




1461 


(;hiyas-ud-Din Shah 


••• 1397 


Muhammad Shah... 




• 1463 


Shams-ud-Din .Shah 


••• 1397 


1 Mahmud Shah 




.. 1482 



Hasan, the founder of the line, was a poor Afghan, a native of Delhi, who farmed 
a small piece of land belonging to a Hrahman named (langu, who was in favour at 
court. One day, while ploughing, Hasan accidentally found some hidden treasure 
against which the plough-share had struck, and at once informed his landlord of it. 
The latter was so struck by his tenant's honesty that he cast his horoscope, and 



348 JJIS'J'OR Y 

" One evening wlien the spring of the garden of mirth had infused the 
cheek of Muhammad Shah with the rosy tinge of delight, a band of 
musicians sang two verses of Amir Khusru in praise of kings, festivity 
and music. The Sultan was delighted beyond measure, and commanded 
to give the performers a draft for a gratuity on the treasury of the Roy 
of Beejanuggur " (a deliberate insult). The draft was signed and despatched. 
But " the Roy, haughty and proud of his independence, placed the presenter 
of the draft on an ass, and parading him through all the quarters of 
Beejanuggur, sent him back with every mark of contempt and derision." 
War naturally followed. The Raja captured the frontier fortress of Mudkal 
and put all the inhabitants to the sword, only one escaping to carry the 
tale. The Sultan swore that he would not rest till he had slain a hundred 
thousand of the infidels. A series of engagements took place, in which the 
Raja was worsted, and an indiscriminate massacre of men, women and 
children continued until the payment of the wretched draft was enforced. 
'I'he cold-blooded slaughter of hosts of helpless human beings for so paltry 
a provocation, led the ambassadors of the Raja to propose that in any future 
wars the lives of unarmed inhabitants and prisoners should always be spared. 
This merciful provision was agreed to and the rule long after observed. 

Coming down later, to the time of Deva Raja and Firoz Shah, shortly 
after the latter ascended the throne an invasion of his territories was made 
by the Vijayanagar king on the south and by other enemies on the north . 
Firoz, on marching to encounter Deva Raja, found the Krishna so swollen 
with the rains that he could not cross in the face of the opposing army. At 
this juncture a kdzi offered to cross with a few friends and by some plot to 
assassinate either Deva Raja or his son, as he might find chance. He went, 
and joining himself to a party of dancing girls in the camp, obtained 
admission in the disguise of a woman to an entertainment given by the 
Raja's son. While performing a dance with a dagger in each hand, he seized 
an opportunity to plunge them into the prince's breast. His accomplices 
extinguished the lights, and in the confusion and darkness all made their 
escape. The Sultan, taking advantage of the alarm created in the Hindu 
camp, crossed with a select body of troops, and before sunrise was in a 
position to make an assault. The Hindus were panic stricken, and the 
Raja, filled with grief, made no resistance, but securing the body of his son, 
fled with all his forces. A treaty was at last concluded, fixing the common 
boundary of the two powers, and De\a Raja paid a sum equal to forty 
lakhs of rupees for the ransom of the prisoners. 

foretold that he one day would be a king, requesting that when that should come to 
pass he might be made the minister. Hasan, in honour of his patron, took the name 
Gangu, and by the influence of the Brahman was advanced in various ways and 
appointed to a command with a jagir. He became a marked man, and when the 
measures of Muhammad Toghlak led to a rebellion, his talents placed him at the 
head of the revolt. He finally succeeded in establishing himself as ruler of the 
Dekhan, and fixed his capital at Ku